Comprehensive profiling of lysine ubiquitome reveals diverse functions of lysine ubiquitination in common wheat.
ABSTRACT: Protein ubiquitination, which is a major post-translational modifications that occurs in eukaryotic cells, is involved in diverse biological processes. To date, large-scale profiling of the ubiquitome in common wheat has not been reported, despite its status as the major cereal crop in the world. Here, we performed the first ubiquitome analysis of the common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) variety, Aikang 58. Overall, 433 lysine modification sites were identified in 285 proteins in wheat seedlings, and four putative ubiquitination motifs were revealed. In particular, 83 of the 285 ubiquitinated proteins had ubiquitination orthologs in Oryza sativa L., and Arabidopsis thaliana. Ubiquitylated lysines were found to have a significantly different preference for secondary structures when compared with the all lysines. In accordance with previous studies, proteins related to binding and catalytic activity were predicted to be the preferential targets of lysine ubiquitination. Besides, protein interaction network analysis reveals that diverse interactions are modulated by protein ubiquitination. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that the ubiquitinated proteins were involved in diverse biological processes. Our data provides a global view of the ubiquitome in common wheat for the first time and lays a foundation for exploring the physiological role of lysine ubiquitination in wheat and other plants.
Project description:Protein ubiquitination, which is a major post-translational modifications that occurs in eukaryotic cells, is involved in diverse biological processes. To date, large-scale profiling of the ubiquitome in common wheat has not been reported, despite its status as the major cereal crop in the world. Here, we performed the first ubiquitome analysis of the common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) variety, Aikang 58. Overall, 433 lysine modification sites were identified in 285 proteins in wheat seedlings, and four putative ubiquitination motifs were revealed. Moreover, ubiquitylated lysines were found to have a significantly different preference for secondary structures when compared with the all lysines. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that the ubiquitinated proteins were involved in a wide variety of biological processes and diverse subcellular localizations. In accordance with previous studies, proteins related to binding and catalytic activity were predicted to be the preferential targets of lysine ubiquitination. Besides, protein interaction network analysis reveals that diverse interactions are modulated by protein ubiquitination. The results presented herein provide a global view of the ubiquitome in common wheat for the first time and lays a foundation for exploring the physiological role of lysine ubiquitination in wheat and other plants.
Project description:Protein ubiquitination, a major and conserved post-translational modification, is known to play a critical regulatory role in many biological processes in eukaryotes. Although several ubiquitinated proteins have been found in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) testis in our previous studies, large-scale profiling of buffalo testis ubiquitome has not been reported to date. In the present study, we first identified a global profiling of lysine ubiquitination of adult buffalo testis using a highly sensitive LC-MS/MS coupled with immune-affinity enrichment of ubiquitinated peptides. In total, 422 lysine ubiquitination sites were identified in 262 proteins in adult buffalo testis tissue. Bioinformatics analysis showed that the ubiquitinated proteins are involved in a variety of biological processes and diverse subcellular localizations. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway and protein interaction network analysis indicated that proteasome, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis and gap junction pathways are modulated by protein ubiquitination in testis. Besides, 44 ubiquitinated proteins may involve in spermatogenesis according to the SpermatogenesisOnline database, of which, the ubiquitination of HSPA2 and UCHL1 were confirmed by Immunoprecipitation (IP)/Western blot analysis. Taken together, these data provide a global view of ubiquitome in buffalo testis for the first time, and serve as an important resource for exploring the physiological role especially spermatogenesis of lysine ubiquitination in testis in mammals.
Project description:Protein ubiquitination is a post-translational modification (PTM) that regulates various aspects of protein function by different mechanisms. Characterization of ubiquitination has lagged behind that of smaller PTMs, such as phosphorylation, largely because of the difficulty of isolating and identifying peptides derived from the ubiquitinated portion of proteins. To address this issue, we generated a monoclonal antibody that enriches for peptides containing lysine residues modified by diglycine, an adduct left at sites of ubiquitination after trypsin digestion. We use mass spectrometry to identify 374 diglycine-modified lysines on 236 ubiquitinated proteins from HEK293 cells, including 80 proteins containing multiple sites of ubiquitination. Seventy-two percent of these proteins and 92% of the ubiquitination sites do not appear to have been reported previously. Ubiquitin remnant profiling of the multi-ubiquitinated proteins proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and tubulin alpha-1A reveals differential regulation of ubiquitination at specific sites by microtubule inhibitors, demonstrating the effectiveness of our method to characterize the dynamics of lysine ubiquitination.
