Evolutionary drivers of thermoadaptation in enzyme catalysis.
ABSTRACT: With early life likely to have existed in a hot environment, enzymes had to cope with an inherent drop in catalytic speed caused by lowered temperature. Here we characterize the molecular mechanisms underlying thermoadaptation of enzyme catalysis in adenylate kinase using ancestral sequence reconstruction spanning 3 billion years of evolution. We show that evolution solved the enzyme's key kinetic obstacle-how to maintain catalytic speed on a cooler Earth-by exploiting transition-state heat capacity. Tracing the evolution of enzyme activity and stability from the hot-start toward modern hyperthermophilic, mesophilic, and psychrophilic organisms illustrates active pressure versus passive drift in evolution on a molecular level, refutes the debated activity/stability trade-off, and suggests that the catalytic speed of adenylate kinase is an evolutionary driver for organismal fitness.
Project description:Engineering proteins for higher thermal stability is an important and difficult challenge. We describe a bioinformatic method incorporating sequence alignments to redesign proteins to be more stable through optimization of local structural entropy. Using this method, improved configurational entropy (ICE), we were able to design more stable variants of a mesophilic adenylate kinase with only the sequence information of one psychrophilic homologue. The redesigned proteins display considerable increases in their thermal stabilities while still retaining catalytic activity. ICE does not require a three-dimensional structure or a large number of homologous sequences, indicating a broad applicability of this method. Our results also highlight the importance of entropy in the stability of protein structures.
Project description:Protein thermal stability is an important field since thermally stable proteins are desirable in many academic and industrial settings. Information on protein thermal stabilization can be obtained by comparing homologous proteins from organisms living at distinct temperatures. Here, we report structural and mutational analyses of adenylate kinases (AKs) from psychrophilic Bacillus globisporus (AKp) and mesophilic Bacillus subtilis (AKm). Sequence and structural comparison showed suboptimal hydrophobic packing around Thr26 in the CORE domain of AKp, which was replaced with an Ile residue in AKm. Mutations that improved hydrophobicity of the Thr residue increased the thermal stability of the psychrophilic AKp, and the largest stabilization was observed for a Thr-to-Ile substitution. Furthermore, a reverse Ile-to-Thr mutation in the mesophilic AKm significantly decreased thermal stability. We determined the crystal structures of mutant AKs to confirm the impact of the residue substitutions on the overall stability. Taken together, our results provide a structural basis for the stability difference between psychrophilic and mesophilic AK homologues and highlight the role of hydrophobic interactions in protein thermal stability.
Project description:The aromatic amino acids, Tyr or Trp, which line the active-site walls of esterases, stabilize the catalytic His loop via hydrogen bonding. A Tyr residue is preferred in extremophilic esterases (psychrophilic or hyperthermophilic esterases), whereas a Trp residue is preferred in moderate-temperature esterases. Here, we provide evidence that Tyr and Trp play distinct roles in cold adaptation of the psychrophilic esterase EstSP1 isolated from an Arctic bacterium Sphingomonas glacialis PAMC 26605. Stern-Volmer plots showed that the mutation of Tyr191 to Ala, Phe, Trp, and His resulted in reduced conformational flexibility of the overall protein structure. Interestingly, the Y191W and Y191H mutants showed increased thermal stability at moderate temperatures. All Tyr191 mutants showed reduced catalytic activity relative to wild-type EstSP1. Our results indicate that Tyr with its phenyl hydroxyl group is favored for increased conformational flexibility and high catalytic activity of EstSP1 at low temperatures at the expense of thermal stability. The results of this study suggest that, in the permanently cold Arctic zone, enzyme activity has been selected for psychrophilic enzymes over thermal stability. The results presented herein provide novel insight into the roles of Tyr and Trp residues for temperature adaptation of enzymes that function at low, moderate, and high temperatures.
