Synergistic Regulation of Coregulator/Nuclear Receptor Interaction by Ligand and DNA.
ABSTRACT: Nuclear receptor (NR) transcription factors bind various coreceptors, small-molecule ligands, DNA response element sequences, and transcriptional coregulator proteins to affect gene transcription. Small-molecule ligands and DNA are known to influence receptor structure, coregulator protein interaction, and function; however, little is known on the mechanism of synergy between ligand and DNA. Using quantitative biochemical, biophysical, and solution structural methods, including 13C-detected nuclear magnetic resonance and hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) mass spectrometry, we show that ligand and DNA cooperatively recruit the intrinsically disordered steroid receptor coactivator-2 (SRC-2/TIF2/GRIP1/NCoA-2) receptor interaction domain to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-retinoid X receptor alpha (PPAR?-RXR?) heterodimer and reveal the binding determinants of the complex. Our data reveal a thermodynamic mechanism by which DNA binding propagates a conformational change in PPAR?-RXR?, stabilizes the receptor ligand binding domain dimer interface, and impacts ligand potency and cooperativity in NR coactivator recruitment.
Project description:The ability of a retinoid X receptor (RXR) to heterodimerize with many nuclear receptors, including LXR, PPAR, NGF1B and RAR, underscores its pivotal role within the nuclear receptor superfamily. Among these heterodimers, PPAR:RXR is considered an important signalling mediator of both PPAR ligands, such as fatty acids, and 9-cis retinoic acid (9-cis RA), an RXR ligand. In contrast, the existence of an RXR/9-cis RA signalling pathway independent of PPAR or any other dimerization partner remains disputed. Using in vivo chromatin immunoprecipitation, we now show that RXR homodimers can selectively bind to functional PPREs and induce transactivation. At the molecular level, this pathway requires stabilization of the homodimer-DNA complexes through ligand-dependent interaction with the coactivator SRC1 or TIF2. This pathway operates both in the absence and in the presence of PPAR, as assessed in cells carrying inactivating mutations in PPAR genes and in wild-type cells. In addition, this signalling pathway via PPREs is fully functional and can rescue the severe hypothermia phenotype observed in fasted PPARalpha-/- mice. These observations have important pharmacological implications for the development of new rexinoid-based treatments.
Project description:The nuclear receptor (NR) coactivator TIF2 possesses a single NR interaction domain (NID) and two autonomous activation domains, AD1 and AD2. The TIF2 NID is composed of three NR-interacting modules each containing the NR box motif LxxLL. Mutation of boxes I, II and III abrogates TIF2-NR interaction and stimulation, in transfected cells, of the ligand-induced activation function-2 (AF-2) present in the ligand-binding domains (LBDs) of several NRs. The presence of an intact NR interaction module II in the NID is sufficient for both efficient interaction with NR holo-LBDs and stimulation of AF-2 activity. Modules I and III are poorly efficient on their own, but synergistically can promote interaction with NR holo-LBDs and AF-2 stimulation. TIF2 AD1 activity appears to be mediated through CBP, as AD1 could not be separated mutationally from the CBP interaction domain. In contrast, TIF2 AD2 activity apparently does not involve interaction with CBP. TIF2 exhibited the characteristics expected for a bona fide NR coactivator, in both mammalian and yeast cells. Moreover, in mammalian cells, a peptide encompassing the TIF2 NID inhibited the ligand-induced AF-2 activity of several NRs, indicating that NR AF-2 activity is either mediated by endogenous TIF2 or by coactivators recognizing a similar surface on NR holo-LBDs.
Project description:PPAR? is a key regulator of glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitization. PPAR? must heterodimerize with its dimeric partner, the retinoid X receptor (RXR), to bind DNA and associated coactivators such as p160 family members or PGC-1? to regulate gene networks. To understand how coactivators are recognized by the functional heterodimer PPAR?/RXR? and to determine the topological organization of the complexes, we performed a structural study using small angle X-ray scattering of PPAR?/RXR? in complex with DNA from regulated gene and the TIF2 receptor interacting domain (RID). The solution structures reveal an asymmetry of the overall structure due to the crucial role of the DNA in positioning the heterodimer and indicate asymmetrical binding of TIF2 to the heterodimer.