Project description:The attachment of ubiquitin (Ub) to lysines on substrates or itself by ubiquitin-conjugating (E2) and ubiquitin ligase (E3) enzymes results in protein ubiquitination. Lysine selection is important for generating diverse substrate-Ub structures and targeting proteins to different fates; however, the mechanisms of lysine selection are not clearly understood. The positioning of lysine(s) toward the E2/E3 active site and residues proximal to lysines are critical in their selection. We investigated determinants of lysine specificity of the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme Cdc34, toward substrate and Ub lysines. Evaluation of the relative importance of different residues positioned -2, -1, +1 and +2 toward ubiquitination of its substrate, Sic1, on lysine 50 showed that charged residues in the -1 and -2 positions negatively impact on ubiquitination. Modeling suggests that charged residues at these positions alter the native salt-bridge interactions in Ub and Cdc34, resulting in misplacement of Sic1 lysine 50 in the Cdc34 catalytic cleft. During polyubiquitination, Cdc34 showed a strong preference for Ub lysine 48 (K48), with lower activity towards lysine 11 (K11) and lysine 63 (K63). Mutating the -2, -1, +1 and +2 sites surrounding K11 and K63 to mimic those surrounding K48 did not improve their ubiquitination, indicating that further determinants are important for Ub K48 specificity. Modeling the ternary structure of acceptor Ub with the Cdc34~Ub complex as well as in vitro ubiquitination assays unveiled the importance of K6 and Q62 of acceptor Ub for Ub K48 polyubiquitination. These findings provide molecular and structural insight into substrate lysine and Ub K48 specificity by Cdc34.
Project description:Ubiquitination is an important post-translational process involving attachment of the ubiquitin molecule to lysine residue/s on a substrate protein or on another ubiquitin molecule, leading to the formation of protein mono-, multi- or polyubiquitination. Protein ubiquitination requires a cascade of three enzymes, where the interplay between different ubiquitin-conjugating and ubiquitin-ligase enzymes generates diverse ubiquitinated proteins topologies. Structurally diverse ubiquitin conjugates are recognized by specific proteins with ubiquitin-binding domains (UBDs) to target the substrate proteins of different pathways. The mechanism/s for generating the different ubiquitinated proteins topologies is not well understood. Here, we will discuss our current understanding of the mechanisms underpinning the generation of mono- or polyubiquitinated substrates. In addition, we will discuss how linkage-specific polyubiquitin chains through lysines-11, -48 or -63 are formed to target proteins to different fates by binding specific UBD proteins.
Project description:Ubiquitination is a critical post-translational modification machinery that governs a wide range of cellular functions by regulating protein homeostasis. Identification of ubiquitinated proteins and lysine residues can help researchers better understand the physiological roles of ubiquitin modification in different biological systems. In this study, we report the first comprehensive analysis of the peach ubiquitome by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based diglycine remnant affinity proteomics. Our systematic profiling revealed a total of 544 ubiquitination sites on a total of 352 protein substrates. Protein annotation and functional analysis suggested that ubiquitination is involved in modulating a variety of essential cellular and physiological processes in peach, including but not limited to carbon metabolism, histone assembly, translation and vesicular trafficking. Our results could facilitate future studies on how ubiquitination regulates the agricultural traits of different peach cultivars and other crop species.
Project description:Ubiquitination regulates many cellular functions, including protein localization and degradation. Each function is specified by unique determinants in the conjugate. Ubiquitinated Jun is localized to lysosomes for degradation. Here, we characterized determinants of Jun ubiquitination and lysosomal localization by using ubiquitin-mediated fluorescence complementation (UbFC) in living cells and analysis of the stoichiometry of ubiquitin linked to Jun extracted from cells. The delta region of Jun and isoleucine-44 in ubiquitin were required for lysosomal localization of the conjugate. Ubiquitin containing only lysine-27, but no other single-lysine ubiquitin, mediated Jun ubiquitination, albeit at lower stoichiometry than wild-type ubiquitin. These conjugates were predominantly nuclear, but coexpression of lysine-27 and lysine-less ubiquitins enhanced the mean stoichiometry of Jun ubiquitination and lysosomal localization of the conjugate. Hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate (HRS) and tumor susceptibility gene 101 (TSG101) colocalized with ubiquitinated Jun. Knockdown of HRS or TSG101 inhibited lysosomal localization of ubiquitinated Jun and reduced Jun turnover. Ubiquitination of other Fos and Jun family proteins had distinct effects on their localization. Our results indicate that Jun is polyubiquitinated by E3 ligases that produce lysine-27-linked chains. Lysosomal localization of the conjugate requires determinants in Jun and in ubiquitin that are recognized in part by TSG101 and HRS, facilitating selective translocation and degradation of ubiquitinated Jun.
