Comparison of human papillomavirus (HPV) detection in urine and cervical swab samples using the HPV GenoArray Diagnostic assay.
ABSTRACT: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the leading cause of cervical cancer. Urine-based HPV testing offers a simple and non-invasive method because of its increasing acceptance. A total of 164 pairs of cervical swab and urine samples from Thai women who underwent cervical cancer screening were used for HPV testing with HPV GenoArray Diagnostic Kits. The overall concordance percentage for HPV detection in the cervical swab and urine samples was 65.2%. The HPV genotypes most commonly detected were HPV16 and HPV18. An analysis of the urine samples and a second analysis of the cervical swab samples showed that the differences in the overall HPV detection rate between women with normal and abnormal cytology were not significant (p > 0.05). Urine samples processed with the GenoArray assay is an alternative for women who decline to undergo Pap smear even though it is not ideal as the first-line screening option.
Project description:Cervical cancer is a significant public health problem, especially in low- and middle-income countries, where women have little access to cervical cancer screening; consequently 80% of cervical cancer related mortality occurs in these regions. The development of screening methods that need less infrastructure thus represents an urgent medical need. The study aims to compare the detection rates of high-risk human papillomavirus 16 and 18 E6 oncoprotein in urine, vaginal self-collected, and cervical scrapes of women using the OncoE6™ Cervical Test and compare the HPV16 and/or HPV18 E6 detection rates with the HPV DNA testing. Paired urine, vaginal self-collected and cervical specimens were collected from 124 women who participated in cervical cancer screening or treatment in this proof-of-concept study and underwent to HPV16/18-E6 testing and high-risk HPV DNA testing prior to treatment of cervical neoplasia or cancer. Concordance between urinary, vaginal and cervical HPV16/18-E6 and HPV-DNA testing was evaluated for patients classified as negative group (<CIN2) and histological positive group (CIN2, CIN3 and invasive carcinoma). Overall, HPV16/18-E6 oncoprotein was detected in 30.6% of cervical samples, 20.3% of self-collected vaginal samples and 21% of urine samples. Regarding the clinical sensitivity, the HPV16/18-E6 oncoprotein was not detected in CIN2 cases, and was detected at low rates in CIN3 cases. The clinical sensitivity of the HPV16/18-E6 oncoprotein for detecting invasive cervical cancer was 70% for cervical scrapes, 55% for self-collected vaginal samples and 52% for urine samples. This study reports the urinary detection of E6 oncoprotein in vivo for the first time and our results suggest that this detection is only for invasive/microinvasive lesions. Then, further protocol development and standardization to achieve a clinical sensitivity for CIN2/3 detection close to what can be achieved for invasive lesions using the physician collected cervical is needed.
Project description:The link between infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) and cervical cancer has been clearly demonstrated. Virological end-points showing the absence of persistent HPV infection are now accepted as a way of monitoring the impact of prophylactic vaccination programs and therapeutic vaccine trials. This study investigated the use of urine samples, which can be collected by self-sampling at home, instead of cervical samples for follow-up of an HPV intervention trial. Eighteen initially HPV DNA-positive women participating in an HPV therapeutic vaccine trial were monitored during a three-year follow-up period. A total of 172 urine samples and 85 cervical samples were collected. We obtained a paired urine sample for each of the 85 cervical samples by recovering urine samples from six monthly gynaecological examinations. We performed a small pilot study in which the participating women used a urine collection device at home and returned their urine sample to the laboratory by mail. All samples were analyzed using quantitative real-time HPV DNA PCR. A good association (? value of 0.65) was found between the presence of HPV DNA in urine and a subsequent cervical sample. Comparisons of the number of HPV DNA copies in urine and paired cervical samples revealed a significant Spearman rho of 0.676. This correlation was superior in women with severe lesions. The HPV DNA results of the small pilot study based on self-collected urine samples at home are consistent with previous and subsequent urine and/or cervical results. We demonstrated that urine sampling may be a valid alternative to cervical samples for the follow-up of HPV intervention trials or programs. The potential clinical value of urine viral load monitoring should be further investigated.