Project description:Nuclear receptors are multi-domain transcription factors that bind to DNA elements from which they regulate gene expression. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) form heterodimers with the retinoid X receptor (RXR), and PPAR-gamma has been intensively studied as a drug target because of its link to insulin sensitization. Previous structural studies have focused on isolated DNA or ligand-binding segments, with no demonstration of how multiple domains cooperate to modulate receptor properties. Here we present structures of intact PPAR-gamma and RXR-alpha as a heterodimer bound to DNA, ligands and coactivator peptides. PPAR-gamma and RXR-alpha form a non-symmetric complex, allowing the ligand-binding domain (LBD) of PPAR-gamma to contact multiple domains in both proteins. Three interfaces link PPAR-gamma and RXR-alpha, including some that are DNA dependent. The PPAR-gamma LBD cooperates with both DNA-binding domains (DBDs) to enhance response-element binding. The A/B segments are highly dynamic, lacking folded substructures despite their gene-activation properties.
Project description:Transcriptional regulation controlled by thyroid hormone receptor (TR) drives events such as development, differentiation, and metabolism. TRs may act either as homodimers or as heterodimers with retinoid X receptor (RXR). Thyroid hormone T3 preferentially binds TR-RXR heterodimers, which activate transcription through coactivator recruitment. However, it is unclear whether TR-RXR heterodimers may also be responsive to the canonical RXR agonist 9-cis retinoic acid (9C) in the context of physiological gene regulation. New structural studies suggest that 9C promotes the displacement of bound coactivators from the heterodimer, modifying TR-RXR activity. To shed light on the molecular mechanisms that control TR-RXR function, we used biophysical approaches to characterize coregulator recruitment to TR-TR or to TR-RXR in the presence of T3 and/or 9C as well as cell-based assays to establish the functional significance of biophysical findings. Using cell-based and fluorescence assays with mutant and wild-type TR, we show that 9C does indeed have a function in the TR-RXR heterodimer context, in which it induces the release of corepressors. Furthermore, we show that 9C does not promote detectable conformational changes in the structure of the TR-RXR heterodimer and does not affect coactivator recruitment. Finally, our data support the view that DNA binding domain and Hinge regions are important to set up NR-coactivator binding interfaces. In summary, we showed that the RXR agonist 9C can regulate TR function through its modulation of corepressor dissociation.
Project description:Assessing the physical connections and allosteric communications in multi-domain nuclear receptor (NR) polypeptides has remained challenging, with few crystal structures available to show their overall structural organizations. Here we report the quaternary architecture of multi-domain retinoic acid receptor ?-retinoic X receptor ? (RAR?-RXR?) heterodimer bound to DNA, ligands and coactivator peptides, examined through crystallographic, hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry, mutagenesis and functional studies. The RAR? ligand-binding domain (LBD) and DNA-binding domain (DBD) are physically connected to foster allosteric signal transmission between them. Direct comparisons among all the multi-domain NRs studied crystallographically to date show significant variations within their quaternary architectures, rather than a common architecture adhering to strict rules. RXR remains flexible and adaptive by maintaining loosely organized domains, while its heterodimerization partners use a surface patch on their LBDs to form domain-domain interactions with DBDs.Nuclear receptors (NR) are multidomain proteins, which makes their crystallization challenging. Here the authors present the crystal structure of the retinoic acid receptor ?-retinoic X receptor ? (RAR?-RXR?) heterodimer bound to DNA, ligands and coactivator peptides, which shows that NR quaternary architectures are variable.
