Renal and Cardiovascular Effects of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibition in combination with loop Diuretics in diabetic patients with Chronic Heart Failure (RECEDE-CHF): protocol for a randomised controlled double-blind cross-over trial.
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION:Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and heart failure (HF) are a frequent combination, where treatment options remain limited. There has been increasing interest around the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors and their use in patients with HF. Data on the effect of SGLT2 inhibitor use with diuretics are limited. We hypothesise that SGLT2 inhibition may augment the effects of loop diuretics and the benefits of SGLT2 inhibitors may extend beyond those of their metabolic (glycaemic parameters and weight loss) and haemodynamic parameters. The effects of SGLT2 inhibitors as an osmotic diuretic and on natriuresis may underlie the cardiovascular and renal benefits demonstrated in the recent EMPA-REG study. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:To assess the effect of SGLT2 inhibitors when used in combination with a loop diuretic, the RECEDE-CHF (Renal and Cardiovascular Effects of SGLT2 inhibition in combination with loop Diuretics in diabetic patients with Chronic Heart Failure) trial is a single-centre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial conducted in a secondary care setting within NHS Tayside, Scotland. 34 eligible participants, aged between 18 and 80 years, with stable T2D and CHF will be recruited. Renal physiological testing will be performed at two points (week 1 and week 6) on each arm to assess the effect of 25 mg empagliflozin, on the primary and secondary outcomes. Participants will be enrolled in the trial for a total period between 14 and 16 weeks. The primary outcome will assess the effect of empagliflozin versus placebo on urine output. The secondary outcomes are to assess the effect of empagliflozin on glomerular filtration rate, cystatin C, urinary sodium excretion, urinary protein/creatinine ratio and urinary albumin/creatinine ratio when compared with placebo. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:Ethics approval was obtained by the East of Scotland Research Ethics Service. Results of the trial will be submitted for publication in a peer-reviewed journal. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:NCT03226457; Pre-results.
Project description:BACKGROUND:SGLT2 (sodium-glucose cotransporter-2) inhibitors improve heart failure-associated outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes. In patients with heart failure, SGLT2 inhibitors will likely be coprescribed with a loop diuretic, but this combined effect is not well-defined. Our aim was to assess the diuretic and natriuretic effect of empagliflozin in combination with loop diuretics. METHODS:The RECEDE-CHF trial (SGLT2 Inhibition in Combination With Diuretics in Heart Failure) was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial of patients with type 2 diabetes and heart failure with reduced ejection fraction taking regular loop diuretic who were randomized to empagliflozin 25 mg once daily or placebo for 6 weeks with a 2-week washout period. The primary outcome was change in 24-hour urinary volume from baseline to week 6. RESULTS:Twenty-three participants (mean age, 69.8 years; 73.9% male; mean furosemide dose, 49.6±31.3 mg/d; mean HbA1c, 7.9±3.8%) were recruited. Compared with placebo, empagliflozin caused a significant increase in 24-hour urinary volume at both day 3 (mean difference, 535 mL [95% CI, 133-936]; P=0.005) and week 6 (mean difference, 545 mL [95% CI, 136-954]; P=0.005) after adjustment for treatment order, baseline 24-hour urine volume, and percentage change in loop diuretic dose. At 6 weeks, empagliflozin did not cause a significant change in 24-hour urinary sodium (mean difference, -7.85 mmol/L [95% CI, -2.43 to 6.73]; P=0.57). Empagliflozin caused a nonsignificant increase in fractional excretion of sodium at day 3, which was absent at week 6 (mean difference day 3, 0.30% [95% CI, -0.03 to 0.63]; P=0.09; week 6, 0.11% [95% CI, -0.22 to 0.44]; P>0.99), and a significant increase in electrolyte-free water clearance at week 6 (mean difference, 312 mL [95% CI, 26-598]; P=0.026) compared with placebo. Empagliflozin also caused significant reductions in body weight and serum urate at week 6. CONCLUSIONS:Empagliflozin caused a significant increase in 24-hour urine volume without an increase in urinary sodium when used in combination with loop diuretic. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique Identifier: NCT03226457.
Project description:Sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a new class of anti-hyperglycaemic agents in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This review examines their mechanism of action and provides an overview of safety and efficacy from the main studies of SGLT2 inhibitors marketed in the United States and Europe, namely, canagliflozin, dapagliflozin and empagliflozin.We searched the PubMed database to identify relevant publications on the mechanism of action of SGLT2 inhibitors and clinical trial reports.Clinical trials in patients with T2DM have shown significant improvements in glycaemic control vs placebo with canagliflozin, dapagliflozin and empagliflozin: patients were more likely to reach target glycated haemoglobin levels compared with patients receiving placebo. All SGLT2 inhibitors also led to modest reductions in body weight and blood pressure vs placebo. Generally, all agents were well tolerated, with the most common adverse events with this class being genital mycotic infections and urinary tract infections. Hypoglycaemia was reported at rates similar to those seen with placebo, except when SGLT2 inhibitors were given in combination with insulin or an insulin secretagogue. Long-term outcome data are available only for empagliflozin: in the EMPA-REG OUTCOME study, empagliflozin demonstrated reduced risk of the composite end-point of 3-point major adverse cardiovascular events (cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction or non-fatal stroke), primarily because of a significant reduction in cardiovascular mortality.SGLT2 inhibitors are an exciting addition to the list of available agents for T2DM, and may be suitable for various types of patients who need additional glycaemic control.
