Transparent, conformable, active multielectrode array using organic electrochemical transistors.
ABSTRACT: Mechanically flexible active multielectrode arrays (MEA) have been developed for local signal amplification and high spatial resolution. However, their opaqueness limited optical observation and light stimulation during use. Here, we show a transparent, ultraflexible, and active MEA, which consists of transparent organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) and transparent Au grid wirings. The transparent OECT is made of Au grid electrodes and has shown comparable performance with OECTs with nontransparent electrodes/wirings. The transparent active MEA realizes the spatial mapping of electrocorticogram electrical signals from an optogenetic rat with 1-mm spacing and shows lower light artifacts than noise level. Our active MEA would open up the possibility of precise investigation of a neural network system with direct light stimulation.
Project description:First ever transparent bendable secondary zinc-air batteries were fabricated. Transparent stainless-steel mesh was utilized as the current collector for the electrodes due to its reliable mechanical stability and electrical conductivity. After which separate methods were used to apply the active redox species. For the preparation of the anode, zinc was loaded by an electroplating process to the mesh. For the cathode, catalyst ink solution was spray coated with an airbrush for desired dimensions. An alkaline gel electrolyte layer was used for the electrolyte. Microscale domain control of the materials becomes a crucial factor for fabricating transparent batteries. As for the presented cell, anionic exchange polymer layer has been uniquely incorporated on to the cathode mesh as the separator which becomes a key procedure in the fabrication process for obtaining the desired optical properties of the battery. The ionic resin is applied in a fashion where controlled voids exist between the openings of the grid which facilitates light passage while guaranteeing electrical insulation between the electrodes. Further analysis correlates the electrode dimensions to the transparency of the system. Recorded average light transmittance is 48.8% in the visible light region and exhibited a maximum power density of 9.77 mW/cm2. The produced battery shows both transparent and flexible properties while maintaining a stable discharge/charge operation.
Project description:Introduction:Cell-cell communication plays a pivotal role in biological systems' coordination and function. Electrical properties have been linked to specification and differentiation of stem cells into targeted progeny, such as neurons and cardiomyocytes. Currently, there is a critical need in developing new ways to complement fluorescent indicators, such as Ca2+-sensitive dyes, for direct electrophysiological measurements of cells and tissue. Here, we report a unique transparent and biocompatible graphene-based electrical platform that enables electrical and optical investigation of human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes' (hESC-CMs) intracellular processes and intercellular communication. Methods:Graphene, a honeycomb sp2 hybridized two-dimensional carbon lattice, was synthesized using low pressure chemical vapor deposition system, and was tested for biocompatibility. Au and graphene microelectrode arrays (MEAs) were fabricated using well-established microfabrication methods. Au and graphene MEAs were interfaced with hESC-CMs to perform both optical and electrical recordings. Results:Optical imaging and Raman spectroscopy confirmed the presence of monolayer graphene. Viability assay showed biocompatibility of graphene. Electrochemical characterization proved graphene's functional activity. Nitric acid treatment further enhanced the electrochemical properties of graphene. Graphene electrodes' transparency enabled both optical and electrical recordings from hESC-CMs. Graphene MEA detected changes in beating frequency and field potential duration upon ?-adrenergic receptor agonist treatment. Conclusion:The transparent graphene platform enables the investigation of both intracellular and intercellular communication processes and will create new avenues for bidirectional communication (sensing and stimulation) with electrically active tissues and will set the ground for investigations reported diseases such as Alzheimer, Parkinson's disease and arrhythmias.
Project description:The development of bendable, stretchable, and transparent touch sensors is an emerging technological goal in a variety of fields, including electronic skin, wearables, and flexible handheld devices. Although transparent tactile sensors based on metal mesh, carbon nanotubes, and silver nanowires demonstrate operation in bent configurations, we present a technology that extends the operation modes to the sensing of finger proximity including light touch during active bending and even stretching. This is accomplished using stretchable and ionically conductive hydrogel electrodes, which project electric field above the sensor to couple with and sense a finger. The polyacrylamide electrodes are embedded in silicone. These two widely available, low-cost, transparent materials are combined in a three-step manufacturing technique that is amenable to large-area fabrication. The approach is demonstrated using a proof-of-concept 4 × 4 cross-grid sensor array with a 5-mm pitch. The approach of a finger hovering a few centimeters above the array is readily detectable. Light touch produces a localized decrease in capacitance of 15%. The movement of a finger can be followed across the array, and the location of multiple fingers can be detected. Touch is detectable during bending and stretch, an important feature of any wearable device. The capacitive sensor design can be made more or less sensitive to bending by shifting it relative to the neutral axis. Ultimately, the approach is adaptable to the detection of proximity, touch, pressure, and even the conformation of the sensor surface.
