Prevalence of the Janus kinase 2 V617F mutation in Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms in a Portuguese population.
ABSTRACT: Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) result from the malignant transformation of a hematopoietic stem-cell (HSC), leading to abnormal amplification and proliferation of myeloid lineages. Identification of the Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) V617F mutation developed the knowledge of Philadelphia-negative (PN)-MPNs, contributing to and influencing the definition of the phenotype and prognostic impact. Considering the lack of Portuguese epidemiological data, the present study intends to characterize the prevalence of the JAK2 mutation in a PN-MPN versus a control Portuguese population. Caucasian Portuguese PN-MPN patients (n=133) and 281 matched control subjects were investigated. No significant differences were identified between the case and control groups concerning age distribution or smoking habits. Pathology distribution was as follows: 60.2% with essential thrombocythemia (ET), 29.3% with polycythemia vera (PV) and 10.5% with primary myelofibrosis (PMF). A total of 75.0% of patients were positive for the presence of the JAK2 V617F mutation. In addition, the prevalence of PV was 87.2%, ET was 73.4% and PMF was 50.0%. The JAK2 V617F mutation is observed in various MPN phenotypes, and has an increased incidence in ET patients and a decreased incidence in PV patients. These data may contribute to improving the knowledge of the pathophysiology of these disorders, and to a more rational and efficient selection of therapeutic strategies to be adopted, notably because most of the patients are JAK2 V617F negative.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia (ET), and primary myelofibrosis (PMF) are myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) characterized in most cases by a unique somatic mutation, JAK2 V617F. Recent studies revealed that JAK2 V617F occurs more frequently in a specific JAK2 haplotype, named JAK2 46/1 or GGCC haplotype, which is tagged by rs10974944 (C/G) and/or rs12343867 (T/C). This study examined the impact of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the JAK2 locus on MPNs in a Japanese population. METHODS: We sequenced 24 JAK2 SNPs in Japanese patients with PV. We then genotyped 138 MPN patients (33 PV, 96 ET, and 9 PMF) with known JAK2 mutational status and 107 controls for a novel SNP, in addition to two SNPs known to be part of the 46/1 haplotype (rs10974944 and rs12343867). Associations with risk of MPN were estimated by odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals using logistic regression. RESULTS: A novel locus, rs4495487 (T/C), with a mutated T allele was significantly associated with PV. Similar to rs10974944 and rs12343867, rs4495487 in the JAK2 locus is significantly associated with JAK2-positive MPN. Based on the results of SNP analysis of the three JAK2 locus, we defined the "GCC genotype" as having at least one minor allele in each SNP (G allele in rs10974944, C allele in rs4495487, and C allele in rs12343867). The GCC genotype was associated with increased risk of both JAK2 V617F-positive and JAK2 V617F-negative MPN. In ET patients, leukocyte count and hemoglobin were significantly associated with JAK2 V617F, rather than the GCC genotype. In contrast, none of the JAK2 V617F-negative ET patients without the GCC genotype had thrombosis, and splenomegaly was frequently seen in this subset of ET patients. PV patients without the GCC genotype were significantly associated with high platelet count. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that the C allele of JAK2 rs4495487, in addition to the 46/1 haplotype, contributes significantly to the occurrence of JAK2 V617F-positive and JAK2 V617F-negative MPNs in the Japanese population. Because lack of the GCC genotype represents a distinct clinical-hematological subset of MPN, analyzing JAK2 SNPs and quantifying JAK2 V617F mutations will provide further insights into the molecular pathogenesis of MPN.
Project description:Mutations in JAK2, MPL and CALR are highly relevant to the Philadelphia chromosome (Ph)-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). We performed high resolution melting analysis and Sanger sequencing together with T-A cloning to elucidate the unique mutation profile of these genes, in Chinese patients with MPNs. Peripheral blood DNA samples were obtained from 80 patients with polycythemia vera (PV), 80 patients with essential thrombocytosis (ET) and 50 patients with primary myelofibrosis (PMF). Ten PV patients were identified with diverse JAK2 exon 12 mutations. Five novel JAK2 Exon 12 mutation patterns (M532V/E543G, N533D, M535I/H538Y/K549I, E543G and D544N) were described. JAK2 V617F was detected in 140 samples (66 PV, 45 ET and 29 PMF). JAK2 Exon 12 mutations were prevalent (13%) and variable in the Chinese patients. Compared with PV patients with JAK2 V617F mutations, PV patients with JAK2 exon 12 mutations had an earlier median onset of disease (P?=?0.0013). MPL W515L/K mutations were discerned in 4 ET and 3 PMF patients. Two kinds of CALR mutation, c. 1179_1230del and c. 1234_1235insTTGTC were detected in 20 ET and 16 PMF patients. A novel CALR mutation pattern (c. 1173_1223del/c. 1179_1230del) was identified in 2 PMF samples. In addition, 17 scattered point mutations in CALR c.1153 to c.1255 were also detected in 13 cases with CALR frame-shifting variations and 2 cases without CALR frame-shifting variations. Female patients showed a predisposition to CALR mutations (P?=?0.0035). Chinese Ph-negative MPN patients have a unique mutation landscape in the common molecular markers of MPN diagnosis. Validation of the molecular diagnostic pipeline should be emphasized since there is a considerable ethnical diversity in the molecular profiles of Ph-negative MPNs.
