Synthesis of 4H-Benzo[e][1,3]oxazin-4-ones by a Carbonylation-Cyclization Domino Reaction of ortho-Halophenols and Cyanamide.
ABSTRACT: A mild and convenient one-step preparation of 4H-1,3-benzoxazin-4-ones by a domino carbonylation-cyclization process is developed. Readily available ortho-iodophenols are subjected to palladium-catalyzed carbonylative coupling with Mo(CO)6 and cyanamide, followed by a spontaneous, intramolecular cyclization to afford 4H-1,3-benzoxazin-4-ones in moderate to excellent yields. Furthermore, the scope of the reaction is extended to include challenging ortho-bromophenols. Finally, to highlight the versatility of the developed method, Mo(CO)6 is successfully replaced with a wide array of CO-releasing reagents, such as oxalyl chloride, phenyl formate, 9-methylfluorene-9-carbonyl chloride, and formic acid, making this an appealing strategy for the synthesis of 4H-benzo[e][1,3]oxazin-4-ones.
Project description:The KOH-promoted chemodivergent benzannulation of ortho-fluorobenzamides with 2-propyn-1-ol can afford either 1,4-benzoxazepin-5(4H)-ones or 1,3-benzoxazin-4(4H)-ones in good yields with high selectivity, depending greatly upon the use of solvents. In the case of using DMSO, the intermolecular benzannulation produced seven-membered benzo-fused heterocycles of 1,4-benzoxazepin-5(4H)-ones, whereas in MeCN, the six-membered benzo-fused heterocycles of 1,3-benzoxazin-4(4H)-ones were formed. The KOH-promoted benzannulation proceeded most probably through the C-F nucleophilic substitution of ortho-fluorobenzamides with 2-propyn-1-ol to give the intermediate of ortho-[(2-propynyl)oxy]benzamide, which underwent the intramolecular hydroamidation in a different manner to afford either seven- or six-membered benzo-fused heterocycles.
Project description:A one-pot route to 2-alkyl and 2-aryl-4H-benzo[d][1,3]oxazin-4-ones (also known as 4H-3,1-benzoxazin-4-ones) has been developed and studied. The method involves the reaction of aryl-substituted anthranilic acids with orthoesters in ethanol catalyzed by acetic acid. Additionally, we have also investigated the reaction under microwave conditions. Not all of the substrates were successful in yielding the target heterocycles as some of the reactions failed to undergo the final elimination. This process led to the isolation of (±)-2-alkyl/aryl-2-ethoxy-1,2-dihydro-4H-benzo[d][1,3]oxazin-4-ones. The formation of the dihydro analogs correlated with the electron density on the aromatic ring: Electron-donating groups favored the 4H- benzo[d][1,3]oxazin-4-ones, while electron-withdrawing groups tended to favor the dihydro product. Substituting a pyridine ring for the benzene ring in the substrate acid suppressed the reaction.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The derivatives of 2-substituted 4H-3,1-benzoxazin-4-one belong to a significant category of heterocyclic compounds, which have shown a wide spectrum of medical and industrial applications. RESULTS: A new and effective one-pot method for the synthesis of 2-substituted 4H-3,1-benzoxazin-4-one derivatives is described in this paper. By using the iminium cation from a mixture of cyanuric chloride and dimethylformamide as a cyclizing agent, a series of 2-substituted 4H-3,1-benzoxazin-4-one derivatives was synthesized in high yield under mild conditions and simple workup. CONCLUSIONS: The iminium cation from a mixture of cyanuric chloride and N,N-dimethylformamide is an effective cyclizing agent for the room temperature one-pot synthesis of 2-substituted 4H-3,1-benzoxazin-4-one derivatives in high yields through a cyclodehydration reaction. Furthermore, the method was performed under mild conditions characterized by simplified pathways and workup, minimized energy, and fewer reaction steps, compared with the previous methods. The proposed method, which is a simpler alternative than the published methods, is applicable for the synthesis of other 2-substituted 4H-3,1-benzoxazin-4-one derivatives.
Project description:Series of 4H-3,1-benzoxazin-4-ones and 3H-quinazolin-4-ones with phenoxy-methyl substituents were rationally designed and easily synthesized via one-pot N-acylation/ring closure reactions of anthranilic acids with 2-phenoxyacetyl chlorides to yield the 4H-3,1-benzoxazin-4-ones, and subsequently substituted with amino derivatives to obtain the 3H-quinazolin-4-ones. The herbicidal evaluation was performed on the model plants barnyard grass (a monocotyledon) and rape (a dicotyledon), and most of the title compounds displayed high levels of phytotoxicity. The active substructure and inhibitory phenotype analysis indicated that these compounds could be attributed to the class of plant hormone inhibitors. A docking study of several representative compounds with the hormone receptor TIR1 revealed an appreciable conformational match in the active site, implicating these compounds are potential lead hits targeting this receptor.