Project description:The Validation of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Genotyping Tests (VALGENT) studies offer an opportunity to clinically validate HPV assays for use in primary screening for cervical cancer and also provide a framework for the comparison of analytical and type-specific performance. Through VALGENT, we assessed the performance of the cartridge-based Xpert HPV assay (Xpert HPV), which detects 14 high-risk (HR) types and resolves HPV16 and HPV18/45. Samples from women attending the United Kingdom cervical screening program enriched with cytologically abnormal samples were collated. All had been previously tested by a clinically validated standard comparator test (SCT), the GP5+/6+ enzyme immunoassay (EIA). The clinical sensitivity and specificity of the Xpert HPV for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or higher (CIN2+) and CIN3+ relative to those of the SCT were assessed as were the inter- and intralaboratory reproducibilities according to international criteria for test validation. Type concordance for HPV16 and HPV18/45 between the Xpert HPV and the SCT was also analyzed. The Xpert HPV detected 94% of CIN2+ and 98% of CIN3+ lesions among all screened women and 90% of CIN2+ and 96% of CIN3+ lesions in women 30 years and older. The specificity for CIN1 or less (?CIN1) was 83% (95% confidence interval [CI], 80 to 85%) in all women and 88% (95% CI, 86 to 91%) in women 30 years and older. Inter- and intralaboratory agreements for the Xpert HPV were 98% and 97%, respectively. The kappa agreements for HPV16 and HPV18/45 between the clinically validated reference test (GP5+/6+ LMNX) and the Xpert HPV were 0.92 and 0.91, respectively. The clinical performance and reproducibility of the Xpert HPV are comparable to those of well-established HPV assays and fulfill the criteria for use in primary cervical cancer screening.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>This cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and type of oral HPV-infection in women with a cervical HPV-lesion and in the oral and genital mucosa of their male partners.<h4>Methods</h4>The study group comprised 44 sexually-active women, 20-45 years with abnormal PAP smear, not more than 6 months prior to referral together with the male partners cohabiting in stable partnerships. A detailed questionnaire was administered concerning the HPV-related risk factors. Oral swabs, oral rinses, cervical swabs and urine samples were collected. HPV DNA was detected using two different polymerase chain reactions (PCRs): MY09-11 and FAP59-64. Positive samples were genotyped by Sanger sequencing and the INNO-LiPA HPV Genotyping Extra II probe assay. The association with risk factors was assessed by fitting a generalized model, using the General Linear Model function in the R-software; correlations were calculated between all data.<h4>Results</h4>HPV was detected in 84% of Cervical Samples, in 24.3% of oral samples and in one urine sample. Only 27% of the HPV-positive results were identical with both PCR DNA assays. 8 male had oral HPV-positive samples different from women cervical samples. In one couple the urine-male sample had the same HPV present in the female-cervical sample. A significant association resulted between women/oral sex practices and men/n. of partners.<h4>Conclusions</h4>This study reports that women (20.4%) with a diagnosis of cervical-HPV and their male partners (30,7%) are at high risk for subclinical oral HPV infection.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To explore the relationship between the viral load reflected by the Ct value of Cobas 4800 HPV test and cervical lesions, and the effectiveness of the viral load for secondary triage of HPV-positive women. METHODS:The Chinese Multi-Center Screening Trial (CHIMUST) evaluated both self-collected samples and physician-collected samples from women, aged 30 to 59, who were screened for cervical cancer in 6 regions across China. Using physician collected samples, the relationship between the HPV-Ct values of different subtypes and the cervical lesions was analyzed. Then the combined use of the HPV-Ct values with the HPV subtypes was evaluated as a secondary screening algorithm for the women who were HPV positive. RESULTS:The Ct values of HPV16 and 12 other HPV subtypes(12-type pool), tested with Cobas decreased with the progression of cervical lesion (HPV16: r = -0.429, P<0.001; 12 other HR-HPV subtypes: r = -0.099, P<0.01). The HPV18-Ct value was not correlated with cervical lesion(P>0.05). Compared with HPV16/18 and cytology (HPV16/18 positive and 12-type pool plus cytology ? ASC-US), the sequential secondary screening using HPV16/18 and the viral load of 12-type pool (cut-point HPV-Ct?31) had equal sensitivities for CIN2+ and CIN3+ (83.1%vs.80.3%,100%vs.92.6%,P>0.05), with slightly lower specificities (96.2%vs.94.4%,96.5%vs.93.9%,P<0.001) and higher colposcopy referral rate (4.90%vs.6.59%, P<0.05), but required no cytology. CONCLUSION:Type-specific HPV viral load is closely related to cervical lesions severity. It is feasible and efficient to use HPV16/18 and the viral load of 12 other HPV subtypes (with cut-point HPV-Ct?31) as the secondary screening for HPV positive women. This algorithm may be useful in low resource regions.