Project description:Next-generation transparent conductors (TCs) require excellent electromechanical durability under mechanical deformations as well as high electrical conductivity and transparency. Here we introduce a method for the fabrication of highly conductive, low-porosity, flexible metal grid TCs via temperature-controlled direct imprinting (TCDI) of Ag ionic ink. The TCDI technique based on two-step heating is capable of not only stably capturing the Ag ionic ink, but also reducing the porosity of thermally decomposed Ag nanoparticle structures by eliminating large amounts of organic complexes. The porosity reduction of metal grid TCs on a glass substrate leads to a significant decrease of the sheet resistance from 21.5 to 5.5 ? sq-1 with an optical transmittance of 91% at ??=?550?nm. The low-porosity metal grid TCs are effectively embedded to uniform, thin and transparent polymer films with negligible resistance changes from the glass substrate having strong interfacial fracture energy (~8.2?J?m-2). Finally, as the porosity decreases, the flexible metal grid TCs show a significantly enhanced electromechanical durability under bending stresses. Organic light-emitting diodes based on the flexible metal grid TCs as anode electrodes are demonstrated.
Project description:Indium thin oxide (ITO)-free planar perovskite solar cells (PSCs) were fabricated at a low temperature (150 °C) in this work based on the transparent electrode of photolithography processed nickel/gold (Ni/Au) mesh and the high conductivity polymer, PH1000. Ultrathin Au was introduced to increase the conductivity of metal mesh, and the optimal hexagonal Ni (30 nm)/Au (10 nm) mesh (line width of 5 μm) shows a transmittance close to 80% in the visible light region and a sheet resistance lower than 16.9 Ω/sq. The conductive polymer PH1000 not only smooths the raised surface of the metal mesh but also enhances the charge collection ability of metal mesh. The fabricated PSCs have the typical planar structure (glass/Ni-Au mesh/PH1000/PEDOT:PSS/MAyFA1-yPbIxCl3-x/PCBM/BCP/Ag) and the champion PSC (0.09 cm2) obtains a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 13.88%, negligible current hysteresis, steady current density and PCE outputs, and good process repeatability. Its photovoltaic performance and stability are comparable to the reference PSC based on the ITO electrodes (PCE = 15.70%), which demonstrates that the Ni/Au mesh transparent electrodes are a promising ITO alternative to fabricate efficient PSCs. The relatively lower performance of Ni/Au based PSC results from the relatively slower charge extraction and stronger charge recombination than the ITO based PSC. Further, we tried to fabricate the large area (1 cm2) device and achieve a PCE over 6% with negligible hysteresis and steady current density and PCE outputs. The improvements of perovskite film quality and interface modification should be an effective approach to further enhance the device performance of Ni/Au based PSCs, and the Ni/Au mesh electrode may find wider applications in PSCs and flexible devices.
Project description:Low noise platinum black or sputtered titanium nitride (TiN) microelectrodes are typically used for recording electrical activity of neuronal or cardiac cell cultures. Opaque electrodes and tracks, however, hinder the visibility of the cells when imaged with inverted microscope, which is the standard method of imaging cells plated on microelectrode array (MEA). Even though transparent indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes exist, they cannot compete in impedance and noise performance with above-mentioned opaque counterparts. In this work, we propose atomic layer deposition (ALD) as the method to deposit TiN electrodes and tracks which are thin enough (25-65 nm) to be transparent (transmission ?18-45%), but still benefit from the columnar structure of TiN, which is the key element to decrease noise and impedance of the electrodes. For ALD TiN electrodes (diameter 30 ?m) impedances from 510 to 590 k? were measured at 1 kHz, which is less than the impedance of bare ITO electrodes. Human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived cortical neurons were cultured on the ALD TiN MEAs for 14 days without observing any biocompatibility issues, and spontaneous electrical activity of the neurons was recorded successfully. The results show that transparent ALD TiN film is a suitable electrode material for producing functional MEAs.
