Genetic Loci Governing Grain Yield and Root Development under Variable Rice Cultivation Conditions.
ABSTRACT: Drought is the major abiotic stress to rice grain yield under unpredictable changing climatic scenarios. The widely grown, high yielding but drought susceptible rice varieties need to be improved by unraveling the genomic regions controlling traits enhancing drought tolerance. The present study was conducted with the aim to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for grain yield and root development traits under irrigated non-stress and reproductive-stage drought stress in both lowland and upland situations. A mapping population consisting of 480 lines derived from a cross between Dular (drought-tolerant) and IR64-21 (drought susceptible) was used. QTL analysis revealed three major consistent-effect QTLs for grain yield (qDTY1.1, qDTY1.3 , and qDTY8.1 ) under non-stress and reproductive-stage drought stress conditions, and 2 QTLs for root traits (qRT9.1 for root-growth angle and qRT5.1 for multiple root traits, i.e., seedling-stage root length, root dry weight and crown root number). The genetic locus qDTY1.1 was identified as hotspot for grain yield and yield-related agronomic and root traits. The study identified significant positive correlations among numbers of crown roots and mesocotyl length at the seedling stage and root length and root dry weight at depth at later stages with grain yield and yield-related traits. Under reproductive stage drought stress, the grain yield advantage of the lines with QTLs ranged from 24.1 to 108.9% under upland and 3.0-22.7% under lowland conditions over the lines without QTLs. The lines with QTL combinations qDTY1.3 +qDTY8.1 showed the highest mean grain yield advantage followed by lines having qDTY1.1 +qDTY8.1 and qDTY1.1 +qDTY8.1 +qDTY1.3 , across upland/lowland reproductive-stage drought stress. The identified QTLs for root traits, mesocotyl length, grain yield and yield-related traits can be immediately deployed in marker-assisted breeding to develop drought tolerant high yielding rice varieties.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Selection for grain yield under drought is an efficient criterion for improving the drought tolerance of rice. Recently, some drought-tolerant rice varieties have been developed using this selection criterion and successfully released for cultivation in drought-prone target environments. The process can be made more efficient and rapid through marker-assisted breeding, a well-known fast-track approach in crop improvement. QTLs have been identified for grain yield under drought with large effects against drought-susceptible varieties. Most of the identified QTLs show large QTL?×?environment or QTL?×?genetic background interactions. The development of mapping populations in the background of popular high-yielding varieties, screening across environments, including the target environments, and the identification of QTLs with a consistent effect across environments can be a suitable alternative marker-assisted breeding strategy. An IR74371-46-1-1?×?Sabitri backcross inbred line population was screened for reproductive-stage drought stress at the International Rice Research Institute, Philippines, and Regional Agricultural Research Station, Nepalgunj, Nepal, in the dry and wet seasons of 2011, respectively. A bulk segregant analysis approach was used to identify markers associated with high grain yield under drought. RESULTS: A QTL, qDTY12.1, significantly associated with grain yield under reproductive-stage drought stress was identified on chromosome 12 with a consistent effect in two environments: IRRI, Philippines, and RARS, Nepalgunj, Nepal. This QTL explained phenotypic variance of 23.8% and contributed an additive effect of 45.3% for grain yield under drought. The positive QTL allele for qDTY12.1 was contributed by tolerant parent IR74371-46-1-1. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, qDTY12.1 showed a consistent effect across environments for high grain yield under lowland reproductive-stage drought stress in the background of popular high-yielding but drought-susceptible recipient variety Sabitri. qDTY12.1 was also reported previously [Crop Sci 47:507-516, 2007] to increase grain yield under upland reproductive-stage drought stress situations. qDTY12.1 is the only QTL reported so far in rice to have shown a large effect against multiple recipient genetic backgrounds as well as under highly diverse upland and lowland rice ecosystems. qDTY12.1 can be successfully introgressed to improve grain yield under drought of popular high-yielding but drought-susceptible lowland as well as upland adapted varieties following marker-assisted breeding.
