Subsequent Thrombotic Outcomes in Patients with Ischemic Stroke with Antiphospholipid Antibody Positivity.
ABSTRACT: International consensus criteria for antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) require persistently positive antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) and medium or high titers in association with clinical manifestations. However, the clinical relevance of persistence and titers of aPL in patients with stroke has not been identified. We aimed to investigate the risk of subsequent thrombotic events in patients with ischemic stroke with aPL positivity in terms of aPL status.We reviewed the medical records of 99 patients with ischemic stroke with at least one or more aPL-positivity (i.e., positivity for aCL, anti-?2-glycoprotein-1, and/or lupus anticoagulants). The patients were divided into two groups: "definite APS" who fulfilled the laboratory criteria and "indefinite APS" who fell short of the criteria. We compared the risk of subsequent thrombotic events between the two groups. Cox proportional hazards model and Kaplan-Meier survival curves were used for the analyses.Of the 99 patients, 46 (46%) were classified as having definite APS and 53 (54%) as having indefinite APS. The mean follow-up was 51.6 months. Overall event numbers were 14 (30.4%) in definite APS and 16 (30.2%) in indefinite APS. Increased subsequent thrombotic events (hazard ratio 1.039; 95% confidence interval 0.449-2.404; p=0.930) and decreased time to thrombotic events (log-rank p=0.321) were not associated with aPL status.There was no increased risk of subsequent thrombotic events in ischemic stroke patients with definite APS, compared with those with indefinite APS.
Project description:Background: Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an acquired autoimmune disorder defined by the presence of both clinical (thromboembolic events or pregnancy morbidity) and laboratory (antiphospholipid antibodies, aPL) manifestations. Despite their importance, several clinical manifestations strongly associated with APS such as livedo reticularis (LR), thrombocytopenia, sicca-ophthalmic(sicca), heart, or neurological manifestations are not included in the APS clinical classification criteria. Circulating immune complexes (CIC) formed by Beta-2-glycoprotein I (B2GPI) and aPL (B2-CIC) have been described and their presence has been related with thrombotic events. Methods: Cross-sectional and observational cohort study in APS patients with thrombotic symptomatology. Setting and Participants: Fifty-seven patients from the University Hospital Center Bezanijska Kosa (Belgrade, Serbia) who met the APS classification criteria (35 with primary APS and 22 with APS associated to systemic lupus erythematosus). This study aimed to determine the prevalence of B2-CIC in APS patients and to evaluate their association with clinical manifestations of APS not included in the classification criteria. Results: B2-CIC prevalence in APS patients was 19.3%. The presence of thrombocytopenia (OR:5.7), livedo reticularis (OR:5.6), sicca (OR:12.6), and leukopenia (OR:5.6) was significantly higher in patients with B2-CIC than in the rest of APS patients. C3 and C4 complement factor levels were significantly lower in B2-CIC positive patients, which suggests a greater consumption of complement. Patients with quadruple aPL positivity (triple aPL-positivity plus the presence of B2-CIC) showed a higher prevalence of thrombocytopenia, leucopenia and LR than those with single/double aPL-positivity. No significant differences were found in the frequencies observed in patients with triple-only vs. single/double aPL-positivity. There were no significant differences between patients with primary APS and lupus-associated APS regarding the prevalence of B2-CIC and outcomes. Conclusions: Presence of B2-CIC is strongly associated with several non-criteria clinical manifestations related to APS and to higher complement consumption. More studies are required to better understand the clinical significance of B2-CIC.
Project description:Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is defined by clinical manifestations that include thrombosis and/or fetal loss or pregnancy morbidity in patients with antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL). Antiphospholipid antibodies are among the most common causes of acquired thrombophilia, but unlike most of the genetic thrombophilias are associated with both venous and arterial thrombosis. Despite an abundance of clinical and basic research on aPL, a unified mechanism that explains their prothrombotic activity has not been defined; this may reflect the heterogeneity of aPL and/or the fact that they may influence multiple pro- and/or antithrombotic pathways. Antiphospholipid antibodies are directed primarily toward phospholipid binding proteins rather than phospholipid per se, with the most common antigenic target being ?2-glycoprotein 1 (?2GPI) although antibodies against other targets such as prothrombin are well described. Laboratory diagnosis of aPL depends upon the detection of a lupus anticoagulant (LA), which prolongs phospholipid-dependent anticoagulation tests, and/or anticardiolipin and anti-?2-glycoprotein 1 antibodies. Indefinite anticoagulation remains the mainstay of therapy for thrombotic APS, although new strategies that may improve outcomes are emerging. Preliminary reports suggest caution in the use of direct oral anticoagulants in patients with APS-associated thrombosis. Based on somewhat limited evidence, aspirin and low molecular weight heparin are recommended for obstetrical APS. There remains a pressing need for better understanding of the pathogenesis of APS in humans, for identification of clinical and laboratory parameters that define patients at greatest risk for APS-related events, and for targeted treatment of this common yet enigmatic disorder.
