Experimental certification of millions of genuinely entangled atoms in a solid.
ABSTRACT: Quantum theory predicts that entanglement can also persist in macroscopic physical systems, albeit difficulties to demonstrate it experimentally remain. Recently, significant progress has been achieved and genuine entanglement between up to 2900 atoms was reported. Here, we demonstrate 16 million genuinely entangled atoms in a solid-state quantum memory prepared by the heralded absorption of a single photon. We develop an entanglement witness for quantifying the number of genuinely entangled particles based on the collective effect of directed emission combined with the non-classical nature of the emitted light. The method is applicable to a wide range of physical systems and is effective even in situations with significant losses. Our results clarify the role of multipartite entanglement in ensemble-based quantum memories and demonstrate the accessibility to certain classes of multipartite entanglement with limited experimental control.The presence of entanglement in macroscopic systems is notoriously difficult to observe. Here, the authors develop a witness which allow them to demonstrate entanglement between millions of atoms in a solid-state quantum memory prepared by the heralded absorption of a single photon.
Project description:There are both fundamental and practical motivations for studying whether quantum entanglement can exist in macroscopic systems. However, multiparty entanglement is generally fragile and difficult to quantify. Dicke states are multiparty entangled states where a single excitation is delocalized over many systems. Building on previous work on quantum memories for photons, we create a Dicke state in a solid by storing a single photon in a crystal that contains many large atomic ensembles with distinct resonance frequencies. The photon is re-emitted at a well-defined time due to an interference effect analogous to multi-slit diffraction. We derive a lower bound for the number of entangled ensembles based on the contrast of the interference and the single-photon character of the input, and we experimentally demonstrate entanglement between over two hundred ensembles, each containing a billion atoms. We also illustrate the fact that each individual ensemble contains further entanglement.Multipartite entanglement is of both fundamental and practical interest, but is notoriously difficult to witness and characterise. Here, Zarkeshian et al. demonstrate multipartite entanglement in an atomic frequency comb storing a single photon in a Dicke state spread over a macroscopic ensemble.
Project description:Multipartite entangled states are a fundamental resource for a wide range of quantum information processing tasks. In particular, in quantum networks, it is essential for the parties involved to be able to verify if entanglement is present before they carry out a given distributed task. Here we design and experimentally demonstrate a protocol that allows any party in a network to check if a source is distributing a genuinely multipartite entangled state, even in the presence of untrusted parties. The protocol remains secure against dishonest behaviour of the source and other parties, including the use of system imperfections to their advantage. We demonstrate the verification protocol in a three- and four-party setting using polarization-entangled photons, highlighting its potential for realistic photonic quantum communication and networking applications.
Project description:Quantum entanglement is usually considered a fragile quantity and decoherence through coupling to an external environment, such as a thermal reservoir, can quickly destroy the entanglement resource. This doesn't have to be the case and the environment can be engineered to assist in the formation of entanglement. We investigate a system of qubits and higher dimensional spins interacting only through their mutual coupling to a reservoir. We explore the entanglement of multipartite and multidimensional system as mediated by the bath and show that at low temperatures and intermediate coupling strengths multipartite entanglement may form between qubits and between higher spins, i.e., qudits. We characterise the multipartite entanglement using an entanglement witness based upon the structure factor and demonstrate its validity versus the directly calculated entanglement of formation, suggesting possible experiments for its measure.
Project description:A quantum interface links the stationary qubits in a quantum memory with flying photonic qubits in optical transmission channels and constitutes a critical element for the future quantum internet. Entanglement of quantum interfaces is an important step for the realization of quantum networks. Through heralded detection of photon interference, we generate multipartite entanglement between 25 (or 9) individually addressable quantum interfaces in a multiplexed atomic quantum memory array and confirm genuine 22-partite (or 9-partite) entanglement. This experimental entanglement of a record-high number of individually addressable quantum interfaces makes an important step toward the realization of quantum networks, long-distance quantum communication, and multipartite quantum information processing.
Project description:Being able to implement effective entanglement distribution in noisy environments is a key step towards practical quantum communication, and long-term efforts have been made on the development of it. Recently, it has been found that the null-result weak measurement (NRWM) can be used to enhance probabilistically the entanglement of a single copy of amplitude-damped entangled state. This paper investigates remote distributions of bipartite and multipartite entangled states in the amplitudedamping environment by combining NRWMs and entanglement distillation protocols (EDPs). We show that the NRWM has no positive effect on the distribution of bipartite maximally entangled states and multipartite Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states, although it is able to increase the amount of entanglement of each source state (noisy entangled state) of EDPs with a certain probability. However, we find that the NRWM would contribute to remote distributions of multipartite W states. We demonstrate that the NRWM can not only reduce the fidelity thresholds for distillability of decohered W states, but also raise the distillation efficiencies of W states. Our results suggest a new idea for quantifying the ability of a local filtering operation in protecting entanglement from decoherence.
