Plasma exosome miR-196a and miR-1246 are potential indicators of localized pancreatic cancer.
ABSTRACT: Patients with localized pancreatic cancer (stage I and stage IIA) have a much higher survival rate than those presenting at later stages, yet early detection remains a challenge to this malignancy. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether exosome miRNA signatures are indicative of localized pancreatic cancer. Exosomes were collected from the conditioned media of pancreatic cancer cell lines and plasma samples of localized pancreatic cancer patients (Stage I-IIA, n=15), and healthy subjects (n=15). Cellular and exosome miRNAs from pancreatic cancer cell lines were profiled by next-generation small RNA sequencing. Plasma exosome miRNA expression was analyzed by qRT-PCR. We found that certain miRNAs, such as miR-196a and miR-1246, are highly enriched in pancreatic cancer exosomes. Consistently, plasma exosome miR-196a and miR-1246 levels were significantly elevated in pancreatic cancer patients as compared to healthy subjects. An analysis of the cancer subtypes indicated that plasma exosome miR-196a is a better indicator of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), whereas plasma exosome miR-1246 is significantly elevated in patients with intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN). In contrast, there were no differences in the plasma exosome miR-196a and miR-1246 levels between patients with pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (NET) and healthy subjects. In conclusion, we demonstrate that certain miRNA species, such as miR-196a and miR-1246, are highly enriched in pancreatic cancer exosomes and elevated in plasma exosomes of patients with localized pancreatic cancer.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Exosomes are extracellular vesicles containing a variety of biological molecules including microRNAs (miRNAs). We have recently demonstrated that certain miRNA species are selectively and highly enriched in pancreatic cancer exosomes with miR-1246 being the most abundant. Exosome miRNAs have been shown to mediate intercellular communication in the tumor microenvironment and promote cancer progression. Therefore, understanding how exosomes selectively enrich specific miRNAs to initiate exosome miRNA signaling in cancer cells is critical to advancing cancer exosome biology. RESULTS:The aim of this study was to identify RNA binding proteins responsible for selective enrichment of exosome miRNAs in cancer cells. A biotin-labeled miR-1246 probe was used to capture RNA binding proteins (RBPs) from PANC-1 cells. Among the RBPs identified through proteomic analysis, SRSF1, EIF3B and TIA1 were highly associated with the miR-1246 probe. RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) confirmed the binding of SRSF1 to miR-1246. Lentivirus shRNA knockdown of SRSF1 in pancreatic cancer cells selectively reduced exosome miRNA enrichment whereas GFP-SRSF1 overexpression enhanced the enrichment as analyzed by next generation small RNA sequencing and qRT-PCR. miRNA sequence motif analysis identified a common motif shared by 36/45 of SRSF1-associated exosome miRNAs. EMSA confirmed that shared motif decoys inhibit the binding of SRSF1 to the miR-1246 sequence. CONCLUSIONS:We conclude that SRSF1 mediates selective exosome miRNA enrichment in pancreatic cancer cells by binding to a commonly shared miRNA sequence motif. Video Abstract.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Cisplatin resistance is a major challenge for advanced head and neck cancer (HNC). Understanding the underlying mechanisms and developing effective strategies against cisplatin resistance are highly desired in the clinic. However, how tumor stroma modulates HNC growth and chemoresistance is unclear. RESULTS:We show that cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are intrinsically resistant to cisplatin and have an active role in regulating HNC cell survival and proliferation by delivering functional miR-196a from CAFs to tumor cells via exosomes. Exosomal miR-196a then binds novel targets, CDKN1B and ING5, to endow HNC cells with cisplatin resistance. Exosome or exosomal miR-196a depletion from CAFs functionally restored HNC cisplatin sensitivity. Importantly, we found that miR-196a packaging into CAF-derived exosomes might be mediated by heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (hnRNPA1). Moreover, we also found that high levels of plasma exosomal miR-196a are clinically correlated with poor overall survival and chemoresistance. CONCLUSIONS:The present study finds that CAF-derived exosomal miR-196a confers cisplatin resistance in HNC by targeting CDKN1B and ING5, indicating miR-196a may serve as a promising predictor of and potential therapeutic target for cisplatin resistance in HNC.
