Pros and cons of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI).
ABSTRACT: Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) or replacement (TAVR) was recently approved by the FDA for intermediate risk patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS). This technique was already worldwide adopted for inoperable and high-risk patients. Improved device technology, imaging analysis and operator expertise has reduced the initial worrisome higher complications rate associated with TAVR, making it comparable to surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR). However, many answers need to be addressed before adoption in lower risk patients. This paper highlights the pros and cons of TAVI based mostly on randomized clinical trials involving the two device platforms approved in the United States. We focused our analysis on metrics that will play a key role in expanding TAVR indication in healthier individuals. We review the significance and gave a perspective on paravalvular leak (PVL), valve performance, valve durability, leaflet thrombosis, stroke and pacemaker requirement.
Project description:Transcatheter aortic valve implantation has been increasingly used in symptomatic patients with severe aortic stenosis who are inoperable or at high risk. However it remains associated with the potential for serious complications. We report a case in which an Edwards Sapien (Edwards, Irvine, CA, USA) valve prosthesis dislocated to the left ventricular outflow tract with hemodynamic collapse 6 h following implantation. <Learning objective: Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is an alternative method to surgical aortic valve replacement in patients with severe aortic stenosis and high surgical risk. Despite continuous improvements in operators' expertise and device technology, it remains associated with the potential for serious complications such as valve dislocation. Dislocation after TAVI is a life-threatening complication that requires immediate diagnosis and treatment.>.
Project description:Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has evolved into a safe and effective procedure to treat symptomatic patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS), with predictable and reproducible results. Rates of important complications such as vascular complications, strokes and paravalvular leaks are lower than ever, because of improved patient selection, systematic use of multidector computer tomography, increasing operator experience and device iteration. Accumulating data suggest that transfemoral TAVI with newer generation transcatheter heart valves and delivery systems is superior to conventional surgical aortic valve replacement among intermediate- and high-risk patients with severe symptomatic AS with regard to all-cause mortality and stroke. One can anticipate that by 2020, the majority of patients with severe symptomatic AS will undergo TAVI as first line therapy, regardless of surgical risk.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Transcatheter aortic valve implantation/replacement (TAVI/TAVR) is becoming more frequently used to treat aortic stenosis (AS), with increasing push for the procedure in lower risk patients. Numerous randomized controlled trials have demonstrated that TAVI offers a suitable alternative to the current gold standard of surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) in terms of short-term outcomes. The present review evaluates long-term outcomes following TAVI procedures. METHODS:Literature search using three electronic databases was performed up to June 2017. Studies which included 20 or more patients undergoing TAVI procedures, either as a stand-alone or concomitant procedure and with a follow-up of at least 5 years, were included in the present review. Literature search and data extraction were performed by two independent researchers. Digitized survival data were extracted from Kaplan-Meier curves in order to re-create the original patient data using an iterative algorithm and subsequently aggregated for analysis. RESULTS:Thirty-one studies were included in the present analysis, with a total of 13,857 patients. Two studies were national registries, eight were multi-institutional collaborations and the remainder were institutional series. Overall, 45.7% of patients were male, with mean age of 81.5±7.0 years. Where reported, the mean Logistic EuroSCORE (LES) was 22.1±13.7 and the mean Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) score was 9.2±6.6. The pooled analysis found 30-day mortality, cerebrovascular accidents, acute kidney injury (AKI) and requirement for permanent pacemaker (PPM) implantation to be 8.4%, 2.8%, 14.4%, and 13.4%, respectively. Aggregated survival at 1-, 2-, 3-, 5- and 7-year were 83%, 75%, 65%, 48% and 28%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:The present systematic review identified acceptable long-term survival results for TAVI procedures in an elderly population. Extended follow-up is required to assess long-term outcomes following TAVI, particularly before its application is extended into wider population groups.
Project description:Symptomatic severe aortic stenosis carries a two year survival of only 50%. However many patients are unsuitable for conventional aortic valve replacement as they are considered too high risk due to significant co-morbidities. Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI) offers a viable alternative for this high risk patient group, either by the femoral or apical route. This article reports a case of a pseudoaneurysm of the left ventricle following an apical approach TAVI in an elderly lady with severe aortic stenosis. To our knowledge pseduoaneuryms of the left ventricle have been reported infrequently in the literature and has yet to be established as a recognised complication of TAVI.
Project description:Transcatheter aortic valve replacement has been recently approved for patients who are high or intermediate risk for surgical aortic valve replacement. The procedure is associated with several known complications including coronary related complications. Coronary obstruction is rare but disastrous complication, and it is associated with a high mortality rate. Coronary protection technique has emerged as a preemptive technique to avoid this complication. We present a case of successful coronary protection during TAVR in severely calcified left cusp in patient with short and low left ostium.
Project description:Aortic stenosis (AS) is the most common primary valve disorder in the elderly with an increasing prevalence; transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has become an accepted alternative to surgical aortic valve replacement (AVR) in the high risk or inoperable patient. Appropriate selection of patients for TAVI is crucial and requires a multidisciplinary approach including cardiothoracic surgeons, interventional cardiologists, anaesthetists, imaging experts and specialist nurses. Multimodality imaging including echocardiography, CT and MRI plays a pivotal role in the selection and planning process; however, echocardiography remains the primary imaging modality used for patient selection, intra-procedural guidance, post-procedural assessment and long-term follow-up. The contribution that contemporary transthoracic and transoesophageal echocardiography make to the selection and planning of TAVI is described in this article.
