A C-terminal motif contributes to the plasma membrane localization of Arabidopsis STP transporters.
ABSTRACT: Membrane trafficking is highly organized to maintain cellular homeostasis in any organisms. Membrane-embedded transporters are targeted to various organelles to execute appropriate partition and allocation of their substrates, such as ions or sugars. To ensure the fidelity of targeting and sorting, membrane proteins including transporters have sorting signals that specify the subcellular destination and the trafficking pathway by which the destination is to be reached. Here, we have identified a novel sorting signal (called the tri-aromatic motif) which contains three aromatic residues, two tryptophans and one histidine, for the plasma membrane localization of sugar transporters in the STP family in Arabidopsis. We firstly found that a C-terminal deletion disrupted the sugar uptake activity of STP1 in yeast cells. Additional deletion and mutation analyses demonstrated that the three aromatic residues in the C-terminus, conserved among all Arabidopsis STP transporters, were critical for sugar uptake by not only STP1 but also another STP transporter STP13. We observed that, when the tri-aromatic motif was mutated, STP1 was largely localized at the endomembrane compartments in yeast cells, indicating that this improper subcellular localization led to the loss of sugar absorption. Importantly, our further analyses uncovered that mutations of the tri-aromatic motif resulted in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention of STP1 and STP13 in plant cells, suggesting that this motif is involved at the step of ER exit of STP transporters to facilitate their plasma membrane localization. Together, we here identified a novel ER export signal, and showed that appropriate sorting via the tri-aromatic motif is important for sugar absorption by STP transporters.
Project description:Plant roots are able to absorb sugars from the rhizosphere but also release sugars and other metabolites that are critical for growth and environmental signaling. Reabsorption of released sugar molecules could help reduce the loss of photosynthetically fixed carbon through the roots. Although biochemical analyses have revealed monosaccharide uptake mechanisms in roots, the transporters that are involved in this process have not yet been fully characterized. In the present study we demonstrate that Arabidopsis STP1 and STP13 play important roles in roots during the absorption of monosaccharides from the rhizosphere. Among 14 STP transporter genes, we found that STP1 had the highest transcript level and that STP1 was a major contributor for monosaccharide uptake under normal conditions. In contrast, STP13 was found to be induced by abiotic stress, with low expression under normal conditions. We analyzed the role of STP13 in roots under high salinity conditions where membranes of the epidermal cells were damaged, and we detected an increase in the amount of STP13-dependent glucose uptake. Furthermore, the amount of glucose efflux from stp13 mutants was higher than that from wild type plants under high salinity conditions. These results indicate that STP13 can reabsorb the monosaccharides that are released by damaged cells under high salinity conditions. Overall, our data indicate that sugar uptake capacity in Arabidopsis roots changes in response to environmental stresses and that this activity is dependent on the expression pattern of sugar transporters.
Project description:In the current study, we examined the regulatory interactions of a serine/threonine phosphatase (BA-Stp1), serine/threonine kinase (BA-Stk1) pair in Bacillus anthracis. B. anthracis STPK101, a null mutant lacking BA-Stp1 and BA-Stk1, was impaired in its ability to survive within macrophages, and this correlated with an observed reduction in virulence in a mouse model of pulmonary anthrax. Biochemical analyses confirmed that BA-Stp1 is a PP2C phosphatase and dephosphorylates phosphoserine and phosphothreonine residues. Treatment of BA-Stk1 with BA-Stp1 altered BA-Stk1 kinase activity, indicating that the enzymatic function of BA-Stk1 can be influenced by BA-Stp1 dephosphorylation. Using a combination of mass spectrometry and mutagenesis approaches, three phosphorylated residues, T165, S173, and S214, in BA-Stk1 were identified as putative regulatory targets of BA-Stp1. Further analysis found that T165 and S173 were necessary for optimal substrate phosphorylation, while S214 was necessary for complete ATP hydrolysis, autophosphorylation, and substrate phosphorylation. These findings provide insight into a previously undescribed Stp/Stk pair in B. anthracis.
