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Elastin-PLGA hybrid electrospun nanofiber scaffolds for salivary epithelial cell self-organization and polarization.

ABSTRACT: Development of electrospun nanofibers that mimic the structural, mechanical and biochemical properties of natural extracellular matrices (ECMs) is a promising approach for tissue regeneration. Electrospun fibers of synthetic polymers partially mimic the topography of the ECM, however, their high stiffness, poor hydrophilicity and lack of in vivo-like biochemical cues is not optimal for epithelial cell self-organization and function. In search of a biomimetic scaffold for salivary gland tissue regeneration, we investigated the potential of elastin, an ECM protein, to generate elastin hybrid nanofibers that have favorable physical and biochemical properties for regeneration of the salivary glands. Elastin was introduced to our previously developed poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanofiber scaffolds by two methods, blend electrospinning (EP-blend) and covalent conjugation (EP-covalent). Both methods for elastin incorporation into the nanofibers improved the wettability of the scaffolds while only blend electrospinning of elastin-PLGA nanofibers and not surface conjugation of elastin to PLGA fibers, conferred increased elasticity to the nanofibers measured by Young's modulus. After two days, only the blend electrospun nanofiber scaffolds facilitated epithelial cell self-organization into cell clusters, assessed with nuclear area and nearest neighbor distance measurements, leading to the apicobasal polarization of salivary gland epithelial cells after six days, which is vital for cell function. This study suggests that elastin electrospun nanofiber scaffolds have potential application in regenerative therapies for salivary glands and other epithelial organs. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE:Regenerating the salivary glands by mimicking the extracellular matrix (ECM) is a promising approach for long term treatment of salivary gland damage. Despite their topographic similarity to the ECM, electrospun fibers of synthetic polymers lack the biochemical complexity, elasticity and hydrophilicity of the ECM. Elastin is an ECM protein abundant in the salivary glands and responsible for tissue elasticity. Although it's widely used for tissue regeneration of other organs, little is known about its utility in regenerating the salivary tissue. This study describes the use of elastin to improve the elasticity, hydrophilicity and biochemical complexity of synthetic nanofibers and its potential in directing in vivo-like organization of epithelial salivary cells which helps the design of efficient salivary gland regeneration scaffolds.


PROVIDER: S-EPMC5646366 | BioStudies | 2017-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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