Project description:<b>Background:</b> Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors reduce the risk of heart failure hospitalization and cardiovascular death in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). However, their effects on cardiac structure and function in HFrEF are uncertain. <b>Methods:</b> We designed a multicenter randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to investigate the cardiac effects of empagliflozin in patients in NYHA functional class II to IV with a left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction ?40% and type 2 diabetes or prediabetes. Patients were randomized 1:1 to empagliflozin 10 milligrams once daily or placebo, stratified by age (<65 and ?65 years) and glycemic status (diabetes or prediabetes). The co-primary outcomes were change from baseline to 36 weeks in LV end-systolic volume indexed to body surface area (LVESVi) and LV global longitudinal strain (LV GLS) measured using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). Secondary efficacy outcomes included other CMR measures (LVEDVi, LVEF), diuretic intensification, symptoms (Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire Total Symptom Score (KCCQ-TSS)), 6-minute walk distance (6MWD), B-lines on lung ultrasound and biomarkers (including NT-proBNP). <b>Results:</b> From April 2018 to August 2019, 105 patients were randomized: 77 (73.3%) male, mean age 68.7 [SD 11.1] years, 82 (78.1%) diabetes and 23 (21.9%) prediabetes, mean LVEF 32.5% [9.8%], and 81 (77.1%) NYHA II and 24 (22.9%) NYHA III. Patients received standard treatment for HFrEF. Compared with placebo, empagliflozin reduced LVESVi by 6.0 (-10.8 to -1.2) ml/m<sup>2</sup> (p=0.015). There was no difference in LV GLS. Empagliflozin reduced LVEDVi by 8.2 (-13.7 to -2.6) ml/m<sup>2</sup> (p=0.0042) and reduced NT-proBNP by 28 (2 to 47) %, p=0.038. There were no between-group differences in other CMR measures, KCCQ-TSS, 6MWD or B-lines. <b>Conclusions:</b> The SGLT2 inhibitor empagliflozin reduced LV volumes in patients with HFrEF and type 2 diabetes or prediabetes. Favorable reverse LV remodeling may be a mechanism by which SGLT2 inhibitors reduce HF hospitalization and mortality in HFrEF. <b>Clinical Trial Registration:</b> URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov Unique Identifier: NCT03485092.
Project description:Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis (SIADH) is the predominant cause of hyponatremia, but treatment options are unsatisfying. SGLT2 inhibitors increase urinary glucose excretion with concomitant osmotic diuresis. We therefore hypothesized SGLT2-inhibitors as a novel treatment for SIADH.Double-blind placebo-controlled randomised crossover study in 14 healthy volunteers.We induced an artificial SIADH model by administration of desmopressin and overhydration. Afterwards, empagliflozin 25 mg or placebo was given in random order. The main outcomes were total urinary excretion, glucosuria, and the area under the curve (AUC) of serum sodium concentration. Outcome measures were obtained 2-8 hours after administration of study drug.14 participants (64% males), BMI 23 kg/m2 (±2.4), aged 28.6 years (±9), completed the study. Empagliflozin led to significantly increased total urinary excretion (579.3 ml (±194.8) versus 367.3 ml (±158.8); treatment effect 158 ml (CI 48.29, 267.74), p = 0.017) due to glucosuria (74.18 mmol (±22.3) versus 0.12 mmol (±0.04); treatment effect (log scale) 2.85 (CI 2.75, 2.96), p < 0.001). There was no difference in the AUC of serum sodium concentration (treatment effect 0.2 (CI -7.38, 6.98), p = 0.96).In our SIADH model, empagliflozin increased urinary excretion due to osmotic diuresis. Due to the short treatment duration, serum sodium levels remained unchanged. Real-live studies are needed to further examine empagliflozin as a new treatment for SIADH.