Project description:Stp1 and Stp2 are homologous transcription factors in yeast that are synthesized as latent cytoplasmic precursors with NH2-terminal regulatory domains. In response to extracellular amino acids, the plasma membrane-localized Ssy1-Ptr3-Ssy5 (SPS) sensor endoproteolytically processes Stp1 and Stp2, an event that releases the regulatory domains. The processed forms of Stp1 and Stp2 efficiently target to the nucleus and bind promoters of amino acid permease genes. In this study, we report that Asi1 is an integral component of the inner nuclear membrane that maintains the latent characteristics of unprocessed Stp1 and Stp2. In cells lacking Asi1, full-length forms of Stp1 and Stp2 constitutively induce SPS sensor-regulated genes. The regulatory domains of Stp1 and Stp2 contain a conserved motif that confers Asi1-mediated control when fused to an unrelated DNA-binding protein. Our results indicate that latent precursor forms of Stp1 and Stp2 inefficiently enter the nucleus; however, once there, Asi1 restricts them from binding SPS sensor-regulated promoters. These findings reveal an unanticipated role of inner nuclear membrane proteins in controlling gene expression.
Project description:Proper perception of the extracellular insoluble cellulose is key to initiating the rapid synthesis of cellulases by cellulolytic Trichoderma reesei. Uptake of soluble oligosaccharides derived from cellulose hydrolysis represents a potential point of control in the induced cascade. In this study, we identified a major facilitator superfamily sugar transporter Stp1 capable of transporting cellobiose by reconstructing a cellobiose assimilation system in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The absence of Stp1 in T. reesei resulted in differential cellulolytic response to Avicel versus cellobiose. Transcriptional profiling revealed a different expression profile in the ?stp1 strain from that of wild-type strain in response to Avicel and demonstrated that Stp1 somehow repressed induction of the bulk of major cellulase and hemicellulose genes. Two other putative major facilitator superfamily sugar transporters were, however, up-regulated in the profiling. Deletion of one of them identified Crt1 that was required for growth and enzymatic activity on cellulose or lactose, but was not required for growth or hemicellulase activity on xylan. The essential role of Crt1 in cellulase induction did not seem to rely on its transporting activity because the overall uptake of cellobiose or sophorose by T. reesei was not compromised in the absence of Crt1. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that orthologs of Crt1 exist in the genomes of many filamentous ascomycete fungi capable of degrading cellulose. These data thus shed new light on the mechanism by which T. reesei senses and transmits the cellulose signal and offers potential strategies for strain improvement.
Project description:Cell wall invertases (CWIN) cleave sucrose into glucose and fructose in the apoplast. CWINs are key regulators of carbon partitioning and source/sink relationships during growth, development and under biotic stresses. In this report, we monitored the expression/activity of <i>Arabidopsis</i> cell wall invertases in organs behaving as source, sink, or subjected to a source/sink transition after infection with the necrotrophic fungus <i>Botrytis cinerea</i>. We showed that organs with different source/sink status displayed differential CWIN activities, depending on carbohydrate needs or availabilities in the surrounding environment, through a transcriptional and posttranslational regulation. Loss-of-function mutation of the <i>Arabidopsis</i> cell wall invertase 1 gene, <i>AtCWIN1</i>, showed that the corresponding protein was the main contributor to the apoplastic sucrose cleaving activity in both leaves and roots. The CWIN-deficient mutant <i>cwin1-1</i> exhibited a reduced capacity to actively take up external sucrose in roots, indicating that this process is mainly dependent on the sucrolytic activity of <i>AtCWIN1</i>. Using T-DNA and CRISPR/Cas9 mutants impaired in hexose transport, we demonstrated that external sucrose is actively absorbed in the form of hexoses by a sugar/H<sup>+</sup> symport system involving the coordinated activity of AtCWIN1 with several Sugar Transporter Proteins (STP) of the plasma membrane, i.e., STP1 and STP13. Part of external sucrose was imported without apoplastic cleavage into <i>cwin1-1</i> seedling roots, highlighting an alternative <i>AtCWIN1</i>-independent pathway for the assimilation of external sucrose. Accordingly, we showed that several genes encoding sucrose transporters of the plasma membrane were expressed. We also detected transcript accumulation of vacuolar invertase (VIN)-encoding genes and high VIN activities. Upon infection, <i>AtCWIN1</i> was responsible for all the <i>Botrytis</i>-induced apoplastic invertase activity. We detected a transcriptional activation of several <i>AtSUC</i> and <i>AtVIN</i> genes accompanied with an enhanced vacuolar invertase activity, suggesting that the <i>AtCWIN1</i>-independent pathway is efficient upon infection. In absence of <i>AtCWIN1</i>, we postulate that intracellular sucrose hydrolysis is sufficient to provide intracellular hexoses to maintain sugar homeostasis in host cells and to fuel plant defenses. Finally, we demonstrated that <i>Botrytis cinerea</i> possesses its own functional sucrolytic machinery and hexose uptake system, and does not rely on the host apoplastic invertases.