Project description:The increased occurrence and severity of drought stress have led to a high yield decline in rice in recent years in drought-affected areas. Drought research at the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) over the past decade has concentrated on direct selection for grain yield under drought. This approach has led to the successful development and release of 17 high-yielding drought-tolerant rice varieties in South Asia, Southeast Asia, and Africa. In addition to this, 14 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) showing a large effect against high-yielding drought-susceptible popular varieties were identified using grain yield as a selection criterion. Six of these (qDTY 1.1 , qDTY 2.2 , qDTY 3.1 , qDTY 3.2 , qDTY 6.1 , and qDTY 12.1 ) showed an effect against two or more high-yielding genetic backgrounds in both the lowland and upland ecosystem, indicating their usefulness in increasing the grain yield of rice under drought. The yield of popular rice varieties IR64 and Vandana has been successfully improved through a well-planned marker-assisted backcross breeding approach, and QTL introgression in several other popular varieties is in progress. The identification of large-effect QTLs for grain yield under drought and the higher yield increase under drought obtained through the use of these QTLs (which has not been reported in other cereals) indicate that rice, because of its continuous cultivation in two diverse ecosystems (upland, drought tolerant, and lowland, drought susceptible), has benefited from the existence of larger genetic variability than in other cereals. This can be successfully exploited using marker-assisted breeding.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Unfavorable climatic changes have led to an increased threat of several biotic and abiotic stresses over the past few years. Looking at the massive damage caused by these stresses, we undertook a study to develop high yielding climate-resilient rice, using genes conferring resistance against blast (Pi9), bacterial leaf blight (BLB) (Xa4, xa5, xa13, Xa21), brown planthopper (BPH) (Bph3, Bph17), gall midge (GM) (Gm4, Gm8) and QTLs for drought tolerance (qDTY1.1 and qDTY3.1) through marker-assisted forward breeding (MAFB) approach. RESULT:Seven introgression lines (ILs) possessing a combination of seven to ten genes/QTLs for different biotic and abiotic stresses have been developed using marker-assisted selection (MAS) breeding method in the background of Swarna with drought QTLs. These ILs were superior to the respective recurrent parent in agronomic performance and also possess preferred grain quality with intermediate to high amylose content (AC) (23-26%). Out of these, three ILs viz., IL1 (Pi9+ Xa4+ xa5+ Xa21+ Bph17+ Gm8+ qDTY1.1+ qDTY3.1), IL6 (Pi9+ Xa4+ xa5+ Xa21+ Bph3+ Bph17+ Gm4+ Gm8+ qDTY1.1+ qDTY3.1) and IL7 (Pi9+ Xa4+ xa5+ Bph3+ Gm4+ qDTY1.1+ qDTY3.1) had shown resistance\tolerance for multiple biotic and abiotic stresses both in the field and glasshouse conditions. Overall, the ILs were high yielding under various stresses and importantly they also performed well in non-stress conditions without any yield penalty. CONCLUSION:The current study clearly illustrated the success of MAS in combining tolerance to multiple biotic and abiotic stresses while maintaining higher yield potential and preferred grain quality. Developed ILs with seven to ten genes in the current study showed superiority to recurrent parent Swarna+drought for multiple-biotic stresses (blast, BLB, BPH and GM) together with yield advantages of 1.0?t?ha-?1 under drought condition, without adverse effect on grain quality traits under non-stress.
Project description:A recombinant inbred population developed from a cross between high-yielding lowland rice (<i>Oryza sativa</i> L.) subspecies <i>indica</i> cv. IR64 and upland tropical rice subspecies <i>japonica</i> cv. Cabacu was used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for grain yield (GY) and component traits under reproductive-stage drought stress. One hundred fifty-four lines were grown in field trials in Indonesia under aerobic conditions by giving surface irrigation to field capacity every 4 days. Water stress was imposed for a period of 15 days during pre-flowering by withholding irrigation at 65 days after seeding. Leaf rolling was scored at the end of the stress period and eight agronomic traits were evaluated after recovery. The population was also evaluated for root pulling force, and a total of 201 single nucleotide polymorphism markers were used to construct the molecular genetic linkage map and QTL mapping. A QTL for GY under drought stress was identified in a region close to the <i>sd1</i> locus on chromosome 1. QTL meta-analysis across diverse populations showed that this QTL was conserved across genetic backgrounds and co-localized with QTLs for leaf rolling and osmotic adjustment (OA). A QTL for percent seed set and grains per panicle under drought stress was identified on chromosome 8 in the same region as a QTL for OA previously identified in three different populations.
