Massachusetts Medicaid members that smoked in 2008: Characteristics associated with smoking status in 2014.
ABSTRACT: The smoking rate among non-elderly Medicaid enrollees is more than double the rate for those privately insured; smoking-related conditions account for 15% of Medicaid expenditures. Under state health reform, Massachusetts Medicaid (MassHealth) made tobacco cessation treatment available beginning in 2006. We used surveys conducted in 2008 and 2014 to examine changes in smoking abstinence rates among MassHealth members identified as smokers and to identify factors associated with being a former smoker. Members previously identified as smokers were surveyed by mail or phone; 2008 and 2014 samples included 3,116 and 2,971 members, respectively. Surveys collected demographic and health information, asked members whether they smoked cigarettes "every day, some days or not at all', and asked questions to assess smoking intensity among current smokers. The 2014 survey included an open ended-question asking members "what helped the most" in quitting or quit attempts. We observed a significant decrease in members reporting smoking "every/some days" of 15.5 percentage points (p < .0001) from 2008 to 2014, and a significant decrease in smokers reporting smoking "more than 10 cigarettes on days smoked" of 16.7 percentage points (p < .0001). Compared to smokers, former smokers more frequently reported health concerns, the influence of family members, and the use of e-cigarettes as helping the most in quitting. Expanded access to tobacco cessation treatment under the Affordable Care Act may have help to reduce the high smoking rates among Medicaid enrollees. Additionally, smokers' concerns about health and the influence of family and friends provide opportunities for targeted intervention and messaging about quitting.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To assess state coverage and utilization of Medicaid smoking cessation medication benefits among fee-for-service enrollees who smoked cigarettes.<h4>Methods</h4>We used the linked National Health Interview Survey (survey years 1995, 1997-2005) and the Medicaid Analytic eXtract files (1999-2008) to assess utilization of smoking cessation medication benefits among 5,982 cigarette smokers aged 18-64 years enrolled in Medicaid fee-for-service whose state Medicaid insurance covered at least one cessation medication. We excluded visits during pregnancy, and those covered by managed care or under dual enrollment (Medicaid and Medicare). Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine correlates of cessation medication benefit utilization among Medicaid fee-for-service enrollees, including measures of drug coverage (comprehensive cessation medication coverage, number of medications in state benefit, varenicline coverage), individual-level demographics at NHIS interview, age at Medicaid enrollment, and state-level cigarette excise taxes, statewide smoke-free laws, and per-capita tobacco control funding.<h4>Results</h4>In 1999, the percent of smokers with ?1 medication claims was 5.7% in the 30 states that covered at least one Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved cessation medication; this increased to 9.9% in 2008 in the 44 states that covered at least one FDA-approved medication (p<0.01). Cessation medication utilization was greater among older individuals (? 25 years), females, non-Hispanic whites, and those with higher educational attainment. Comprehensive coverage, the number of smoking cessation medications covered and varenicline coverage were all positively associated with utilization; cigarette excise tax and per-capita tobacco control funding were also positively associated with utilization.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Utilization of medication benefits among fee-for-service Medicaid enrollees increased from 1999-2008 and varied by individual and state-level characteristics. Given that the Affordable Care Act bars state Medicaid programs from excluding any FDA-approved cessation medications from coverage as of January 2014, monitoring Medicaid cessation medication claims may be beneficial for informing efforts to increase utilization and maximize smoking cessation.
Project description:Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are being increasingly used. We examined the correlates associated with e-cigarette awareness, use and perceived effectiveness in smoking cessation among Chinese daily smokers in Hong Kong.Daily smokers (N = 1,307) were recruited to a community-based randomised controlled trial ('Quit to Win') in 2014. Socio-demographic characteristics, conventional cigarette smoking status, nicotine addiction level, quit attempts, quit intention, e-cigarette awareness, use and perceived effectiveness on quitting were reported at baseline and 1-week follow-up. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with e-cigarette awareness, use and perceived effectiveness in quitting.Most smokers (82.6%, 95% CI 80.2%-84.9%) had heard about e-cigarettes, and 13.3% (11.3%-15.5%) ever used e-cigarettes. Most users (74.1%) and non-users (91.2%) did not perceive e-cigarettes as effective in quitting. Being younger and having a larger family income were associated with e-cigarette awareness. Being younger, a tertiary education and a stronger addiction to nicotine were associated with e-cigarette use, which was itself associated with lower levels of intention to quit and had no association with attempts to quit (P for trend 0.45). E-cigarette use, the last quit attempt being a month earlier, having made a quit attempt lasting 24 hours or longer and perceiving quitting as important were all associated with the perceived effectiveness of e-cigarettes in quitting (all P <0.05).Among community-recruited smokers who intended to quit, awareness of e-cigarettes was high, but most did not perceive e-cigarettes as effective in quitting. Correlates concerning e-cigarette perceptions and use will help to inform prospective studies, public education and policy on controlling e-cigarettes.