Project description:An oxidative reaction for the synthesis of 4-alkyl-substituted dihydroisoquinolin-1(2H)-ones with N-allylbenzamide derivatives as starting materials has been developed. The radical alkylarylation reaction proceeds through a sequence of alkylation and intramolecular cyclization. The substituent on the C-C double bond was found to play a key role for the progress of the reaction to give the expected products with good chemical yields. Additionally, N-methacryloylbenzamides were also suitable substrates for the current reaction and provided the alkyl-substituted isoquinoline-1,3(2H,4H)-diones in good yield.
Project description:Hydroxamates (HX) are major secondary metabolites synthesized by rye and are responsible for some of the unique properties of this cereal, including good tolerance of biotic and abiotic stresses and allelopathy. Recently, five genes encoding enzymes taking part in HX biosynthesis have been sequenced and characterized, which was the starting point to undertake the present study. Association analysis of the content of six HX-HBOA (2-hydroxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one), GDIBOA (2,4-dihydroxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one glucoside), DIBOA (2,4-dihydroxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one), GDIMBOA (2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one glucoside), DIMBOA (2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one) and MBOA (6-methoxy-benzoxazolin-2(3H)-one) in the above-ground parts of plants and roots was performed on a population consisting of 102 and 121 diverse inbred lines, in 2013 and 2014, respectively. Altogether, 48 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were found to be associated with the content of at least one HX: 20 SNPs were associated with HX synthesized in the above-ground parts of rye plants (AG-SNP), and 28 were associated with HX synthesized in the roots (R-SNP). The highest number of SNPs was present in genes ScBx1 (9) and ScBx5 (11). The majority of SNPs were affected by environmental factors, except for two: ScBx4_1702 associated with GDIBOA and MBOA contents, and ScBx5_1105 associated with HBOA content in roots.
Project description:The aminomethylation of hydroxylated isoflavones with 2-aminoethanol, 3-amino-1-propanol, 4-amino-1-butanol, and 5-amino-1-pentanol in the presence of excess formaldehyde led principally to 9-(2-hydroalkyl)-9,10-dihydro-4H,8H-chromeno[8,7-e][1,3]-oxazin-4-ones 4 and/or the tautomeric 7-hydroxy-8-(1,3-oxazepan-3-ylmethyl)-4H-chromen-4-ones 5. The ratio of these tautomers was dependent on solvent polarity, electronic effects of aryl substituents in the isoflavone and the structure of the amino alcohol. NMR studies confirmed the interconversion of tautomeric forms.
Project description:The intramolecular alpha-arylation of aldehydes via organo-SOMO catalysis was investigated using density functional theory (B3LYP and M06-2X functionals). The geometries, spin densities, Mulliken charges, and molecular orbitals of the reacting enamine radical cations were analyzed, and the nature of the resulting cyclized radical cation intermediates was characterized. In agreement with experimental observations, the calculated 1,3-disubstituted aromatic system shows ortho selectivity, while the 1,3,4-trisubstituted systems show para, meta (instead of ortho, meta) selectivity. The selectivity change for the trisubstituted rings is attributed to a distortion of the ortho substituents in the ortho, meta cyclization transition structures that causes a destabilization of these isomers and therefore results in selectivity for the para, meta product.
Project description:The reaction of mercury(II) chloride dihydrate, propane-1,3-diamine and 4-hydroxy-pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid in a 1:1:1 molar ratio in aqueous solution, resulted in the formation of the title compound, (C(3)H(12)N(2))[Hg(C(7)H(3)NO(5))Cl(H(2)O)](2)·4H(2)O or (pnH(2))[Hg(hypydc)Cl(H(2)O)](2)·4H(2)O (where pn is propane-1,3-diamine and hypydcH(2) is 4-hydroxy-pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid). The metal atom is coordinated by one chloride group, one water mol-ecule cis to the chloride ligand and one (hypydc)(2-) ligand. The coordinated water mol-ecule is almost perpendicular to the plane of the aromatic ring of (hypydc)(2-). The geometry of the resulting HgClNO(3) coordination can be described as distorted square-pyramidal. This structure also contains propane-1,3-diammonium (site symmetry 2)?as a counter-ion and four uncoordinated water mol-ecules. There is a wide range of non-covalent inter-actions consisting of hydrogen bonding [of the types O-H?O, N-H?O and C-H?O, with D?A ranging from 2.548?(5) to 3.393?(6)?Å] and ion pairing.
Project description:The organocatalyzed enantioselective synthesis of biologically active 2-amino-5-oxo-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-4H-chromene-3-carboxylate derivatives was achieved using bifunctional cinchona alkaloids as the catalysts. Using quinine thiourea as the catalyst, the tandem Michael addition-cyclization reaction between 1,3-cyclohexanediones and alkylidenecyanoacetate derivatives gives the desired products in high yields (up to 92%) and good ee values (up to 82%).