Project description:Introduction: microRNAs are promising candidate breast cancer biomarkers due to their cancer-specific expression profiles. However, efforts to develop circulating breast cancer biomarkers are challenged by the heterogeneity of microRNAs in the blood. To overcome this challenge, we aimed to develop a molecular profile of microRNAs specifically secreted from breast cancer cells. Our first step towards this direction relates to capturing and analyzing the contents of exosomes, which are small secretory vesicles that selectively encapsulate microRNAs indicative of their cell of origin. To our knowledge, circulating exosome microRNAs have not been well evaluated as biomarkers for breast cancer diagnosis or monitoring. Methods: Exosomes were collected from the conditioned media of human breast cancer cell lines, mouse plasma of patient-derived orthotopic xenograft models (PDX), and human plasma samples. Exosomes were verified by electron microscopy, nanoparticle tracking analysis, and western blot. Cellular and exosome microRNAs from breast cancer cell lines were profiled by next-generation small RNA sequencing. Plasma exosome microRNA expression was analyzed by qRT-PCR analysis. Results: Small RNA sequencing and qRT-PCR analysis showed that several microRNAs are selectively encapsulated or highly enriched in breast cancer exosomes. Importantly, the selectively enriched exosome microRNA, human miR-1246, was detected at significantly higher levels in exosomes isolated from PDX mouse plasma, indicating that tumor exosome microRNAs are released into the circulation and can serve as plasma biomarkers for breast cancer. This observation was extended to human plasma samples where miR-1246 and miR-21 were detected at significantly higher levels in the plasma exosomes of 16 breast cancer patients as compared to the plasma exosomes of healthy control subjects. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis indicated that the combination of plasma exosome miR-1246 and miR-21 levels is a better indicator of breast cancer than their individual levels. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that certain microRNA species, such as miR-21 and miR-1246, are selectively enriched in human breast cancer exosomes and significantly elevated in the plasma of breast cancer patients. These findings indicate a potential new strategy to selectively analyze plasma breast cancer microRNAs indicative of the presence of breast cancer. Overall design: The small RNA in the cells and exosomes of the normal mammary epithelial cell line (MCF10A) and two breast cancer cell lines (MCF7 and MDA-MB-231) were analyzed by Next Gen RNA Sequencing.
Project description:Exosomes are small (30-100 nm) membrane vesicles secreted by a variety of cell types and only recently have emerged as a new avenue for cell-to-cell communication. They are natural shuttles of RNA and protein cargo, making them attractive as potential therapeutic delivery vehicles. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNAs which regulate biological processes and can be found in exosomes. Here we characterized the miRNA contents of exosomes derived from human neural stem cells (hNSCs). Our investigated hNSC line is a clonal, conditionally immortalized cell line, compliant with good manufacturing practice (GMP), and in clinical trials for stroke and critical limb ischemia in the UK (clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01151124, NCT02117635, and NCT01916369). By using next generation sequencing (NGS) technology we identified the presence of a variety of miRNAs in both exosomal and cellular preparations. Many of these miRNAs were enriched in exosomes indicating that cells specifically sort them for extracellular release. Although exosomes have been proven to contain miRNAs, the copy number quantification per exosome of a given miRNA remains unclear. Herein we quantified by real-time PCR a highly shuttled exosomal miRNA subtype (hsa-miR-1246) in order to assess its stoichiometry per exosome. Furthermore, we utilized an in vitro system to confirm its functional transfer by measuring the reduction in luciferase expression using a 3' untranslated region dual luciferase reporter assay. In summary, NGS analysis allowed the identification of a unique set of hNSC derived exosomal miRNAs. Stoichiometry and functional transfer analysis of one of the most abundant identified miRNA, hsa-miR-1246, were measured to support biological relevance of exosomal miRNA delivery.
Project description:Plasma exosomal microRNAs (miRNAs) are considered as valid circulating biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), the most commonly used technique to assess circulating miRNA levels, requires a normalization step involving uniformly expressed endogenous miRNAs. However, there is still no consensus on reference miRNAs for plasma exosomal miRNA abundance normalization. In this study, we identified a panel of miRNAs with stable abundance by analyzing public plasma exosome RNA-seq data and selected miR-486-5p, miR-26a-5p, miR-423-5p and miR191-5p as candidate normalizers. Next, we tested the abundance variation of these miRNAs by qRT-PCR in plasma exosomes of healthy donors and pediatric patients with anaplastic large cell lymphoma, Burkitt lymphoma, Hodgkin lymphoma and mature B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. MiR-486-5p and miR-26a-5p showed the most stable levels, both between healthy controls and patients and among the malignancies analyzed. In light of previous reports on miRNA stability in different exosome isolation methods, our data indicated that miR-26a-5p is a bona fide reference miRNA for qRT-PCR normalization to evaluate miRNA abundance from circulating plasma exosomes in studies of hematological malignancies.