Project description:QTLs for rice grain yield under reproductive stage drought stress (qDTY) identified earlier with low density markers have shown linkage drag and need to be fine mapped before their utilization in breeding programs. In this study, genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) based high-density linkage map of rice was developed using two BC1F3 mapping populations namely Swarna*2/Dular (3929 SNPs covering 1454.68?cM) and IR11N121*2/Aus196 (1191 SNPs covering 1399.68?cM) with average marker density of 0.37?cM to 1.18?cM respectively. In total, six qDTY QTLs including three consistent effect QTLs were identified in Swarna*2/Dular while eight qDTY QTLs including two consistent effect QTLs were identified in IR11N121*2/Aus 196 mapping population. Comparative analysis revealed four stable and novel QTLs (qDTY2.4, qDTY3.3, qDTY6.3, and qDTY11.2) which explained 8.62 to 14.92% PVE. However, one of the identified stable grain yield QTL qDTY1.1 in both the populations was located nearly at the same physical position of an earlier mapped major qDTY QTL. Further, the effect of the identified qDTY1.1 was validated in a subset of lines derived from five mapping populations confirming robustness of qDTY1.1 across various genetic backgrounds/seasons. The study successfully identified stable grain yield QTLs free from undesirable linkages of tall plant height/early maturity utilizing high density linkage maps.
Project description:Green Revolution (GR) rice varieties are high yielding but typically drought sensitive. This is partly due to the tight linkage between the loci governing plant height and drought tolerance. This linkage is illustrated here through characterization of qDTY1.1, a QTL for grain yield under drought that co-segregates with the GR gene sd1 for semi-dwarf plant height. We report that the loss of the qDTY1.1 allele during the GR was due to its tight linkage in repulsion with the sd1 allele. Other drought-yield QTLs (qDTY) also showed tight linkage with traits rejected in GR varieties. Genetic diversity analysis for 11 different qDTY regions grouped GR varieties separately from traditional drought-tolerant varieties, and showed lower frequency of drought tolerance alleles. The increased understanding and breaking of the linkage between drought tolerance and undesirable traits has led to the development of high-yielding drought-tolerant dwarf lines with positive qDTY alleles and provides new hope for extending the benefits of the GR to drought-prone rice-growing regions.
Project description:Photosynthesis is fundamental to biomass production, but sensitive to drought. To understand the genetics of leaf photosynthesis, especially under drought, upland rice cv. Haogelao, lowland rice cv. Shennong265, and 94 of their introgression lines (ILs) were studied at flowering and grain filling under drought and well-watered field conditions. Gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence measurements were conducted to evaluate eight photosynthetic traits. Since these traits are very sensitive to fluctuations in microclimate during measurements under field conditions, observations were adjusted for microclimatic differences through both a statistical covariant model and a physiological approach. Both approaches identified leaf-to-air vapour pressure difference as the variable influencing the traits most. Using the simple sequence repeat (SSR) linkage map for the IL population, 1-3 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were detected per trait-stage-treatment combination, which explained between 7.0% and 30.4% of the phenotypic variance of each trait. The clustered QTLs near marker RM410 (the interval from 57.3?cM to 68.4?cM on chromosome 9) were consistent over both development stages and both drought and well-watered conditions. This QTL consistency was verified by a greenhouse experiment under a controlled environment. The alleles from the upland rice at this interval had positive effects on net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, quantum yield of photosystem II (PSII), and the maximum efficiency of light-adapted open PSII. However, the allele of another main QTL from upland rice was associated with increased drought sensitivity of photosynthesis. These results could potentially be used in breeding programmes through marker-assisted selection to improve drought tolerance and photosynthesis simultaneously.