Project description:With the rapid progress of organic solar cells (OSCs), improvement in the efficiency of large-area flexible OSCs (>1 cm2) is crucial for real applications. However, the development of the large-area flexible OSCs severely lags behind the growth of the small-area OSCs, with the electrical loss due to the large sheet resistance of the electrode being a main reason. Herein, a high conductive and high transparent Ag/Cu composite grid with sheet resistance <1 ? sq-1 and an average visible light transparency of 84% is produced as the transparent conducting electrode of flexible OSCs. Based on this Ag/Cu composite grid electrode, a high efficiency of 12.26% for 1 cm2 flexible OSCs is achieved. The performances of large-area flexible OSCs also reach 7.79% (4 cm2) and 7.35% (9 cm2), respectively, which are much higher than those of the control devices with conventional flexible indium tin oxide electrodes. Surface planarization using highly conductive PEDOT:PSS and modification of the ZnO buffer layer by zirconium acetylacetonate (ZrAcac) are two necessary steps to achieve high performance. The flexible OSCs employing Ag/Cu grid have excellent mechanical bending resistance, maintaining high performance after bending at a radius of 2 mm.
Project description:In this work, InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-wells light-emitting diodes with and without graphene transparent conductive electrodes are studied with current-voltage, electroluminescence, and time-resolved electroluminescence (TREL) measurements. The results demonstrate that the applications of graphene electrodes on LED devices will spread injection carriers more uniformly into the active region and therefore result in a larger current density, broader luminescence area, and stronger EL intensity. In addition, the TREL data will be further analyzed by employing a 2-N theoretical model of carrier transport, capture, and escape processes. The combined experimental and theoretical results clearly indicate that those LEDs with graphene transparent conductive electrodes at p-junctions will have a shorter hole transport time along the lateral direction and thus a more efficient current spreading and a larger luminescence area. In addition, a shorter hole transport time will also expedite hole capture processes and result in a shorter capture time and better light emitting efficiency. Furthermore, as more carrier injected into the active regions of LEDs, thanks to graphene transparent conductive electrodes, excessive carriers need more time to proceed carrier recombination processes in QWs and result in a longer carrier recombination time. In short, the LED samples, with the help of graphene electrodes, are shown to have a better carrier transport efficiency, better carrier capture efficiency, and more electron-hole recombination. These research results provide important information for the carrier transport, carrier capture, and recombination processes in InGaN/GaN MQW LEDs with graphene transparent conductive electrodes.
Project description:Applications of graphene as transparent conductive electrodes (TCE) have been hindered either by high cost of single crystal graphene or balance between transparency and sheet resistance of polycrystalline graphene. In this work, we propose to fabricate multilayer graphene film grids (MGFG) to enhance transparency and keep low sheet resistance through IR laser tailoring. It is proved that the transparency of MGFG could be increased by 200 times while remaining its competitive sheet resistance as low as 340 Ω sq-1 through adjusting the tailoring grid, and the corresponding figures of merit (FoM) is increased from 0.1 to 3.6. As-obtained MGFG is demonstrated in generating controllable local thermal field and defogging efficiently. The strategy of laser-tailoring grid will greatly advance the applications of graphene for transparent electrodes in industry.
Project description:Transparent conducting electrodes (TCE) are widely used in a variety of applications including displays, light-emitting diodes (LEDS), and solar cells. An important factor in TCE design is active control of the sheet resistance and transparency; as these are inversely proportional, it is essential to develop a technology that can maintain high transparency, while actively controlling sheet resistance, for a range of applications. Here, a nanofiber network was fabricated based on direct electrospinning onto a three-dimensional (3-D) complex substrate; flat metal electrodes without junction resistance were produced using heat treatment and electroless deposition. The fabricated transparent electrode exhibited a transparency of over 90% over the entire visible light range and a sheet resistance of 4.9 ohms/sq. Adhesion between the electrode and substrate was superior to other electrospinning-based transparent electrodes. The performance of the transparent electrode was verified by measurements taken while using the electrode as a heater; a maximum temperature of 210?°C was achieved. The proposed copper nanofiber-based heater electrode offers the advantages of transparency as well as application to complex 3-D surfaces.