Electrotunable artificial molecules based on van der Waals heterostructures.
ABSTRACT: Quantum confinement has made it possible to detect and manipulate single-electron charge and spin states. The recent focus on two-dimensional (2D) materials has attracted significant interests on possible applications to quantum devices, including detecting and manipulating either single-electron charging behavior or spin and valley degrees of freedom. However, the most popular model systems, consisting of tunable double-quantum-dot molecules, are still extremely difficult to realize in these materials. We show that an artificial molecule can be reversibly formed in atomically thin MoS2 sandwiched in hexagonal boron nitride, with each artificial atom controlled separately by electrostatic gating. The extracted values for coupling energies at different regimes indicate a single-electron transport behavior, with the coupling strength between the quantum dots tuned monotonically. Moreover, in the low-density regime, we observe a decrease of the conductance with magnetic field, suggesting the observation of Coulomb blockade weak anti-localization. Our experiments demonstrate for the first time the realization of an artificial quantum-dot molecule in a gated MoS2 van der Waals heterostructure, which could be used to investigate spin-valley physics. The compatibility with large-scale production, gate controllability, electron-hole bipolarity, and new quantum degrees of freedom in the family of 2D materials opens new possibilities for quantum electronics and its applications.
Project description:Qubits based on silicon quantum dots are emerging as leading candidates for the solid-state implementation of quantum information processing. In silicon, valley states represent a degree of freedom in addition to spin and charge. Characterizing and controlling valley states is critical for the encoding and read-out of electrons-in-silicon-based qubits. Here, we report the coherent manipulation of a qubit, which is based on the two valley states of an electron confined in a silicon quantum dot. We carry out valley qubit operations at multiple charge configurations of the double quantum dot device. The dependence of coherent oscillations on pulse excitation level and duration allows us to map out the energy dispersion as a function of detuning as well as the phase coherence time of the valley qubit. The coherent manipulation also provides a method of measuring valley splittings that are too small to probe with conventional methods.Silicon quantum dots provide a promising platform for quantum computing based on manipulation of electron degrees of freedom in a well-characterized environment. Here, the authors demonstrate coherent control of electron valley states, yielding an accurate determination of the valley splitting.
Project description:Once the periodic properties of elements were unveiled, chemical behaviour could be understood in terms of the valence of atoms. Ideally, this rationale would extend to quantum dots, and quantum computation could be performed by merely controlling the outer-shell electrons of dot-based qubits. Imperfections in semiconductor materials disrupt this analogy, so real devices seldom display a systematic many-electron arrangement. We demonstrate here an electrostatically confined quantum dot that reveals a well defined shell structure. We observe four shells (31 electrons) with multiplicities given by spin and valley degrees of freedom. Various fillings containing a single valence electron-namely 1, 5, 13 and 25 electrons-are found to be potential qubits. An integrated micromagnet allows us to perform electrically-driven spin resonance (EDSR), leading to faster Rabi rotations and higher fidelity single qubit gates at higher shell states. We investigate the impact of orbital excitations on single qubits as a function of the dot deformation and exploit it for faster qubit control.
Project description:Conventional electronics are based invariably on the intrinsic degrees of freedom of an electron, namely its charge and spin. The exploration of novel electronic degrees of freedom has important implications in both basic quantum physics and advanced information technology. Valley, as a new electronic degree of freedom, has received considerable attention in recent years. In this paper, we develop the theory of spin and valley physics of an antiferromagnetic honeycomb lattice. We show that by coupling the valley degree of freedom to antiferromagnetic order, there is an emergent electronic degree of freedom characterized by the product of spin and valley indices, which leads to spin-valley-dependent optical selection rule and Berry curvature-induced topological quantum transport. These properties will enable optical polarization in the spin-valley space, and electrical detection/manipulation through the induced spin, valley, and charge fluxes. The domain walls of an antiferromagnetic honeycomb lattice harbors valley-protected edge states that support spin-dependent transport. Finally, we use first-principles calculations to show that the proposed optoelectronic properties may be realized in antiferromagnetic manganese chalcogenophosphates (MnPX3, X = S, Se) in monolayer form.
Project description:Twisted bilayer graphene offers a unique bilayer two-dimensional-electron system where the layer separation is only in sub-nanometer scale. Unlike Bernal-stacked bilayer, the layer degree of freedom is disentangled from spin and valley, providing eight-fold degeneracy in the low energy states. We have investigated broken-symmetry quantum Hall (QH) states and their transitions due to the interplay of the relative strength of valley, spin and layer polarizations in twisted bilayer graphene. The energy gaps of the broken-symmetry QH states show an electron-hole asymmetric behaviour, and their dependence on the induced displacement field are opposite between even and odd filling factor states. These results strongly suggest that the QH states with broken valley and spin symmetries for individual layer become hybridized via interlayer tunnelling, and the hierarchy of the QH states is sensitive to both magnetic field and displacement field due to charge imbalance between layers.