Project description:The development of rice varieties for dry direct-seeded conditions can be accelerated by selecting suitable traits. In the present investigation, traits hypothesized to be important for direct-seeded conditions in rainfed systems, including seedling emergence, early vegetative vigour, nutrient uptake, nodal root number, and root hair length and density, were characterized to study the genetic control of these traits and their relationship with grain yield under seedling- and reproductive-stage drought stress. Two BC?F? mapping populations derived from crosses of Aus276, a drought-tolerant aus variety, with MTU1010 and IR64, high-yielding indica mega-varieties, were developed and studied to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that showed large and consistent effects. A total of 26 QTLs associated with 23 traits and 20 QTLs associated with 13 traits were mapped in the Aus276/3*IR64 and Aus276/3*MTU1010 populations, respectively. qGY?.?, qGY??.?, qGY?.?, and qEVV?.? were found to be effective in both populations under a wide range of conditions. QTLs for several seedling-stage traits co-located with QTLs for grain yield, including early vegetative vigour and root hair length. On chromosome 5, several QTLs for nutrient uptake co-located with QTLs for root hair density and nematode gall rating. Six lines were selected from both populations based on grain yield and the presence of QTLs, and these lines typically showed improved seedling-stage traits (nodal root number, dry shoot weight, and root hair length and density). The co-located QTLs identified here can be used in research aimed at increasing the yield and adaptability of rainfed rice to direct-seeded conditions.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Availability of irrigation water is becoming a major limiting factor in rice cultivation. Production in rainfed areas is affected in particular by drought events, as these areas are commonly planted to high-yielding drought-susceptible rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties. The use of bulk segregant analysis (BSA), taking grain yield (GY) as a selection criterion, has resulted in the identification of several large-effect QTL. A QTL mapping study was undertaken on a BC1F3:4 population developed from the cross IR55419-04/2*TDK1 with the aim of identifying large-effect QTL in the background of TDK1, a popular variety from Lao PDR.<h4>Results</h4>The study identified three QTL-qDTY3.1 (RM168-RM468), qDTY6.1 (RM586-RM217), and qDTY6.2 (RM121-RM541)-for grain yield under drought. qDTY3.1 and qDTY6.1, showed consistent effect across seasons under lowland drought-stress conditions while qDTY6.1 and qDTY6.2 showed effect under both upland and lowland drought conditions. The test of QTL effect, conducted through a QTL class analysis, showed the complimentary nature of qDTY3.1 and qDTY6.1. Both QTL showed specific patterns of effect across different maturity groups within the mapping population and higher stability for grain yield was seen across stress levels for lines with both QTLs as compared to those with single or no QTL.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The study offers a clear understanding of large-effect QTL for grain yield under drought and their effect as individual QTL and in various combinations. The study also opens up an opportunity to develop a drought-tolerant version of TDK1 through marker-assisted backcross breeding and has led to a large-scale QTL pyramiding program aiming to combine these QTL with Sub1 in the background of TDK1 as recipient variety.
Project description:Due to global population expansion and climate change impacts, the development of a stable yielding variety that adapts well to unfavorable conditions for rice cultivation, can contribute to sustainable and stable production in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Understanding genetic differentiations to ecotypes for rice cultivations, such as upland, rainfed lowland, and irrigated lowland, is very important to develop the breeding materials for adapting to each environmental condition. The upland landrace variety basically has low tiller/panicle numbers and a large panicle, and the plant architecture is different from that of the lowland variety. The tiller and panicle numbers have been considered as one of the most difficult traits for genetic changes artificially in rice breeding. A low tiller recessive gene ltn2 originated from a New Plant Type variety, IR 65600-87-2-23, harboring segments from an upland variety, Ketan Lumbu (Tropical Japonica Group), was found on chromosome 7, and the other QTLs for culm length, culm weight, panicle length, panicle weight, seed fertility, harvest index, and soil surface rooting were also detected in the same chromosome region. These low tiller genes and the other QTLs were estimated to play an important role in developing the architecture for upland rice. Some QTLs for root growth angle, DRO3 and qSFR7, were also found in the same chromosome region from upland varieties categorized into the Tropical Japonica Group, and the QTLs may also be relevant to upland adaptation together with other traits. Previous studies using high throughput re-sequencing (whole genome variation data) of a large batch of rice accessions could identify the ecotype differentiated genomic regions (EDRs) and Ecotype differentiated genes (EDGs) such as Os07g0449700, a type response regulator, which is critical in upland adaptation in the same region of chromosome 7. Two selective loci, E3735 and E4208, for upland and lowland differentiation, and their corresponding genes Os07g0260000 and Os07g0546500 were also detected on chromosome 7 by drought-responding EST-SSRs. These findings indicate that the region on chromosome 7 is highly possible to related to the plant shoot and root architecture in the upland rice variety that has an important role and differentiates between upland and lowland ecotypes.