Project description:Persistent infection with high-risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV) is a necessary step in the development of cervical cancer. The incorporation of HPV detection into cervical screening programs may improve the ability to identify women at risk of cervical cancer. We recently evaluated the performance characteristics of a newly developed HPV detection assay, the GenoArray (GA) genotyping assay, for the detection of HPV infections by comparing it with the commercial Roche Linear Array (LA) HPV genotyping assay. The GA assay has an analytical sensitivity for the detection of HPV types 16 (HPV-16) and HPV-18 of as few as 10 to 50 copies, and its reproducibility is adequate. The GA and LA assays showed no significant difference in the rates of detection of genotypes detected by both HPV genotyping assays and oncogenic genotypes, and the interassay agreement was excellent. The GA and LA assays revealed either concordant or compatible genotyping results for 97.5% of the samples and discordant results for only eight (2.5%) samples. Compatible results were also observed for the detection of single or multiple HPV infections and the detection of most of the genotypes. The GA assay also demonstrated good clinical performance characteristics when the comparisons were carried out with clinical subgroups of samples from patients with normal cytologies, low-grade or high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, and cancers. Therefore, the GA assay appears to be highly sensitive and specific for the genotyping of HPV. It has the advantage that it specifically detects HPV-52, which overcomes a limitation of the LA assay, and hence, it has potential value for use for genotyping, especially in regions where HPV-52 has a high prevalence.
Project description:BACKGROUND:HPV16/18 detection may improve cervical cancer risk stratification and better guide which HPV-positive women warrant immediate colposcopy/biopsy. We estimated risks of cervical precancer and cancer by HPV genotype and cytology during the implementation phase of primary HPV testing in Norway. METHODS:A total of 3111 women, aged 34-69 years, testing HPV-positive at baseline and undergoing cytology testing from February 2015 to April 2018 had data available for analysis. Risk estimates with 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or more severe (CIN3+) were estimated for cytology results and HPV genotypes (HPV16, HPV18, and other high-risk HPV). RESULTS:CIN3+ risks were higher for HPV16/18 than other high-risk HPV genotypes. Among women with any cytologic abnormality [atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or worse], immediate risks were 57.8% (95%CI?=?53.0-62.6%) for HPV16, 40.2% (95%CI?=?32.3-49.2%) for HPV18, and 31.4% (95%CI?=?28.7-34.3%) for other high-risk HPV. Among those with normal cytology, CIN3+ risks were 19.9% (95%CI?=?15.0-26.1%) for HPV16 positives, 10.8% (95%CI?=?5.6-20.5%) for HPV18 positives, and 5.5% (95%CI?=?4.2-7.1%) for other high-risk HPV. CONCLUSIONS:The benefits and harms of managing women based on HPV positivity and cytology results can be better balanced by inclusion of HPV genotyping in screening and choosing more conservative management for other high-risk HPV compared to HPV16/18.