Project description:The glucose transporter is an important player in cell metabolism that mediates the intracellular uptake of glucose. Here, we characterized the glucose transporter Stp1 from the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei. The individual substitution of several conserved residues for Ala in Stp1 corresponding to those interacting with D-glucose in the xylose/H(+) symporter XylE inflicted contrasting effects on its ability to support the growth of an hxt-null yeast on glucose. The targeted change of Phe 50, proximal to the substrate-binding site, was also found to exert a profound effect on the activity of Stp1. In contrast with the charged residues, the substitution of Phe 50 with either the hydrophilic residues Asn and Gln or the small residues Gly and Ala significantly enhanced the transport of glucose and its fluorescent analogue, 2-NBDG. On the other hand, a variant with the three substitutions I115F, F199I and P214L displayed remarkably improved activity on glucose and 2-NBDG transport. Further analysis indicated that the combined mutations of Ile 115 and Pro 214, positioned on the lateral surface of the Stp1 N-domain, fully accounted for the enhanced transport activity. These results provide insight into the structural basis for glucose uptake in fungal sugar transporters.
Project description:When yeast cells detect external amino acids via their permease-like Ssy1 sensor, the cytosolic precursor forms of Stp1 and Stp2 transcription factors are activated by endoproteolytic removal of their N-terminal domains, a reaction catalyzed by the Ssy5 endoprotease. The processed Stp factors then migrate into the nucleus, where they activate transcription of several amino acid permease genes including AGP1. We report here that the STP1 and STP2 genes most likely derive from the whole genome duplication that occurred in a yeast ancestor. Although Stp1 and Stp2 have been considered redundant, we provide evidence that they functionally diverged during evolution. Stp2 is the only factor processed when amino acids are present at low concentration, and the transcriptional activation of AGP1 promoted by Stp2 is moderate. Furthermore, only Stp2 can sustain Agp1-dependent utilization of amino acids at low concentration. In contrast, Stp1 is only processed when amino acids are present at high concentration, and it promotes higher level transcriptional activation of AGP1. Domain swapping experiments show that the N-terminal domains of Stp1 and Stp2 are responsible for these proteins being cleaved at different amino acid concentrations. Last, induction of the DIP5 permease gene by amino acids depends on Stp2 but not Stp1. We propose that post-whole genome duplication co-conservation of the STP1 and STP2 genes was favored by functional divergence of their products, likely conferring to cells an increased ability to adapt to various amino acid supply conditions.