Project description:Type 2 diabetes is increasing in prevalence worldwide, and hyperglycemia is often poorly controlled despite a number of therapeutic options. Unlike previously available agents, sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors offer an insulin-independent mechanism for improving blood glucose levels, since they promote urinary glucose excretion (UGE) by inhibiting glucose reabsorption in the kidney. In addition to glucose control, SGLT2 inhibitors are associated with weight loss and blood pressure reductions, and do not increase the risk of hypoglycemia. Empagliflozin is a selective inhibitor of SGLT2, providing dose-dependent UGE increases in healthy volunteers, with up to 90 g of glucose excreted per day. It can be administered orally, and studies of people with renal or hepatic impairment indicated empagliflozin needed no dose adjustment based on pharmacokinetics. In Phase II trials in patients with type 2 diabetes, empagliflozin provided improvements in glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and other measures of glycemic control when given as monotherapy or add-on to metformin, as well as reductions in weight and systolic blood pressure. As add-on to basal insulin, empagliflozin not only improved HbA1c levels but also reduced insulin doses. Across studies, empagliflozin was generally well tolerated with a similar rate of hypoglycemia to placebo; however, patients had a slightly increased frequency of genital infections, but not urinary tract infections, versus placebo. Phase III studies have also reported a good safety profile along with significant improvements in HbA1c, weight and blood pressure, with no increased risk of hypoglycemia versus placebo. Based on available data, it appears that empagliflozin may be a useful option in a range of patients; however, clinical decisions will be better informed by the results of ongoing studies, in particular, a large cardiovascular outcome study (EMPA-REG OUTCOME™).
Project description:Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) effectively lower plasma glucose (PG) concentration in patients with type 2 diabetes, but studies have suggested that circulating glucagon concentrations and endogenous glucose production (EGP) are increased by SGLT2i, possibly compromising their glucose-lowering ability. To tease out whether and how glucagon may influence the glucose-lowering effect of SGLT2 inhibition, we subjected 12 patients with type 2 diabetes to a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, crossover, double-dummy study comprising, on 4 separate days, a liquid mixed-meal test preceded by single-dose administration of either <i>1</i>) placebo, <i>2</i>) the SGLT2i empagliflozin (25 mg), <i>3</i>) the glucagon receptor antagonist LY2409021 (300 mg), or <i>4</i>) the combination empagliflozin + LY2409021. Empagliflozin and LY2409021 individually lowered fasting PG compared with placebo, and the combination further decreased fasting PG. Previous findings of increased glucagon concentrations and EGP during acute administration of SGLT2i were not replicated in this study. Empagliflozin reduced postprandial PG through increased urinary glucose excretion. LY2409021 reduced EGP significantly but gave rise to a paradoxical increase in postprandial PG excursion, which was annulled by empagliflozin during their combination (empagliflozin + LY2409021). In conclusion, our findings do not support that an SGLT2i-induced glucagonotropic effect is of importance for the glucose-lowering property of SGLT2 inhibition.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The sodium glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a novel group of drugs for treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. We investigated whether there is a dose-response relation between SGLT2 inhibitors and urinary tract infections (UTIs) in patients with type 2 diabetes, relative to other diabetes therapies or placebo. METHODS:We conducted a systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of SGLT2 inhibitors in patients with type 2 diabetes. We searched 6 databases and the reference lists of key papers. We included studies with placebo or active antidiabetic comparators that reported the outcome of UTI, and established thresholds for high and low doses of SGLT2 inhibitors. We used a random-effects model to estimate the pooled effect estimates and 95% credible intervals. RESULTS:We screened 2418 citations and included 105 references for studies of 8 unique SGLT2 inhibitors, representing 60 082 individuals (with a total of 4348 UTIs). Most mixed-treatment comparisons showed no significant difference in risk of UTI, with the exception of high-dose dapagliflozin (? 10 mg) compared with placebo (odds ratio [OR] 1.30, 95% credible interval 1.09-1.57), with active comparators (OR 1.44, 95% credible interval 1.15-1.79), with empagliflozin at both low (OR 1.30, 95% credible interval 1.04-1.60) and high (OR 1.39, 95% credible interval 1.12-1.72) doses, and with low-dose ertugliflozin (OR 1.43, 95% credible interval 1.01-2.01). When the analysis was restricted to RCTs with a low risk of bias, the results were nonsignificant. INTERPRETATION:Current RCT evidence does not suggest a dose-response relation between most SGLT2 inhibitors and UTIs, with the exception of dapagliflozin. Further research is needed to quantify the relation between SGLT2 inhibitors and more serious infections. TRIAL REGISTRATION:PROSPERO registration no. CRD42016038715.