Project description:AIMS:At a time of declining smoking prevalence in England, it is useful to document any changes in the characteristics of smokers. This has implications for targeting tobacco control policies and interventions. This study compared the characteristics of smokers from 2008 to 2017 to assess changes in smoking and quitting patterns and socio-demographic profile. DESIGN AND SETTING:Analysis of annual trends in results from repeated cross-sectional surveys of representative samples of the population in England from 2008 to 2017. PARTICIPANTS:The study included 208?813 adults aged 16+. MEASUREMENTS:Information was gathered on age, sex, social grade and region, cigarette consumption, cigarette dependence as measured by time to first cigarette of the day, daily smoking, smoking roll-your-own cigarettes, attempts to cut down, use of an e-cigarette or nicotine replacement therapy, attempts to cut down or quit, use of support in quit attempts and whether the quit attempt was abrupt. FINDINGS:During the period, mean daily cigarette consumption [B = -0.30, 95% confidence interval (CI) = -0.33 to -0.27] and the time to first cigarette score decreased (B = -0.03, 95% CI = -0.03 to -0.02). The proportion of smokers attempting to cut down or quit decreased (odds ratio (OR) range = 0.96-0.97, 95% CI range = 0.95-0.97). Use of behavioural support [odds ratio (OR) = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.86-0.92] or no support decreased (OR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.96-0.99), while use of pharmacological support, including e-cigarettes, increased (OR = 1.04, 95% CI = 1.02-1.05). There was no significant change in the difference in social grade between smokers and non-smokers comparing 2008 with 2017. Changes in smoking and quitting behaviour were independent of changes in socio-demographic characteristics. CONCLUSIONS:Between 2008 and 2017 in England, smokers appear to have become less dependent on cigarettes but less likely to try to quit or cut down. Of those who tried to quit, fewer used behavioural support and more used pharmacological support. The proportion from more disadvantaged backgrounds did not change significantly.
Project description:To examine disparities and changes over time in the population-level distribution of smokers along a cigarette quitting continuum among African American smokers compared with non-Hispanic Whites.Secondary data analyses of the 1999, 2002, 2005, and 2008 California Tobacco Surveys (CTS). The CTS are large, random-digit-dialed, population-based surveys designed to assess changes in tobacco use in California. The number of survey respondents ranged from n = 6,744 to n = 12,876 across CTS years. Current smoking behavior (daily or nondaily smoking), number of cigarettes smoked per day, intention to quit in the next 6 months, length of most recent quit attempt among current smokers, and total length of time quit among former smokers were assessed and used to recreate the quitting continuum model.While current smoking rates were significantly higher among African Americans compared with non-Hispanic Whites across all years, cigarette consumption rates were lower among African Americans in all years. There were significant increases in the proportion of former smokers who had been quit for at least 12 months from 1999 (African Americans, 26.8% ± 5.5%; non-Hispanic Whites, 36.8% ± 1.6%) to 2008 (African Americans, 43.6% ± 4.1%; non-Hispanic Whites, 57.4% ± 2.9%). The proportion of African American former smokers in each CTS year was significantly lower than that of non-Hispanic Whites.Despite positive progression along the quitting continuum for both African American and non-Hispanic White smokers, the overall distribution was less favorable for African Americans. The lower smoking consumption levels among African Americans, combined with the lower rates of successful smoking cessation, suggest that cigarette addiction and the quitting process may be different for African American smokers.