Project description:Proteins evolve at different rates. What drives the speed of protein sequence changes? Two main factors are a protein's folding stability and aggregation propensity. By combining the hydrophobic-polar (HP) model with the Zwanzig-Szabo-Bagchi rate theory, we find that: (i) Adaptation is strongly accelerated by selection pressure, explaining the broad variation from days to thousands of years over which organisms adapt to new environments. (ii) The proteins that adapt fastest are those that are not very stably folded, because their fitness landscapes are steepest. And because heating destabilizes folded proteins, we predict that cells should adapt faster when put into warmer rather than cooler environments. (iii) Increasing protein abundance slows down evolution (the substitution rate of the sequence) because a typical protein is not perfectly fit, so increasing its number of copies reduces the cell's fitness. (iv) However, chaperones can mitigate this abundance effect and accelerate evolution (also called evolutionary capacitance) by effectively enhancing protein stability. This model explains key observations about protein evolution rates.
Project description:Adenylate kinases (AKs; EC 126.96.36.199) are essential members of the NMP kinase family that maintain cellular homeostasis by the interconversion of AMP, ADP and ATP. AKs play a critical role in adenylate homeostasis across all domains of life and have been used extensively as prototypes for the study of protein adaptation and the relationship of protein dynamics and stability to function. To date, kinetic studies of psychrophilic AKs have not been performed. In order to broaden understanding of extremophilic adaptation, the kinetic parameters of adenylate kinase from the psychrophile Marinibacillus marinus were examined and the crystal structure of this cold-adapted enzyme was determined at 2.0 A resolution. As expected, the overall structure and topology of the psychrophilic M. marinus AK are similar to those of mesophilic and thermophilic AKs. The thermal denaturation midpoint of M. marinus AK (321.1 K) is much closer to that of the mesophile Bacillus subtilis (320.7 K) than the more closely related psychrophile B. globisporus (316.4 K). In addition, the enzymatic properties of M. marinus AK are quite close to those of the mesophilic AK and suggests that M. marinus experiences temperature ranges in which excellent enzyme function over a broad temperature range (293-313 K) has been retained for the success of the organism. Even transient loss of AK function is lethal and as a consequence AK must be robust and be well adapted to the environment of the host organism.
Project description:Psychrophiles are extremophilic organisms capable of thriving in cold environments. Proteins from these cold-adapted organisms can remain physiologically functional at low temperatures, but are structurally unstable even at moderate temperatures. Here, we report the crystal structure of adenylate kinase (AK) from the Antarctic fish Notothenia coriiceps, and identify the structural basis of cold adaptation by comparison with homologues from tropical fishes including Danio rerio. The structure of N. coriiceps AK (AKNc) revealed suboptimal hydrophobic packing around three Val residues in its central CORE domain, which are replaced with Ile residues in D. rerio AK (AKDr). The Val-to-Ile mutations that improve hydrophobic CORE packing in AKNc increased stability at high temperatures but decreased activity at low temperatures, suggesting that the suboptimal hydrophobic CORE packing is important for cold adaptation. Such linkage between stability and activity was also observed in AKDr. Ile-to-Val mutations that destabilized the tropical AK resulted in increased activity at low temperatures. Our results provide the structural basis of cold adaptation of a psychrophilic enzyme from a multicellular, eukaryotic organism, and highlight the similarities and differences in the structural adjustment of vertebrate and bacterial psychrophilic AKs during cold adaptation.