Project description:Hybrid entangled states, having entanglement between different degrees-of-freedom (DoF) of a particle pair, are of great interest for quantum information science and communication protocols. Among different DoFs, the hybrid entangled states encoded with polarization and orbital angular momentum (OAM) allow the generation of qubit-qudit entangled states, macroscopic entanglement with very high quanta of OAM and improvement in angular resolution in remote sensing. Till date, such hybrid entangled states are generated by using a high-fidelity polarization entangled states and subsequent imprinting of chosen amount of OAM using suitable mode converters such as spatial light modulator in complicated experimental schemes. Given that the entangled sources have feeble number of photons, loss of photons during imprinting of OAM using diffractive optical elements limits the use of such hybrid states for practical applications. Here we report, on a simple generic experimental scheme to generate hybrid entangled states in polarization and OAM through direct transfer of classical non-separable states of the pump beam in parametric down conversion process. As a proof of principle, using local non-separable pump states of OAM mode l = 3, we have produced quantum hybrid entangled states with entanglement witness parameter of ~1.25 ± 0.03 violating by 8 standard deviation.
Project description:A quantum communication network can be constructed by distributing a multipartite entangled state to space-separated nodes. Entangled optical beams with highest flying speed and measurable brightness can be used as carriers to convey information in quantum communication networks. Losses and noises existing in real communication channels will reduce or even totally destroy entanglement. The phenomenon of disentanglement will result in the complete failure of quantum communication. Here, we present the experimental demonstrations on the disentanglement and the entanglement revival of tripartite entangled optical beams used in a quantum network. We experimentally demonstrate that symmetric tripartite entangled optical beams are robust in pure lossy but noiseless channels. In a noisy channel, the excess noise will lead to the disentanglement and the destroyed entanglement can be revived by the use of a correlated noisy channel (non-Markovian environment). The presented results provide useful technical references for establishing quantum networks.
Project description:Entanglement of two distant macroscopic objects is a key element for implementing large-scale quantum networks consisting of quantum channels and quantum nodes. Entanglement swapping can entangle two spatially separated quantum systems without direct interaction. Here we propose a scheme of deterministically entangling two remote atomic ensembles via continuous-variable entanglement swapping between two independent quantum systems involving light and atoms. Each of two stationary atomic ensembles placed at two remote nodes in a quantum network is prepared to a mixed entangled state of light and atoms respectively. Then, the entanglement swapping is unconditionally implemented between the two prepared quantum systems by means of the balanced homodyne detection of light and the feedback of the measured results. Finally, the established entanglement between two macroscopic atomic ensembles is verified by the inseparability criterion of correlation variances between two anti-Stokes optical beams respectively coming from the two atomic ensembles.
Project description:Quantum entanglement is the ability of joint quantum systems to possess global properties (correlation among systems) even when subsystems have no definite individual property. Whilst the 2-dimensional (qubit) case is well-understood, currently, tools to characterise entanglement in high dimensions are limited. We experimentally demonstrate a new procedure for entanglement certification that is suitable for large systems, based entirely on information-theoretics. It scales more efficiently than Bell's inequality and entanglement witness. The method we developed works for arbitrarily large system dimension d and employs only two local measurements of complementary properties. This procedure can also certify whether the system is maximally entangled. We illustrate the protocol for families of bipartite states of qudits with dimension up to 32 composed of polarisation-entangled photon pairs.
Project description:Entangled quantum systems have properties that have fundamentally overthrown the classical worldview. Increasing the complexity of entangled states by expanding their dimensionality allows the implementation of novel fundamental tests of nature, and moreover also enables genuinely new protocols for quantum information processing. Here we present the creation of a (100 × 100)-dimensional entangled quantum system, using spatial modes of photons. For its verification we develop a novel nonlinear criterion which infers entanglement dimensionality of a global state by using only information about its subspace correlations. This allows very practical experimental implementation as well as highly efficient extraction of entanglement dimensionality information. Applications in quantum cryptography and other protocols are very promising.