Project description:The high magnetic field electronic structure of bilayer graphene is enhanced by the spin, valley isospin, and an accidental orbital degeneracy, leading to a complex phase diagram of broken symmetry states. Here, we present a technique for measuring the layer-resolved charge density, from which we directly determine the valley and orbital polarization within the zero energy Landau level. Layer polarization evolves in discrete steps across 32 electric field-tuned phase transitions between states of different valley, spin, and orbital order, including previously unobserved orbitally polarized states stabilized by skew interlayer hopping. We fit our data to a model that captures both single-particle and interaction-induced anisotropies, providing a complete picture of this correlated electron system. The resulting roadmap to symmetry breaking paves the way for deterministic engineering of fractional quantum Hall states, while our layer-resolved technique is readily extendable to other two-dimensional materials where layer polarization maps to the valley or spin quantum numbers.The phase diagram of bilayer graphene at high magnetic fields has been an outstanding question, with orders possibly between multiple internal quantum degrees of freedom. Here, Hunt et al. report the measurement of the valley and orbital order, allowing them to directly reconstruct the phase diagram.
Project description:Time-reversal symmetry and broken spin degeneracy enable the exploration of spin and valley quantum degrees of freedom in monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenides. While the strength of the large spin splitting in the valance band of these materials is now well-known, probing the 10-100 times smaller splitting in the conduction band poses significant challenges. Since it is easier to achieve n-type conduction in most of them, resolving the energy levels in the conduction band is crucial for the prospect of developing new spintronic and valleytronic devices. Here, we study quantum transport in high mobility monolayer MoS2 devices where we observe well-developed quantized conductance in multiples of e 2/h in zero magnetic field. We extract a sub-band spacing energy of 0.8?meV. The application of a magnetic field gradually increases the interband spacing due to the valley-Zeeman effect. Here, we extract a g-factor of ~2.16 in the conduction band of monolayer MoS2.
Project description:Single-layer transition metal dichalcogenides provide a promising material system to explore the electron's valley degree of freedom as a quantum information carrier. The valley degree of freedom can be directly accessed by means of optical excitation. However, rapid valley relaxation of optically excited electron-hole pairs (excitons) through the exchange interaction has been a major roadblock. Theoretically such valley relaxation is suppressed in dark excitons, suggesting a potential route for long valley lifetimes. Here we develop a waveguide-based method to detect time-resolved and energy-resolved dark exciton emission in single-layer WSe2, which involves spin-forbidden optical transitions with an out-of-plane dipole moment. The valley degree of freedom of dark excitons is accessed through the valley-dependent Zeeman effect under an out-of-plane magnetic field. We find a short valley lifetime for the dark neutral exciton, likely due to the short-range electron-hole exchange, but long valley lifetimes exceeding several nanoseconds for the dark charged excitons.
Project description:HgTe quantum wells possess remarkable physical properties as for instance the quantum spin Hall state and the "single-valley" analog of graphene, depending on their layer thicknesses and barrier composition. However, double HgTe quantum wells yet contain more fascinating and still unrevealed features. Here we report on the study of the quantum phase transitions in tunnel-coupled HgTe layers separated by CdTe barrier. We demonstrate that this system has a 3/2 pseudo spin degree of freedom, which features a number of particular properties associated with the spin-dependent coupling between HgTe layers. We discover a specific metal phase arising in a wide range of HgTe and CdTe layer thicknesses, in which a gapless bulk and a pair of helical edge states coexist. This phase holds some properties of bilayer graphene such as an unconventional quantum Hall effect and an electrically-tunable band gap. In this "bilayer graphene" phase, electric field opens the band gap and drives the system into the quantum spin Hall state. Furthermore, we discover a new type of quantum phase transition arising from a mutual inversion between second electron- and hole-like subbands. This work paves the way towards novel materials based on multi-layered topological insulators.
Project description:The silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) material system is a technologically important implementation of spin-based quantum information processing. However, the MOS interface is imperfect leading to concerns about 1/f trap noise and variability in the electron g-factor due to spin-orbit (SO) effects. Here we advantageously use interface-SO coupling for a critical control axis in a double-quantum-dot singlet-triplet qubit. The magnetic field-orientation dependence of the g-factors is consistent with Rashba and Dresselhaus interface-SO contributions. The resulting all-electrical, two-axis control is also used to probe the MOS interface noise. The measured inhomogeneous dephasing time, [Formula: see text], of 1.6??s is consistent with 99.95% 28Si enrichment. Furthermore, when tuned to be sensitive to exchange fluctuations, a quasi-static charge noise detuning variance of 2??eV is observed, competitive with low-noise reports in other semiconductor qubits. This work, therefore, demonstrates that the MOS interface inherently provides properties for two-axis qubit control, while not increasing noise relative to other material choices.
Project description:The gate fidelity and the coherence time of a quantum bit (qubit) are important benchmarks for quantum computation. We construct a qubit using a single electron spin in an Si/SiGe quantum dot and control it electrically via an artificial spin-orbit field from a micromagnet. We measure an average single-qubit gate fidelity of ?99% using randomized benchmarking, which is consistent with dephasing from the slowly evolving nuclear spins in the substrate. The coherence time measured using dynamical decoupling extends up to ?400 ?s for 128 decoupling pulses, with no sign of saturation. We find evidence that the coherence time is limited by noise in the 10-kHz to 1-MHz range, possibly because charge noise affects the spin via the micromagnet gradient. This work shows that an electron spin in an Si/SiGe quantum dot is a good candidate for quantum information processing as well as for a quantum memory, even without isotopic purification.