Project description:Protein ubiquitination is catalyzed by ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (E2s) in collaboration with ubiquitin-protein ligases (E3s). This process depends on nucleophilic attack by a substrate lysine on a thioester bond linking the C terminus of ubiquitin to a cysteine in the E2 active site. Different E2 family members display specificity for lysines in distinct contexts. We addressed the mechanistic basis for this lysine selectivity in Ubc1, an E2 that catalyzes the ubiquitination of lysine 48 (K48) in ubiquitin, leading to the formation of K48-linked polyubiquitin chains. We identified a cluster of polar residues near the Ubc1 active site, as well as a residue in ubiquitin itself, that are required for catalysis of K48-specific ubiquitin ligation, but not for general activity toward other lysines. Our results suggest that the active site of Ubc1, as well as the surface of ubiquitin, contains specificity determinants that channel specific lysines to the central residues involved directly in catalysis.
Project description:Reversible protein ubiquitination plays essential roles in regulating cellular processes. Although many reports have described the functions of ubiquitination in plant defense responses, few have focused on global changes in the ubiquitome. To better understand the regulatory roles of ubiquitination in rice pattern-triggered immunity (PTI), we investigated the ubiquitome of rice seedlings after treatment with two pathogen-associated molecular patterns, the fungal-derived chitin or the bacterial-derived flg22, using label-free quantitative proteomics. In chitin-treated samples, 144 and 167 lysine-ubiquitination sites in 121 and 162 proteins showed increased and decreased ubiquitination, respectively. In flg22-treated samples, 151 and 179 lysine-ubiquitination sites in 118 and 166 proteins showed increased and decreased ubiquitination, respectively. Bioinformatic analyses indicated diverse regulatory roles of these proteins. The ubiquitination levels of many proteins involved in the ubiquitination system, protein transportation, ligand recognition, membrane trafficking, and redox reactions were significantly changed in response to the elicitor treatments. Notably, the ubiquitination levels of many enzymes in the phenylpropanoid metabolic pathway were up-regulated, indicating that this pathway is tightly regulated by ubiquitination during rice PTI. Additionally, the ubiquitination levels of some key components in plant hormone signaling pathways were up- or down-regulated, suggesting that ubiquitination may fine-tune hormone pathways for defense responses. Our results demonstrated that ubiquitination, by targeting a wide range of proteins for degradation or stabilization, has a widespread role in modulating PTI in rice. The large pool of ubiquitination targets will serve as a valuable resource for understanding how the ubiquitination system regulates defense responses to pathogen attack.
Project description:Posttranslational modification of proteins often controls various aspects of their cellular function. Indeed, over the past decade or so, it has been discovered that posttranslational modification of lysine residues plays a major role in regulating translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) and perhaps the most appreciated lysine modification is that of ubiquitination. Much of the recent interest in ubiquitination stems from the fact that proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was previously shown to be specifically ubiquitinated at K164 and that such ubiquitination plays a key role in regulating TLS. In addition, TLS polymerases themselves are now known to be ubiquitinated. In the case of human polymerase ?, ubiquitination at four lysine residues in its C-terminus appears to regulate its ability to interact with PCNA and modulate TLS. Within the past few years, advances in global proteomic research have revealed that many proteins involved in TLS are, in fact, subject to a previously underappreciated number of lysine modifications. In this review, we will summarize the known lysine modifications of several key proteins involved in TLS; PCNA and Y-family polymerases ?, ?, ? and Rev1 and we will discuss the potential regulatory effects of such modification in controlling TLS in vivo.