Project description:Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI) is a well-described treatment for symptomatic calcific severe aortic stenosis. However, TAVI technology is being increasingly used around the world to treat selected cases of severe aortic regurgitation (AR). One of the main limitations of using TAVI technology for AR is the lack of calcification, which is common in such cases. This makes anchoring of a TAVI prosthesis to the aortic annulus difficult and risks displacement or embolization. However, with the availability of recapturable and repositionable TAVI technologies, these limitations have been overcome to a large extent. This is the first Corevalve Evolut R device that was used in India and the first TAVI to treat AR in India.
Project description:Percutaneous aortic valve replacement (transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI)) notably increases the likelihood of the appearance of a complete left bundle branch block (LBBB) by direct lesion of the LBB of His. This block can lead to high-grade atrioventricular conduction disturbances responsible for a poorer prognosis. The management of this complication remains controversial.The screening of LBBB after TAVI persisting for more than 24?hours will be conducted by surface ECG. Stratification will be performed by post-TAVI intracardiac electrophysiological study. Patients at high risk of conduction disturbances (?70?ms His-ventricle interval (HV) or presence of infra-Hisian block) will be implanted with a pacemaker enabling the recording of disturbance episodes. Those at lower risk (HV <70?ms) will be implanted with a loop recorder device with remote monitoring of cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIEDs). Clinical, ECG and implanted device follow-up will also be performed at 3, 6 and 12?months. The primary objective is to assess the efficacy and safety of a decisional algorithm based on electrophysiological study and remote monitoring of CIEDs in the prediction of high-grade conduction disturbances in patients with LBBB after TAVI. The primary end point is to compare the incidence (rate and time to onset) of high-grade conduction disturbances in patients with LBBB after TAVI between the two groups at 12?months. Given the proportion of high-grade conduction disturbances (20-40%), a sample of 200 subjects will allow a margin of error of 6-7%. The LBBB-TAVI Study has been in an active recruiting phase since September 2015 (21 patients already included).Local ethics committee authorisation was obtained in May 2015. We will publish findings from this study in a peer-reviewed scientific journal and present results at national and international conferences.NCT02482844; Pre-results.
Project description:<h4>Aims</h4>To assess treatment decision and outcome in patients referred for transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) in addition to predictive factors of mortality after TAVI.<h4>Methods</h4>Three-centre prospective observational study including 358 patients. Endpoints were defined according to the Valve Academic Research Consortium.<h4>Results</h4>Of the 358 patients referred for TAVI, TAVI was performed in 235 patients (65%), surgical aortic valve replacement (AVR) in 24 (7%) and medical therapy (MT) in 99 (28%). Reasons to decline TAVI in favour of AVR/MT were patient preference (29%), peripheral vascular disease (15%) and non-severe aortic stenosis (11%). The logistic EuroSCORE was significantly higher in patients who underwent TAVI and MT in comparison with those undergoing AVR (19 vs. 10%, p?=?0.007). At 30 days, all-cause mortality and the combined safety endpoint were 9 and 24% after TAVI and 8 and 25% after AVR, respectively. All-cause mortality was significantly lower in the TAVI group compared with the MT group at 6 months, 1 year and 2 years (12% vs. 22%, 21% vs. 33% and 31% vs. 55%, respectively, p?<?0.001). Multivariable analysis revealed that blood transfusion (HR: 1.19; 95% CI: 1.05-1.33), pre-existing renal failure (HR: 1.18; 95% CI: 1.06-1.33) and STS score (HR: 1.06; 95% CI: 1.02-1.10) were independent predictors of mortality at a median of 10 (IQR: 3-23) months after TAVI.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Approximately two-thirds of the patients referred for TAVI receive this treatment with gratifying short- and long-term survival. Another 7% underwent AVR. Prognosis is poor in patients who do not receive valve replacement therapy.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has become the treatment of choice in patients with severe aortic valve stenosis who are not eligible for operative replacement and an alternative for those with high surgical risk. Due to high age and smoking history in a high proportion of TAVI patients, suspicious findings are frequently observed in pre-procedural chest computer tomography (CCT). METHODS:CCT scans of 484 consecutive patients undergoing TAVI were evaluated for incidentally discovered solitary pulmonary nodules (SPN). RESULTS:In the entire study population, SPN ? 5 mm were found in 87 patients (18%). These patients were compared to 150 patients who were incidentally collected from the 397 patients without SPN or with SPN < 5 mm (control group). After a median follow-up of 455 days, lung cancer was diagnosed in only two patients. Neither SPN ? 5 mm (p = 0.579) nor SPN > 8 mm (p = 0.328) were significant predictors of overall survival. CONCLUSIONS:Despite the high prevalence of SPNs in this single center TAVI cohort lung cancer incidence at midterm follow-up seems to be low. Thus, aggressive diagnostic approaches for incidentally discovered SPN during TAVI evaluation should not delay the treatment of aortic stenosis. Unless advanced thoracic malignancy is obvious, the well documented reduction of morbidity and mortality by TAVI outweighs potentially harmful delays regarding further diagnostics. Standard guideline-approved procedure for SPN can be safely performed after TAVI.