Ruthenium(0)-Catalyzed C-C Coupling of Alkynes and 3-Hydroxy-2-oxindoles: Direct C-H Vinylation of Alcohols.
ABSTRACT: Upon exposure to a ruthenium(0) catalyst, N-benzyl-3-hydroxy-2-oxindoles react with diverse alkynes to form products of C-H vinylation with complete control of regioselectivity and olefin geometry. This method contributes to a growing body of catalytic processes that enable direct conversion of lower alcohols to higher alcohols in the absence of stoichiometric organometallic reagents.
Project description:Under the conditions of ruthenium catalyzed transfer hydrogenation, 2-butyne couples to benzylic and aliphatic alcohols 1a-1l to furnish allylic alcohols 2a-2l, constituting a direct C-H vinylation of alcohols employing alkynes as vinyl donors. Under related transfer hydrogenation conditions employing formic acid as terminal reductant, 2-butyne couples to aldehydes 4a, 4b, and 4e to furnish identical products of carbonyl vinylation 2a, 2b, and 2e. Thus, carbonyl vinylation is achieved from the alcohol or the aldehyde oxidation level in the absence of any stoichiometric metallic reagents. Nonsymmetric alkynes 6a-6c couple efficiently to aldehyde 4b to provide allylic alcohols 2m-2o as single regioisomers. Acetylenic aldehyde 7a engages in efficient intramolecular coupling to deliver cyclic allylic alcohol 8a.
Project description:The merger of open- and closed-shell elementary organometallic steps has enabled the selective intermolecular addition of nucleophilic radicals to unactivated alkynes. A range of carboxylic acids can be subjected to a CO2 extrusion, nickel capture, migratory insertion sequence with terminal and internal alkynes to generate stereodefined functionalized olefins. This platform has been further extended, via hydrogen atom transfer, to the direct vinylation of unactivated C-H bonds. Preliminary studies indicate that a Ni-alkyl migratory insertion is operative.
Project description:Nonsymmetric 1,2-disubstituted alkynes engage in reductive coupling to a variety of aldehydes under the conditions of ruthenium-catalyzed transfer hydrogenation by employing formic acid as the terminal reductant and delivering the products of carbonyl vinylation with good to excellent levels of regioselectivity and with complete control of olefin stereochemistry. As revealed in an assessment of the ruthenium counterion, iodide plays an essential role in directing the regioselectivity of C-C bond formation. Isotopic labeling studies corroborate reversible catalytic propargyl C-H oxidative addition in advance of the C-C coupling, and demonstrate that the C-C coupling products do not experience reversible dehydrogenation by way of enone intermediates. This transfer hydrogenation protocol enables carbonyl vinylation in the absence of stoichiometric metallic reagents.
Project description:The cationic ruthenium catalyst generated upon the acid-base reaction of H2Ru(CO)(PPh3)3 and 2,4,6-(2-Pr)3PhSO3H promotes the redox-triggered C-C coupling of 2-alkynes and primary alcohols to form (Z)-homoallylic alcohols with good to complete control of olefin geometry. Deuterium labeling studies, which reveal roughly equal isotopic compositions at the allylic and distal vinylic positions, along with other data, corroborate a catalytic mechanism involving ruthenium(0)-mediated allene-aldehyde oxidative coupling to form a transient oxaruthenacycle, an event that ultimately defines (Z)-olefin stereochemistry.
Project description:The enantioselective alpha-arylation and alpha-vinylation of oxindoles catalyzed by Pd and a biarylmonophosphine ligand with both axial and phosphorus-based chirogenicity is reported. The resultant quaternary carbon stereocenters are formed in high enantiomeric excess, and the conditions tolerate a range of substitution on both the oxindole and the aryl/vinyl coupling partners.
Project description:A general and efficient iron-catalyzed C-alkylation of oxindoles has been developed. This borrowing hydrogen approach employing a (cyclopentadienone)iron carbonyl complex (2?mol?%) exhibited a broad reaction scope, allowing benzylic and simple primary and secondary aliphatic alcohols to be employed as alkylating agents. A variety of oxindoles underwent selective mono-C3-alkylation in good-to-excellent isolated yields (28?examples, 50-92?% yield, 79?% average yield).
Project description:Nucleophilic addition to alkynes represents an attractive approach to the synthesis of olefins. Obstacles to this strategy include the low reactivity of alkynes toward many organometallic reagents and difficulties associated with controlling the regioselectivity of addition. Here we demonstrate that Fe(III) salts are effective precatalysts for the carbometalation of alkynes. Primary and secondary propargylic and homopropargylic alcohols react with alkyl and aryl Grignard reagents to provide Z-allylic and -homoallylic alcohols as single stereo and regioisomers. Alkylation and arylation occur distal to the alcohol. Common oxygen protecting groups and tertiary nitrogens are tolerated. The intermediate vinyl magnesium or iron species can be trapped with a variety of electrophiles including aldehydes, allyl bromide, and N-bromosuccinimide. Diyne substrates undergo an unusual addition/cyclization reaction to generate cyclic dienes. A brief discussion of mechanism is included.
Project description:A one-pot method for the direct preparation of enantioenriched (Z)-disubstituted allylic alcohols is introduced. Hydroboration of 1-halo-1-alkynes with dicyclohexylborane, reaction with t-BuLi, and transmetalation with dialkylzinc reagents generate (Z)-disubstituted vinylzinc intermediates. In situ reaction of these reagents with aldehydes in the presence of a catalyst derived from (-)-MIB generates (Z)-disubstituted allylic alcohols. It was found that the resulting allylic alcohols were racemic, most likely due to a rapid addition reaction promoted by LiX (X = Br and Cl). To suppress the LiX-promoted reaction, a series of inhibitors were screened. It was found that 20-30 mol % tetraethylethylenediamine inhibited LiCl without inhibiting the chiral zinc-based Lewis acid. In this fashion, (Z)-disubstituted allylic alcohols were obtained with up to 98% ee. The asymmetric (Z)-vinylation could be coupled with tandem diastereoselective epoxidation reactions to provide epoxy alcohols and allylic epoxy alcohols with up to three contiguous stereogenic centers, enabling the rapid construction of complex building blocks with high levels of enantio- and diastereoselectivity.
Project description:Cascade reactions initiated by radical addition to alkynes are synthetically very attractive because they enable access to highly complex molecular skeletons in only few synthetic steps under usually mild conditions. Here we report a general radical cascade reaction of alkynes, N-fluoroarylsulfonimides and alcohols, enabling the efficient synthesis of important ?-amino-?-aryl ketones from readily available starting materials via a single operation. During this process, the highly regioselective nitrogen-centred radical addition to internal and terminal alkynes generating vinyl radicals and the next explicit migration of aryl group from the nitrogen source lead the following efficient desulfonylation, oxygenation, and semi-pinacol rearrangement. In addition, the semi-pinacol rearrangement precursors, ?-alkyloxyl-?,?-diaryl imines, could also be efficiently obtained under milder conditions. This methodology might open a new entry for designing intermolecular radical cascade reaction of alkynes.
Project description:The enantioselective ?-vinylation of aldehydes using vinyl iodonium triflate salts has been accomplished via the synergistic combination of copper and chiral amine catalysis. These mild catalytic conditions provide a direct route for the enantioselective construction of enolizable ?-formyl vinylic stereocenters without racemization or olefin transposition. These high-value coupling adducts are readily converted into a variety of useful olefin synthons.