Project description:Peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor-? (PPAR?) is a nuclear hormone receptor that forms a heterodimeric complex with retinoid X receptor-? (RXR?) to regulate transcription of genes involved in fatty acid storage and glucose metabolism. PPAR? is a target for pharmaceutical intervention in type 2 diabetes, and insight into interactions between PPAR?, RXR?, and DNA is of interest in understanding the function and regulation of this complex. Phosphorylation of PPAR? by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) has been shown to dysregulate the expression of metabolic regulation genes, an effect that is counteracted by PPAR? ligands. We applied molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to study the relationship between the ligand-binding domains of PPAR? and RXR? with their respective DNA-binding domains. Our results reveal that phosphorylation alters collective motions within the PPAR?-RXR? complex that affect the LBD-LBD dimerization interface and the AF-2 coactivator binding region of PPAR?.
Project description:The MED1 subunit of the Mediator complex is an essential coactivator of nuclear receptor-mediated transcriptional activation. While structural requirements for ligand-dependent binding of classical coactivator motifs of MED1 to numerous nuclear receptor ligand-binding domains have been fully elucidated, the recognition of the full-length or truncated coactivator by full nuclear receptor complexes remain unknown. Here we present structural details of the interaction between a large part of MED1 comprising its structured N-terminal and the flexible receptor-interacting domains and the mutual heterodimer of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and the retinoid X receptor (RXR) bound to their cognate DNA response element. Using a combination of structural and biophysical methods we show that the ligand-dependent interaction between VDR and the second coactivator motif of MED1 is crucial for complex formation and we identify additional, previously unseen, interaction details. In particular, we identified RXR regions involved in the interaction with the structured N-terminal domain of MED1, as well as VDR regions outside the classical coactivator binding cleft affected by coactivator recruitment. These findings highlight important roles of each receptor within the heterodimer in selective recognition of MED1 and contribute to our understanding of the nuclear receptor-coregulator complexes.
Project description:The retinoic acid receptor (RAR) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily. This ligand-inducible transcription factor binds to DNA as a heterodimer with the retinoid X receptor (RXR) in the nucleus. The nucleus is a dynamic compartment and live-cell imaging techniques make it possible to investigate transcription factor action in real-time. We studied the diffusion of EGFP-RAR by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) to uncover the molecular interactions determining receptor mobility. In the absence of ligand, we identified two distinct species with different mobilities. The fast component has a diffusion coefficient of D(1)=1.8-6.0 ?m(2)/second corresponding to small oligomeric forms, whereas the slow component with D(2)=0.05-0.10 ?m(2)/second corresponds to interactions of RAR with the chromatin or other large structures. The RAR ligand-binding-domain fragment also has a slow component, probably as a result of indirect DNA-binding through RXR, with lower affinity than the intact RAR-RXR complex. Importantly, RAR-agonist treatment shifts the equilibrium towards the slow population of the wild-type receptor, but without significantly changing the mobility of either the fast or the slow population. By using a series of mutant forms of the receptor with altered DNA- or coregulator-binding capacity we found that the slow component is probably related to chromatin binding, and that coregulator exchange, specifically the binding of the coactivator complex, is the main determinant contributing to the redistribution of RAR during ligand activation.
Project description:Nuclear receptor (NR) coregulators include coactivators, contributing to holoreceptor transcriptional activity, and corepressors, mediating NR target gene silencing in the absence of hormone. We identified an atypical NR coregulator, TNF?-induced protein 3-interacting protein 1 (TNIP1), from a peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) ? screen of a human keratinocyte cDNA library. TNIP1's complex nomenclature parallels its additional function as an NF-?B inhibitor. Here we show TNIP1 is an atypical NR corepressor using two-hybrid systems, biochemical studies, and receptor activity assays. The requirements for TNIP1-PPAR interaction are characteristic for coactivators; however, TNIP1 partially decreases PPAR activity. TNIP1 has separable transcriptional activation and repression domains suggesting a modular nature to its overall effect. It may provide a means of lowering receptor activity in the presence of ligand without total loss of receptor function. TNIP1's multiple roles and expression in several cell types suggest its regulatory effect depends on its expression level and the expression of other regulators in NR and/or NF-?B signaling pathways. As a NR coregulator, TNIP1 targeting agonist-bound PPAR and reducing transcriptional activity offers control of receptor signaling not available from typical corepressors and may contribute to combinatorial regulation of transcription.