Project description:The efficacy of the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, and empagliflozin in reducing hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes is well documented. In addition, positive effects have been observed with these agents on nonglycemic variables, such as reductions in body weight and blood pressure, which may confer additional health benefits. SGLT2 inhibitors are also associated with evidence of renal-protecting benefits. Furthermore, during the landmark Empagliflozin, Cardiovascular Outcomes, and Mortality in Type 2 Diabetes (EMPA-REG OUTCOME) trial, a substantial reduction in major adverse cardiovascular outcomes was demonstrated with empagliflozin therapy. In view of the complex pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes, a pharmacologic intervention for type 2 diabetes that produces a multifaceted reduction in cardiovascular disease risk, separate from glycemic control alone, would be advantageous. Although SGLT2 inhibitors are generally well tolerated, they are associated with an increased risk of genital mycotic infections, as well as the potential risk for serious adverse events such as dehydration, development of diabetic ketoacidosis, serious urinary tract infections, and bone fractures. The findings of ongoing research will help to determine the magnitude and clinical importance of these adverse events and whether the findings of EMPA-REG OUTCOME represent a class effect for SGLT2 inhibition or are specific to empagliflozin and will further elucidate the future role of SGLT2 inhibitors in the individualized management of patients with type 2 diabetes. In this article, we discuss the nonglycemic outcomes associated with SGLT2 inhibitor therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes as well as the clinical implications of these agents.
Project description:In patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), the excretion of glucose by the kidney with sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors lowers glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, decreases body weight and visceral adiposity, as well as improving cardio-renal haemodynamics. Currently, four SGLT2 inhibitors are approved in the US and Europe to improve glycaemic control - empagliflozin, dapagliflozin, canagliflozin, and ertuglifozin. Recently, the SGLT2 inhibitor empagliflozin was approved by the FDA for the reduction of cardiovascular (CV) death in adults with T2D and CV disease (CVD). This approval was based on the findings of the Empagliflozin, Cardiovascular Outcomes, and Mortality in Type 2 Diabetes (EMPA-REG OUTCOME) study, which was the first study to show a significant reduction of a primary CV endpoint with a glucose-lowering agent. In this study, the primary outcome (CV mortality, non-fatal myocardial infarction [MI] and non-fatal stroke) was reduced by empagliflozin (10.5%; 490/4,687) compared with placebo (12.1%; 282/2,333); hazard ratio (HR), 0.86 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.74, 0.99). The primary outcome was driven by a large reduction of CV mortality (relative risk reduction [RRR], 38%). Empagliflozin also reduced all-cause mortality (RRR, 32%). Furthermore, empagliflozin reduced the adjudicated outcome of heart failure (HF) hospitalisation by 35% (HR, 0.65; 95% CI: 0.50, 0.85). Other non-adjudicated measures of HF outcomes were similarly reduced including investigator reported HF, the introduction of loop diuretics and death from HF. In the analysis of renal outcomes, incident or worsening nephropathy was reduced for empagliflozin (12.7%) compared with placebo (18.8%); HR, 0.61 (95% CI: 0.53, 0.70). Empagliflozin significantly reduced the risk of progression to macroalbuminuria (38%) and doubling of creatinine (44%), as well as the need of starting renal-replacement therapy (55%). The benefits of empagliflozin for the reduction of CV death, all-cause death and hospitalisation for HF were observed across a range of baseline subgroups such as HbA1c level and renal function (down to estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] 30 ml/min/1.73 m2). The rapid reduction of HF outcomes with empagliflozin is observed across the spectrum of CVD and HF risk and represents a therapeutic advance in the prevention and perhaps also in the treatment of HF, an often poorly recognised complication of T2D. This review discusses the EMPA-REG OUTCOME study and the implications for treating patients with T2D and CVD.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is associated with cardiovascular death, including sudden cardiac death due to arrhythmias. Patients with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) are also at high risk of developing a clinically significant ventricular arrhythmia. It has been reported that sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors can reduce cardiovascular deaths; however, the physiological mechanisms of this remain unclear. It is, however, well known that SGLT2 inhibitors increase blood ketone bodies, which have been suggested to have sympatho-suppressive effects. Empagliflozin (EMPA) is an SGLT2 inhibitor. The current clinical trial titled "Placebo-controlled, double-blind study of empagliflozin (EMPA) and implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (EMPA-ICD) in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM)" was designed to investigate the antiarrhythmic effects of EMPA. METHODS:The EMPA-ICD study is a prospective, multicenter, placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized, investigator-initiated clinical trial currently in progress. A total of 210 patients with T2DM (hemoglobin A1c 6.5-10.0%) will be randomized (1:1) to receive once-daily placebo or EMPA, 10 mg, for 24 weeks. The primary endpoint is the number of clinically significant ventricular arrhythmias for 24 weeks before and 24 weeks after study drug administration, as documented by the ICD. The secondary endpoints of the study are the change from baseline concentrations in blood ketone and catecholamine 24 weeks after drug treatment. CONCLUSION:The EMPA-ICD study is the first clinical trial to assess the effect of an SGLT2 inhibitor on clinically significant ventricular arrhythmias in patients with T2DM and an ICD. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Unique trial number, jRCTs031180120 ( https://jrct.niph.go.jp/latest-detail/jRCTs031180120 ).