Project description:The psychrophilic enzyme is an interesting subject to study due to its special ability to adapt to extreme temperatures, unlike typical enzymes. Utilizing computer-aided software, the predicted structure and function of the enzyme lipase AMS8 (LipAMS8) (isolated from the psychrophilic Pseudomonas sp., obtained from the Antarctic soil) are studied. The enzyme shows significant sequence similarities with lipases from Pseudomonas sp. MIS38 and Serratia marcescens. These similarities aid in the prediction of the 3D molecular structure of the enzyme. In this study, 12 ns MD simulation is performed at different temperatures for structural flexibility and stability analysis. The results show that the enzyme is most stable at 0°C and 5°C. In terms of stability and flexibility, the catalytic domain (N-terminus) maintained its stability more than the noncatalytic domain (C-terminus), but the non-catalytic domain showed higher flexibility than the catalytic domain. The analysis of the structure and function of LipAMS8 provides new insights into the structural adaptation of this protein at low temperatures. The information obtained could be a useful tool for low temperature industrial applications and molecular engineering purposes, in the near future.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Alvinella pompejana is an annelid worm that inhabits deep-sea hydrothermal vent sites in the Pacific Ocean. Living at a depth of approximately 2500 meters, these worms experience extreme environmental conditions, including high temperature and pressure as well as high levels of sulfide and heavy metals. A. pompejana is one of the most thermotolerant metazoans, making this animal a subject of great interest for studies of eukaryotic thermoadaptation. RESULTS:In order to complement existing EST resources we performed deep sequencing of the A. pompejana transcriptome. We identified several thousand novel protein-coding transcripts, nearly doubling the sequence data for this annelid. We then performed an extensive survey of previously established prokaryotic thermoadaptation measures to search for global signals of thermoadaptation in A. pompejana in comparison with mesophilic eukaryotes. In an orthologous set of 457 proteins, we found that the best indicator of thermoadaptation was the difference in frequency of charged versus polar residues (CvP-bias), which was highest in A. pompejana. CvP-bias robustly distinguished prokaryotic thermophiles from prokaryotic mesophiles, as well as the thermophilic fungus Chaetomium thermophilum from mesophilic eukaryotes. Experimental values for thermophilic proteins supported higher CvP-bias as a measure of thermal stability when compared to their mesophilic orthologs. Proteome-wide mean CvP-bias also correlated with the body temperatures of homeothermic birds and mammals. CONCLUSIONS:Our work extends the transcriptome resources for A. pompejana and identifies the CvP-bias as a robust and widely applicable measure of eukaryotic thermoadaptation.
Project description:Acyl aminoacyl peptidases are two-domain proteins composed by a C-terminal catalytic ?/?-hydrolase domain and by an N-terminal ?-propeller domain connected through a structural element that is at the N-terminus in sequence but participates in the 3D structure of the C-domain. We investigated about the structural and functional interplay between the two domains and the bridge structure (in this case a single helix named ?1-helix) in the cold-adapted enzyme from Sporosarcina psychrophila (SpAAP) using both protein variants in which entire domains were deleted and proteins carrying substitutions in the ?1-helix. We found that in this enzyme the inter-domain connection dramatically affects the stability of both the whole enzyme and the ?-propeller. The ?1-helix is required for the stability of the intact protein, as in other enzymes of the same family; however in this psychrophilic enzyme only, it destabilizes the isolated ?-propeller. A single charged residue (E10) in the ?1-helix plays a major role for the stability of the whole structure. Overall, a strict interaction of the SpAAP domains seems to be mandatory for the preservation of their reciprocal structural integrity and may witness their co-evolution.
Project description:Adapting metabolic enzymes of microorganisms to low temperature environments may require a difficult compromise between velocity and affinity. We have investigated catalytic efficiency in a key metabolic enzyme (dihydrofolate reductase) of Moritella profunda sp. nov., a strictly psychrophilic bacterium with a maximal growth rate at 2 degrees C or less. The enzyme is monomeric (Mr=18,291), 55% identical to its Escherichia coli counterpart, and displays Tm and denaturation enthalpy changes much lower than E. coli and Thermotoga maritima homologues. Its stability curve indicates a maximum stability above the temperature range of the organism, and predicts cold denaturation below 0 degrees C. At mesophilic temperatures the apparent Km value for dihydrofolate is 50- to 80-fold higher than for E. coli, Lactobacillus casei, and T. maritima dihydrofolate reductases, whereas the apparent Km value for NADPH, though higher, remains in the same order of magnitude. At 5 degrees C these values are not significantly modified. The enzyme is also much less sensitive than its E. coli counterpart to the inhibitors methotrexate and trimethoprim. The catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) with respect to dihydrofolate is thus much lower than in the other three bacteria. The higher affinity for NADPH could have been maintained by selection since NADPH assists the release of the product tetrahydrofolate. Dihydrofolate reductase adaptation to low temperature thus appears to have entailed a pronounced trade-off between affinity and catalytic velocity. The kinetic features of this psychrophilic protein suggest that enzyme adaptation to low temperature may be constrained by natural limits to optimization of catalytic efficiency.