Project description:Smokers increasingly use e-cigarettes for many reasons, including attempts to quit combustible cigarettes and to use nicotine where smoking is prohibited. We aimed to assess the association between e-cigarette use and cigarette smoking cessation among adult cigarette smokers, irrespective of their motivation for using e-cigarettes.PubMed and Web of Science were searched between April 27, 2015, and June 17, 2015. Data extracted included study location, design, population, definition and prevalence of e-cigarette use, comparison group (if applicable), cigarette consumption, level of nicotine dependence, other confounders, definition of quitting smoking, and odds of quitting smoking. The primary endpoint was cigarette smoking cessation. Odds of smoking cessation among smokers using e-cigarettes compared with smokers not using e-cigarettes were assessed using a random effects meta-analysis. A modification of the ACROBAT-NRSI tool and the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool were used to assess bias. This meta-analysis is registered with PROSPERO (number CRD42015020382).38 studies (of 577 studies identified) were included in the systematic review; all 20 studies with control groups (15 cohort studies, three cross-sectional studies, and two clinical trials) were included in random effects meta-analysis and sensitivity analyses. Odds of quitting cigarettes were 28% lower in those who used e-cigarettes compared with those who did not use e-cigarettes (odds ratio [OR] 0·72, 95% CI 0·57-0·91). Association of e-cigarette use with quitting did not significantly differ among studies of all smokers using e-cigarettes (irrespective of interest in quitting cigarettes) compared with studies of only smokers interested in cigarette cessation (OR 0·63, 95% CI 0·45-0·86 vs 0·86, 0·60-1·23; p=0·94). Other study characteristics (design, population, comparison group, control variables, time of exposure assessment, biochemical verification of abstinence, and definition of e-cigarette use) were also not associated with the overall effect size (p?0·77 in all cases).As currently being used, e-cigarettes are associated with significantly less quitting among smokers.National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute, FDA Center for Tobacco Products.
Project description:A broadly mandated reduction of the nicotine content (RNC) of cigarettes has been proposed in the United States to reduce the addictiveness of cigarettes, to prevent new smokers from becoming addicted and to facilitate quitting in established smokers. The primary aim of this study was to determine whether following 7?months of smoking very low nicotine content cigarettes (VLNC), and then returning to their own cigarettes, smokers would demonstrate persistently reduced nicotine intake compared with baseline or quit smoking.In a community-based clinic 135 smokers not interested in quitting were randomized to one of two groups. A research group smoked their usual brand of cigarettes, followed by five types of research cigarettes with progressively lower nicotine content, each for 1?month, followed by 6?months at the lowest nicotine level (0.5?mg/cigarette) (53?subjects) and then 12?months with no intervention (30?subjects completed). A control group smoked their usual brand for the same period of time (50?subjects at 6?months, 38?completed). Smoking behavior, biomarkers of nicotine intake and smoke toxicant exposure were measured.After 7?months smoking VLNC, nicotine intake remained below baseline (plasma cotinine 149 versus 250?ng/ml, P<0.005) with no significant change in cigarettes per day or expired carbon monoxide (CO). During the 12-month follow-up, cotinine levels in RNC smokers rose to baseline levels and to those of control smokers. Quit rates among RNC smokers were very low [7.5 versus 2% in controls, not significant).In smokers not interested in quitting, reducing the nicotine content in cigarettes over 12?months does not appear to result in extinction of nicotine dependence, assessed by persistently reduced nicotine intake or quitting smoking over the subsequent 12?months.
Project description:To determine whether smokers smoking from packs required under Australia's plain packaging law had different smoking beliefs and quitting thoughts, compared with those still smoking from branded packs.Cross-sectional survey during the roll-out phase of the law, analysed by timing of survey.Australian state of Victoria, November 2012.536 cigarette smokers with a usual brand, of whom 72.3% were smoking from a plain pack and 27.7% were smoking from a branded pack.Perceived quality and satisfaction of cigarettes compared with 1 year ago, frequency of thoughts of smoking harm, perceived exaggeration of harms, frequency of thoughts of quitting, quitting priority in life, intention to quit, approval of large graphic health warnings and plain packaging.Compared with branded pack smokers, those smoking from plain packs perceived their cigarettes to be lower in quality (adjusted OR (AdjOR)=1.66, p=0.045), tended to perceive their cigarettes as less satisfying than a year ago (AdjOR=1.70, p=0.052), were more likely to have thought about quitting at least once a day in the past week (AdjOR=1.81, p=0.013) and to rate quitting as a higher priority in their lives (F=13.11, df=1, p<0.001). Plain pack smokers were more likely to support the policy than branded pack smokers (AdjOR=1.51, p=0.049). Branded and plain pack smokers did not differ on measures of less immediate smoking intentions, frequency of thoughts about harms or perceived exaggeration of harms. Appeal outcomes, but not other outcomes, were sensitive to the extent of roll-out, with responses from branded pack smokers approaching those of plain pack smokers, once 80% of survey respondents were smoking from plain packs 1-2 weeks before the December implementation date.The early indication is that plain packaging is associated with lower smoking appeal, more support for the policy and more urgency to quit among adult smokers.