Project description:LNK is an adapter protein negatively regulating the JAK/STAT cell signaling pathway. In this study, we observed the correlation between variation in LNK gene and the clinical type of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN).A total of 285 MPN cases were recruited, including essential thrombocythemia (ET) 154 cases, polycythemia vera (PV) 76 cases, primary myelofibrosis (PMF) 19 cases, and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) 36 cases. Ninety-three healthy individuals were used as normal controls. V617F mutation in JAK2 was identified by allele-specific PCR method, RT-PCR was used for the detection of BCR/ABL1 fusion gene, and mutations and variations in coding exons and their flanking sequences of LNK gene were examined by PCR-sequencing.Missense mutations of A300V, V402M, and R415H in LNK were found in 8 patients including ET (4 cases, all combined with JAK2-V617F mutation), PV (2 cases, one combined with JAK2-V617F mutation), PMF (one case, combined with JAK2-V617F mutation) and CML (one case, combined with BCR/ABL1 fusion gene). The genotype and allele frequencies of the three SNPs (rs3184504, rs111340708 and rs78894077) in LNK were significantly different between MPN patients and controls. For rs3184504 (T/C, in exon2), the T allele (p.262W) and TT genotype were frequently seen in ET, PV and PMF (P<0.01), and C allele (p.262R) and CC genotype were frequently seen in CML (P<0.01). For rs78894077 (T/C, in exon1), the T allele (p.242S) was frequently found in ET (P<0.05). For rs111340708 (TGGGGx5/TGGGGx4, in intron 5), the TGGGG x4 allele was infrequently found in ET, PMF and CML(P<0.01).Mutations in LNK could be found in some of MPN patients in the presence or absence of JAK2-V617F mutation. Several polymorphisms in LNK gene may affect the clinical type or the genetic predisposition of MPN.
Project description:Background:The evolution of molecular studies in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) has enlightened us the understanding of this complex disease consisting of polycythaemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia (ET) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF). The epidemiology is well described in the western world but not in Asian countries like Malaysia. Materials and methods:This retrospective national registry of MPN was conducted from year 2009 to 2015 in Malaysia. Results:A total of 1010 patients were registered over a period of 5 years. The mean age was 54 years with male predominance. The ethnic distribution revealed that Chinese had a relatively high weighted incidence proportion (43.2%), followed by Indian (23.8%), Malay (15.8%) and other ethnic groups (17.2%). The types of MPN reported were 40.4% of ET (n?=?408), 38.1% of PV (n?=?385), 9.2% of PMF (n?=?93), 3.1% of hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) (n?=?31) and 7.9% of unclassifiable MPN (MPN-U) (n?=?80). Splenomegaly was only palpable clinically in 32.2% of patients. The positive JAK2 V617F mutation was present in 644 patients with 46.6% in PV, 36.0% in ET, 9.0% in PMF, and 7.4% in MPN-U, and had significantly lower haemoglobin (p?<?0.001), haematocrit (p?<?0.001) and white blood cells (WBC) (p?<?0.001) than those with negative mutation. Significant differences in platelet and WBC count were detected in ethnic groups and MPN sub-types. There were more arterial thrombosis events seen in those with JAK2 V617F mutation as compared to venous thrombosis events (23.1% vs 4.4%). The bleeding rate was only 6.6%. Among the risk factors, previous thrombosis, old age (??60 years) and hypertension were significantly correlated to positive JAK2 V617F mutation. The arterial thrombosis event is associated with higher presenting HB, HCT and PLT while the bleeding event is associated with lower presenting HB, HCT but higher PLT. The presence of JAK2 V617F mutation is associated with higher risk of arterial thrombosis. Conclusion:Chinese ethnicity is associated with higher rates of MPN. The history of thrombosis, age ??60 years and hypertension are risk factors that can be correlated to JAK2 V617F mutation. This study is instrumental for policy makers to ensure preventive strategies can be implemented in future.