Project description:Background. There are limited data on high-risk human papillomavirus (hr-HPV) genotypes among HIV-positive women in Africa, and little is known about their relationship with cervical cytology in these populations. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 194 HIV-positive women (143 from Tanzania, and 51 from South Africa) to evaluate HPV genotypes among HIV-positive women with normal and abnormal cytology. Cervical samples were genotyped for HPV types, and slides were evaluated for atypical squamous cell changes according to the Bethesda classification system. Results. Prevalence of high grade squamous intraepithelial dysplasia (HSIL) was 9%. Overall, more than half (56%) of women were infected with an hr-HPV type; 94% of women with HSIL (n = 16), 90% of women with LSIL (n = 35), and 42% of women within normal limits (WNL) (n = 58) tested positive for hr-HPV. Overall, the most prevalent hr-HPV subtypes were HPV16 (26%) and HPV52 (30%). Regional differences in the prevalence of HPV18 and HPV35 were found. Conclusion. Regional differences in HPV genotypes among African women warrant the need to consider different monitoring programmes for cervical preneoplasia. HPV-based screening tests for cervical preneoplasia would be highly inefficient unless coupled with cytology screening of the HPV-positive sample, especially in HIV-positive women.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing in cervical screening offers the potential for self-sampling to improve uptake among non-attenders. High-risk (HR) HPV detection in urine shows promise, but few studies have examined its sensitivity for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2+) detection compared with standard cervical samples. The aims of this cross-sectional study were to optimise conditions for urine testing for HPV detection; to determine concordance for HR-HPV detection in matched urine, vaginal and cervical samples; to compare the sensitivity of HR-HPV testing for the detection of CIN2+ in matched samples; and to determine the acceptability of urine testing for cervical screening. DESIGN:Cross-sectional study. SETTING:Secondary care colposcopy clinic in North West England. PARTICIPANTS:Women aged 25 years of age or older, attending colposcopy clinic for management of abnormal cervical screening results or a suspicious-looking cervix. In total, 104 women took part in the study. Triple matched samples were available for 79 and 66 women using Abbott RealTime (ART) and Roche Cobas 4800 (RC), respectively. INTERVENTION:Self-collected urine and vaginal samples and practitioner-obtained cervical samples were tested for HR-HPV by ART and RC assays, including comparison of neat and preservative-fixed urine. Colposcopic opinion was recorded and directed cervical biopsies taken if clinically indicated. The acceptability of self-testing was evaluated by questionnaire. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURE:The sensitivity of urine to detect underlying CIN2+. SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES:The comparative sensitivity of vaginal and cervical samples to detect CIN2+; the acceptability of urine sampling. RESULTS:Preservative-fixed, but not neat urine, showed good concordance with vaginal samples for the detection of HR-HPV. The sensitivity for detecting CIN2+ was 15/18 (83%) for urine and 16/18 (89%) for cervical and vaginal samples by ART, and 15/17 (88%) for all samples by RC. Urine-based testing was broadly acceptable to women. CONCLUSIONS:Urinary HR-HPV detection offers an alternative strategy of cervical screening. Larger studies to determine its clinical utility are warranted.
Project description:A low cost and accurate method for detecting high-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV) is important to permit HPV testing for cervical cancer prevention. We used a commercially available HPV method (H13, Hybribio) which was documented to function accurately in a reduced volume of cervical specimen to determine the most prevalent HPV types and the distribution of HPV infections in over 1795 cancer-free women in Guatemala undergoing primary screening for cervical cancer by cytology.HR-HPV detection was attempted in cervical samples from 1795 cancer-free women receiving Pap smears using the Hybribio™ real-time PCR assay of 13 HR types. The test includes a globin gene internal control. HPV positive samples were sequenced to determine viral type. Age-specific prevalence of HPV was also assessed in the study population.A total of 13% (226/1717) of women tested HPV+, with 78 samples (4.3%) failing to amplify the internal control. The highest prevalence was found in younger women (<?30 years, 22%) and older ones (?60 years, 15%). The six most common HR-HPV types among the 148 HPV+ typed were HPV16 (22%), HPV18 (11%), HPV39 (11%), HPV58 (10%), HPV52 (8%), and HPV45 (8%).In this sample of cancer free women in Guatemala, HPV16 was the most prevalent HR type in Guatemala and the age-specific prevalence curve peaked in younger ages. Women in the 30-59-year age groups had a prevalence of HR-HPV of 8%, however, larger studies to better describe the epidemiology of HPV in Guatemala are needed.