Project description:A statewide survey examined prevalence, reasons for using, discontinuing use, and not wanting to try e-cigarettes. Methods:Participants (n?=?6052) were adult Minnesota residents. E-cigarette initiation and current use prevalence rates were calculated for demographic characteristics and smoking status. The percent of respondents endorsing a reason for trying e-cigarettes are reported overall and by smoking status. The percent of respondents endorsing each reason for discontinuing or not using e-cigarettes are reported for daily and occasional smokers. All descriptive analyses were weighted. To develop profiles of e-cigarette users, a latent class analysis (LCA) was undertaken. Results:Overall, 20.7% of adults reported ever use and 4.6% were current users. Use varied notably by age and smoking status. Only 2.8% of never smokers were current e-cigarette users. Among young adults, 14.6% reported current use but most (70.0%) were never smokers. The reasons given for using e-cigarettes varied by smoking status. Curiosity was the top reason for all groups except recent former smokers, for whom cutting down or quitting other tobacco products was primary. Most smokers discontinuing e-cigarettes preferred cigarettes, and four-fifths of smokers who never tried e-cigarettes lacked interest. From the LCA four profiles were evident: young adult experimenters, curious adults, smokers trying to quit cigarettes, and dual users. Conclusions:Innovative higher nicotine content devices have sustained interest in e-cigarettes especially among young adults and smokers with a goal of cutting down or quitting smoking. Future regulations and communication should focus on reducing e-cigarette use among young adult nonsmokers.
Project description:The prevalence of current cigarette smoking is approximately twice as high among adults enrolled in Medicaid (23.9%) as among privately insured adults (10.5%), placing Medicaid enrollees at increased risk for smoking-related disease and death (1). Medicaid spends approximately $39 billion annually on treating smoking-related diseases (2). Individual, group, and telephone counseling and seven Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved medications* are effective in helping tobacco users quit (3). Comprehensive, barrier-free, widely promoted coverage of these treatments increases use of cessation treatments and quit rates and is cost-effective (3). To monitor changes in state Medicaid cessation coverage for traditional Medicaid enrollees† over the past decade, the American Lung Association collected data on coverage of nine cessation treatments by state Medicaid programs during December 31, 2008-December 31, 2018: individual counseling, group counseling, and the seven FDA-approved cessation medications§; states that cover all nine of these treatments are considered to have comprehensive coverage. The American Lung Association also collected data on seven barriers to accessing covered treatments.¶ As of December 31, 2018, 15 states covered all nine cessation treatments for all enrollees, up from six states as of December 31, 2008. Of these 15 states, Kentucky and Missouri were the only ones to have removed all seven barriers to accessing these cessation treatments. State Medicaid programs that cover all evidence-based cessation treatments, remove barriers to accessing these treatments, and promote covered treatments to Medicaid enrollees and health care providers could reduce smoking, smoking-related disease, and smoking-attributable federal and state health care expenditures (3-7).
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Research has shown that adults perceive that electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are effective for smoking cessation, yet little is known about adolescents and young adults' perceptions of e-cigarettes for quitting cigarette smoking. This study describes middle, high school, and college students' beliefs about, and experiences with, e-cigarettes for cigarette smoking cessation.<h4>Methods</h4>We conducted 18 focus groups (n = 127) with male and female cigarette smokers and nonsmokers in 2 public colleges, 2 high schools, and 1 middle school in Connecticut between November 2012 and April 2013. Participants discussed cigarette smoking cessation in relation to e-cigarettes. Verbatim transcripts were analyzed using thematic analysis.<h4>Results</h4>All participants, regardless of age and smoking status, were aware that e-cigarettes could be used for smoking cessation. College and high school participants described different methods of how e-cigarettes could be used for smoking cessation: (a) nicotine reduction followed by cessation; (b) cigarette reduction/dual use; and (c) long-term exclusive e-cigarette use. However, overall, participants did not perceive that e-cigarette use led to successful quitting experiences. Participants described positive attributes (maintenance of smoking actions, "healthier" alternative to cigarettes, and parental approval) and negative attributes (persistence of craving, maintenance of addiction) of e-cigarettes for cessation. Some college students expressed distrust of marketing of e-cigarettes for smoking cessation.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Adolescent and young adult smokers and nonsmokers perceive that there are several methods of using e-cigarettes for quitting and are aware of both positive and negative aspects of the product. Future research is needed to determine the role of e-cigarettes for smoking cessation in this population.