Project description:The gene and protein expression profiles in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) may reveal gene and protein markers of a potential clinical relevance in diagnosis, treatment and prediction of response to therapy. Using cDNA microarray analysis of 25,100 unique genes, we studied the gene expression profile of CD34+ cells and granulocytes obtained from peripheral blood of subjects with essential thrombocythemia (ET), polycythemia vera (PV) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF). The microarray analyses of the CD34+ cells and granulocytes were performed from 20 de novo MPN subjects: JAK2 positive ET, PV, PMF subjects, and JAK2 negative ET/PMF subjects. The granulocytes for proteomic studies were pooled in 4 groups: PV with JAK2 mutant allele burden above 80%, ET with JAK2 mutation, PMF with JAK2 mutation and ET/PMF with no JAK2 mutation. The number of differentially regulated genes was about two fold larger in CD34+ cells compared to granulocytes. Thirty-six genes (including RUNX1, TNFRSF19) were persistently highly expressed, while 42 genes (including FOXD4, PDE4A) were underexpressed both in CD34+ cells and granulocytes. Using proteomic studies, significant up-regulation was observed for MAPK and PI3K/AKT signaling regulators that control myeloid cell apoptosis and proliferation: RAC2, MNDA, S100A8/9, CORO1A, and GNAI2. When the status of the mTOR signaling pathway related genes was analyzed, PI3K/AKT regulators were preferentially up-regulated in CD34+ cells of MPNs, with down-regulated major components of the protein complex EIF4F. Molecular profiling of CD34+ cells and granulocytes of MPN determined gene expression patterns beyond their recognized function in disease pathogenesis that included dominant up-regulation of PI3K/AKT signaling.
Project description:This study aimed to determine GATA1 expression levels to better characterize subgroups in BCR/ABL1-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs).This study enrolled 49 patients diagnosed as having BCR/ABL1-negative MPN on the basis of the 2016 World Health Organization classification : nine polycythemia vera (PV), 17 essential thrombocythemia (ET), 12 prefibrotic primary myelofibrosis (prePMF), and 11 overt primary myelofibrosis (PMF). Relevant clinical and laboratory data were retrieved from the medical records. The molecular analysis of CALR and MPL mutations and quantification of JAK2 V617F allele burden were performed. GATA1 expression was assessed by an immunohistochemical assay on bone marrow biopsy. GATA1 expression was analyzed serially in 18 patients.GATA1 expression decreased significantly in PMF compared with that in other subtypes, while no statistical difference was identified between ET and prePMF. GATA1 expression did not differ according to the mutation profiles or the allele burden of JAK2 V617F, but it decreased significantly in patients with overt fibrosis or leukemic transformation.Our results suggest that GATA1 expression is significantly low in PMF and decreases with progressive fibrosis and possibly with leukemic transformation, although our attempt to accurately distinguish between subgroups using GATA1 immunohistochemical approach did not achieve statistical significance. A large patient cohort with long term follow-up is required to evaluate the prognostic value of GATA1 expression.
Project description:The myeloproliferative disorders (MPD), polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocytosis (ET), and primary myelofibrosis (PMF), differ phenotypically, but share the same JAK2(V617F) mutation. We examined the relationship of the quantitative JAK2(V617F) allele burden to MPD disease phenotype among the three MPD classes and within PV.We measured the JAK2(V617F) allele percentage in genomic DNA from neutrophils, CD34(+) cells, and cloned progenitors in 212 JAK2(V617F)-positive MPD patients and correlated the allele burdens to both disease class and disease features.In ET and PV, mean CD34(+) cell JAK2(V617F) allele burdens were lower than the corresponding neutrophil allele burdens, but these were equivalent in PMF. JAK2(WT) progenitors were present in ET and PV when the CD34(+) JAK2(V617F) allele burden was lower than the neutrophil allele burden, but not in PV and PMF subjects in whom the CD34(+) cell and neutrophil allele burdens were similar. CD34(+) cell JAK2(V617F) clonal dominance, defined as coherence between the CD34(+) cell and neutrophil JAK2(V617F) allele burdens, was present in 24% of ET, 56% of PV, and 93% of PMF patients, and was independent of the CD34(+) cell JAK2(V617F) genotype. Clonally dominant PV patients had significantly longer disease durations, higher white cell counts, and larger spleens than nondominant PV patients.We conclude that the extent of JAK2(V617F) CD34(+) cell clonal dominance is associated with disease phenotype within the MPD and, in PV, is associated with extramedullary disease, leukocytosis, and disease duration.