Project description:The sugar transporter (STP) gene family encodes monosaccharide transporters that contain 12 transmembrane domains and belong to the major facilitator superfamily. STP genes play critical roles in monosaccharide distribution and participate in diverse plant metabolic processes. To investigate the potential roles of STPs in cassava (Manihot esculenta) tuber root growth, genome-wide identification and expression and functional analyses of the STP gene family were performed in this study. A total of 20 MeSTP genes (MeSTP1-20) containing the Sugar_tr conserved motifs were identified from the cassava genome, which could be further classified into four distinct groups in the phylogenetic tree. The expression profiles of the MeSTP genes explored using RNA-seq data showed that most of the MeSTP genes exhibited tissue-specific expression, and 15 out of 20 MeSTP genes were mainly expressed in the early storage root of cassava. qRT-PCR analysis further confirmed that most of the MeSTPs displayed higher expression in roots after 30 and 40 days of growth, suggesting that these genes may be involved in the early growth of tuber roots. Although all the MeSTP proteins exhibited plasma membrane localization, variations in monosaccharide transport activity were found through a complementation analysis in a yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) mutant, defective in monosaccharide uptake. Among them, MeSTP2, MeSTP15, and MeSTP19 were able to efficiently complement the uptake of five monosaccharides in the yeast mutant, while MeSTP3 and MeSTP16 only grew on medium containing galactose, suggesting that these two MeSTP proteins are transporters specific for galactose. This study provides significant insights into the potential functions of MeSTPs in early tuber root growth, which possibly involves the regulation of monosaccharide distribution.
Project description:Engineered cell factories that convert biomass into value-added compounds are emerging as a timely alternative to petroleum-based industries. Although often overlooked, integral membrane proteins such as solute transporters are pivotal for engineering efficient microbial chassis. Anaerobic gut fungi, adapted to degrade raw plant biomass in the intestines of herbivores, are a potential source of valuable transporters for biotechnology, yet very little is known about the membrane constituents of these non-conventional organisms. Here, we mined the transcriptome of three recently isolated strains of anaerobic fungi to identify membrane proteins responsible for sensing and transporting biomass hydrolysates within a competitive and rather extreme environment.Using sequence analyses and homology, we identified membrane protein-coding sequences from assembled transcriptomes from three strains of anaerobic gut fungi: Neocallimastix californiae, Anaeromyces robustus, and Piromyces finnis. We identified nearly 2000 transporter components: about half of these are involved in the general secretory pathway and intracellular sorting of proteins; the rest are predicted to be small-solute transporters. Unexpectedly, we found a number of putative sugar binding proteins that are associated with prokaryotic uptake systems; and approximately 100 class C G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) with non-canonical putative sugar binding domains.We report the first comprehensive characterization of the membrane protein machinery of biotechnologically relevant anaerobic gut fungi. Apart from identifying conserved machinery for protein sorting and secretion, we identify a large number of putative solute transporters that are of interest for biotechnological applications. Notably, our data suggests that the fungi display a plethora of carbohydrate binding domains at their surface, perhaps as a means to sense and sequester some of the sugars that their biomass degrading, extracellular enzymes produce.
Project description:In the LeuT family of sodium solute symporters, 13-17% of the residues in transmembrane domains are aromatic. The unique properties of aromatic amino acids allow them to play specialized roles in proteins, but their function in membrane transporters is underappreciated. Here we analyze the ? bonding pattern in the LeuT (5TMIR) family and then describe the role of a triad of aromatic residues in sodium-dependent sugar cotransporters (SGLTs). In SLC5 symporters, three aromatic residues in TM6 (SGLT1 W289, Y290, and W291) are conserved in only those transporting sugars and inositols. We used biophysical analysis of mutants to discover their functional roles, which we have interpreted in terms of CH-?, ?-?, and cation-? bonding. We discovered that (1) glucose binding involves CH-? stacking with Y290, (2) ? T-stacking interactions between Y290 and W291 and H-bonding between Y290 and N78 (TM1) are essential to form the sodium and sugar binding sites, (3) the Na(+):sugar stoichiometry is determined by these residues, and (4) W289 may be important in stabilizing the structure through H-bonding to TM3. We also find that the WYW triad plays a role in Na(+) coordination at the Na1 site, possibly through cation-? interactions. Surprisingly, this Na(+) is not necessarily coupled to glucose translocation. Our analysis of ? interactions in other LeuT proteins suggests that they also contribute to the structure and function in this whole family of transporters.