Project description:Intercellular communication between vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and endothelial cells (ECs) is essential for the maintenance of vascular homeostasis. The presence of exosomes, a recently discovered player in vascular cell communication, has been associated with vascular disease progression. However, the detailed mechanism of how the signal mediated by exosomes affects the function of vascular cells during vascular pathogenesis is yet to be further understood. In this study, we investigated the expression of exosomal microRNAs (miRNAs) secreted by VSMCs and their functional relevance to ECs in pathogenesis, including their role in processes such as platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) stimulation. We observed that PDGF stimulation contributes to a change in exosomal miRNA release from VSMCs; specifically, miR-1246, miR-182, and miR-486 were deficient in exosomes derived from PDGF-stimulated VSMCs. The reduced miRNA expression in these exosomes is associated with an increase in EC migration. These findings increase our understanding of exosome-mediated crosstalk between vascular cells under a pathological condition.
Project description:Exososmes, potent intercellular communicators, are supposed to contribute to metastasis formation, which we confirmed for exosomes of the metastatic rat pancreatic adenocarcinoma line BSp73ASML that promote metastatic settlement in lymph nodes and lung of poorly metastatic BSp73ASML cells with a selective CD44v4-v7 (BSp73ASML-CD44vkd) knockdown. To define the molecular pathway(s), whereby exosomes contribute to premetastatic niche preparation, we profiled mRNA miRNA of BSp73ASMLwt and BSp73ASML-CD44vkd- exosomes and evaluated the impact on potential target cells. BSp73ASML exosomes are recovered in the draining lymph node after subcutaneous injection. In vitro, they preferentially bind and are taken-up by lymph node stroma cells (LnStr) and lung fibroblasts (LuFb) that were chosen as exosome targets. BSp73ASMLwt and BSp73ASML-CD44kd exosomes contain a restricted repertoire of mRNA and miRNA, hwere the lattter differe significantly between the two lines and even more pronounced, exosomes derived thereof with a not yet explored dominance of tumor-suppressor miRNA in ASML-CD44kd cells and exosomes. Both, exosomal mRNA and miRNA are recovered in target cells and exosome-uptake is accompanied by significant changes in gene expression. We didn't observe a correlation between exosomal mRNA and changes in target cell mRNA or proteins. Instead transferred miRNA significantly affected target cell mRNA translation as demonstrated for selected, most abundant ASML exosomal miRNA besides others, miR-494 known target MAL (myelin and lymphocytes protein)/cadherin17, and miR-542-3p which targets TRAF/cadherin17. Furthermore, MMP transcription suggested to accompany cadherin17 dwon-regulation was upregulated in miR-494 or miR542-3p transfected or exosome co-cultured LnStr. Taken together, tumor exosomes target in vivo non-transformed cells in premetastatic organs. Exosome uptake induced altered target celll gene expression is strongly promoted by exosomal miRNA where we demonstrate for the first time that exosomes/exosomal miRNA from a metastasizing tumor line can modulate stroma cells from premetastatic organs. Endothelial cells lines were treated with pancreatic adenocarcinoma (AS) derived exosomes or pancreatic adenocarcinoma derived exosomes expressing tetraspanin 8. Total RNA was isolated and used to perform the Agilent gene expression microarrays. In this assay a replicate of endothelial cell lines treated with ASTspan8 were also included. Moreover, total RNA from both base line expression of endothelial cells and rat endothelial fibroblasts were also used to perfrom gene expression microarrays. RNA isolated from Rat endothelial fibroblasts treated with the exosomes derived from rat pancreatic adenocarcinoma and exosomes derived from rat pancreatic adenocarcinoma expressing tetraspanin8 were individually used to perfrom gene expression microarrays. RNA isolated from exosomes derived from rat pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell lines expressing tetraspanin were used to peform gene expresiion to see the base line expression. Another replicate were also used. RNA isolated from base line or control of rat pancreatic adenocarcinoma wild type cells and also base line RNA isolated from rat pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells lines where CD44 was knock-down.