Project description:Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) are clonal stem cell associated disorders inclusive of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), Polycythaemia vera (PV), myelofibrosis (MF), and essential thrombocythemia (ET). They are characterized by increased production of myeloid cells with minimal effects on terminal differentiation but can undergo transformation to acute leukemias. PV is the most common chronic myeloproliferative neoplasm and in the majority of cases is characterized by a V617F point mutation in JAK2. This JAK2 activating mutation is also found in about half the patients with MF and ET. Such aberrant proteins offer great potential for the treatment of these diseases however inhibitors to JAK2 have had limited success in the clinic in terms of curing the disease. We have previously used advanced proteomic techniques to identify drug targets and thus develop novel treatment strategies to distinguish the leukemic clone in both CML and PV. Here, we build on our proteomic data sets to characterize a new target, the receptor tyrosine kinase AXL. AXL is overexpressed in acute myeloid leukemia and importantly small molecule inhibitors have been developed which are currently in clinical trial hence offer the opportunity to repurpose this drug for the treatment of MPNs. We demonstrate that AXL is upregulated and activated in JAK2 associated MPNs. Further we show that inhibition of AXL preferentially kills early hemopoietic stem cells from PV patients and as such represents a promising therapeutic approach for JAK2 driven MPNs.
Project description:In a multi-institutional collaborative project, 1473 patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) were screened for isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1)/IDH2 mutations: 594 essential thrombocythemia (ET), 421 polycythemia vera (PV), 312 primary myelofibrosis (PMF), 95 post-PV/ET MF and 51 blast-phase MPN. A total of 38 IDH mutations (18 IDH1-R132, 19 IDH2-R140 and 1 IDH2-R172) were detected: 5 (0.8%) ET, 8 (1.9%) PV, 13 (4.2%) PMF, 1 (1%) post-PV/ET MF and 11 (21.6%) blast-phase MPN (P<0.01). Mutant IDH was documented in the presence or absence of JAK2, MPL and TET2 mutations, with similar mutational frequencies. However, IDH-mutated patients were more likely to be nullizygous for JAK2 46/1 haplotype, especially in PMF (P=0.04), and less likely to display complex karyotype, in blast-phase disease (P<0.01). In chronic-phase PMF, JAK2 46/1 haplotype nullizygosity (P<0.01; hazard ratio (HR) 2.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.7-5.2), but not IDH mutational status (P=0.55; HR 1.3, 95% CI 0.5-3.4), had an adverse effect on survival. This was confirmed by multivariable analysis. In contrast, in both blast-phase PMF (P=0.04) and blast-phase MPN (P=0.01), the presence of an IDH mutation predicted worse survival. The current study clarifies disease- and stage-specific IDH mutation incidence and prognostic relevance in MPN and provides additional evidence for the biological effect of distinct JAK2 haplotypes.
Project description:Descriptive epidemiological information on myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) and myelodysplastic (MDS)/MPNs is largely derived from single institution and European population-based studies. Data obtained following adoption of the World Health Organization classification of haematopoietic neoplasms and JAK2 V617F mutation testing are sparse. Using population-based data, we comprehensively assessed subtype-specific MPN and MDS/MPN incidence rates (IRs), IR ratios (IRRs) and relative survival (RS) in the United States (2001-12). IRs were highest for polycythaemia vera (PV) (IR = 10·9) and essential thrombocythaemia (ET) (IR = 9·6). Except for ET and mastocytosis, overall IRs were significantly higher among males (IRRs = 1·4-2·3). All evaluable MPNs were associated with lower IRs among Hispanic whites than non-Hispanic whites (NHWs), with the exception of BCR-ABL1-positive chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML), chronic eosinophilic leukaemia (CEL) and juvenile myelomonocytic leukaemia. Except for CEL, Asians/Pacific Islanders had significantly lower MPN IRs than NHWs. ET, MPN-unclassifiable and CEL IRs were 18%, 19% and 60% higher, respectively, among blacks than NHWs. Five-year RS was more favourable for younger (<60 years) than older individuals and for women compared with men, except for PV at older ages. RS was highest (>90%) for younger PV and ET patients and lowest (<20%) for older chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia and atypical BCR-ABL1-negative CML patients. Varying MPN and MDS/MPN incidence patterns by subtype support distinct aetiologies and/or susceptible populations. Decreased survival rates as compared to that expected in the general population were associated with every MPN subtype, highlighting the need for new treatments, particularly among older individuals.