Project description:Metastasis is associated with poor prognosis in cancers. Exosomes, which are packed with RNA and proteins and are released in all biological fluids, are emerging as an important mediator of intercellular communication. However, the function of exosomes remains poorly understood in cancer metastasis. Here, we demonstrate that exosomes isolated by size-exclusion chromatography from a highly metastatic human oral cancer cell line, HOC313-LM, induced cell growth through the activation of ERK and AKT as well as promoted cell motility of the poorly metastatic cancer cell line HOC313-P. MicroRNA (miRNA) array analysis identified two oncogenic miRNAs, miR-342-3p and miR-1246, that were highly expressed in exosomes. These miRNAs were transferred to poorly metastatic cells by exosomes, which resulted in increased cell motility and invasive ability. Moreover, miR-1246 increased cell motility by directly targeting DENN/MADD Domain Containing 2D (DENND2D). Taken together, our findings support the metastatic role of exosomes and exosomal miRNAs, which highlights their potential for applications in miRNA-based therapeutics.
Project description:Exosome-mediated microRNAs (miRNAs) are closely related to the occurrence, development, invasion, metastasis, therapeutic resistance, diagnosis and treatment of malignant tumors. Guide-strand miRNA and passenger-strand miRNA (miRNA*) exist in miRNA processing, but the function of passenger-strand miRNA is often overlooked. In this study, we attempted to identify functional miRNA*s in exosomes derived from human colon cancer SW620 cells. miRNA expression profiles of human normal colonic epithelial cells NCM460 and colon cancer cells SW620 were compared by high-throughput sequencing. According to the sequencing results, we defined two sets of differentially expressed miRNAs: "high in exosome and high in cell" (HEHC) and "high in exosome but low in cell" (HELC). As passenger-strand miRNAs, miR-2277-3p and miR-26b-3p, which belong to different sets, have diametrically opposite functions. MiR-2277-3p promotes proliferation, migration, and invasion of SW620 cells by targeting NUPR1L, while miR-26b-3p exerts an inhibitory effect by targeting PFDN1. Using exosomes as transport vectors, the effect of exosomes rich in miR-2277-3p on cells is consistent with the effect of liposome-transfected overexpressed miR-2277-3p, resulting in a cancer-promoting effect. However, exosomes rich in miR-26b-3p did not have a tumor suppressor effect. Further analysis revealed that exosomes rich in miR-2277-3p also had a high abundance of integrin ?4. Altering the abundance of integrin ?4 in exosomes changes the ability of exosomes to be taken up by cells, thereby altering the paracrine effects of exosomes. In summary, we revealed the fact that a large number of passenger-strand miRNAs exist in exosomes of colon cancer cells, these miRNAs are preliminarily categorized into two sets, and miR-2277-3p and miR-26b-3p, as representatives of each set, showed opposite functions. In addition, we revealed that integrin ?4 is a marker of exosome heterogeneity in colon cancer cells, which directly correlates with the ability of exosomes to be uptaken by cells of the same kind, thus regulating the paracrine effect of exosomes.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer has a poor prognosis because of its high refractoriness to chemotherapy and tumour recurrence, and these properties have been attributed to cancer stem cells (CSCs). MicroRNA (miRNA) regulates various molecular mechanisms of cancer progression associated with CSCs. This study aimed to identify the candidate miRNA and to characterise the clinical significance. METHODS: We established gemcitabine-resistant Panc1 cells, and induced CSC-like properties through sphere formation. Candidate miRNAs were selected through microarray analysis. The overexpression and knockdown experiments were performed by evaluating the in vitro cell growth and in vivo tumourigenicity. The expression was studied in 24 pancreatic cancer samples after laser captured microdissection and by immunohistochemical staining. RESULTS: The in vitro drug sensitivity of pancreatic cancer cells was altered according to the miR-1246 expression via CCNG2. In vivo, we found that miR-1246 could increase tumour-initiating potential and induced drug resistance. A high expression level of miR-1246 was correlated with a worse prognosis and CCNG2 expression was significantly lower in those patients. CONCLUSIONS: miR-1246 expression was associated with chemoresistance and CSC-like properties via CCNG2, and could predict worse prognosis in pancreatic cancer patients.