Project description:Vascular thrombosis and pregnancy morbidity represent the clinical manifestations of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), which is serologically characterized by the persistent positivity of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL). Antiplatelet and anticoagulant agents currently provide the mainstay of APS treatment. However, the debate is still open: controversies involve the intensity and the duration of anticoagulation and the treatment of stroke and refractory cases. Unfortunately, the literature cannot provide definite answers to these controversial issues as it is flawed by many limitations, mainly due to the recruitment of patients not fulfilling laboratory and clinical criteria for APS. The recommended therapeutic management of different aPL-related clinical manifestations is hereby presented, with a critical appraisal of the evidence supporting such approaches. Cutting edge therapeutic strategies are also discussed, presenting the pioneer reports about the efficacy of novel pharmacological agents in APS. Thanks to a better understanding of aPL pathogenic mechanisms, new therapeutic targets will soon be explored. Much work is still to be done to unravel the most controversial issues about APS management: future studies are warranted to define the optimal management according to aPL risk profile and to assess the impact of a strict control of cardiovascular risk factors on disease control.
Project description:Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune antibody-mediated condition characterized by thrombotic events and/or pregnancy morbidity in association with persistent positivity to antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL). The nervous system is frequently affected, as intracranial vessels are the most frequent site of arterial pathology. Over the course of years, many other neurological conditions not included in the diagnostic criteria, have been associated with APS. The pathogenic mechanisms behind the syndrome are complex and not fully elucidated. aPL enhance thrombosis, interfering with different pathways. Nevertheless, ischemic injury is not always sufficient to explain clinical features of the syndrome and immune-mediated damage has been advocated. This may be particularly relevant in the context of neurological complications. The reason why only a subgroup of patients develop non-criteria nervous system disorders and what determines the clinical phenotype are questions that remain open. The double nature, thrombotic and immunologic, of APS is also reflected by therapeutic strategies. In this review we summarize known neurological manifestations of APS, revisiting pathogenesis and current treatment options.
Project description:Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an acquired autoimmune condition characterized by thrombotic events, pregnancy morbidity, and laboratory evidence of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL). Management of these patients includes the prevention of a first thrombotic episode in at-risk patients (primary prevention) and preventing recurrent thrombotic complications in patients with a history of thrombosis (secondary prevention). Assessment of thrombotic risk in these patients, balanced against estimated bleeding risks associated with antithrombotic therapy could assist clinicians in determining whether antithrombotic therapy is warranted. Thrombotic risk can be assessed by evaluating a patient's aPL profile and additional thrombotic risk factors. Although antithrombotic options for secondary prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE) have been evaluated in clinical trials, studies in primary prevention of asymptomatic aPL-positive patients are needed. Primary prevention with aspirin may be considered in asymptomatic patients who have a high-risk aPL profile, particularly if additional risk factors are present. Secondary prevention with long-term anticoagulation is recommended based on estimated risks of VTE recurrence, although routine evaluation of thrombotic risk can assist in determining whether ongoing anticoagulation is warranted. Studies that stratify thrombotic risk in aPL-positive patients, and patients with APS evaluating antithrombotic and non-antithrombotic therapies will be useful in optimizing the management of these patients.
Project description:The antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is characterized by thrombosis and pregnancy morbidity in the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL). Complement is a system of enzymes and regulatory proteins of the innate immune system that plays a key role in the inflammatory response to pathogenic stimuli. The complement and coagulation pathways are closely linked, and expanding data indicate that complement may be activated in patients with aPL and function as a cofactor in the pathogenesis of aPL-associated clinical events. Complement activation by aPL generates C5a, which induces neutrophil tissue factor-dependent procoagulant activity. Beta-2-glycoprotein I, the primary antigen for pathogenic aPL, has complement regulatory effects in vitro. Moreover, aPL induce fetal loss in wild-type mice but not in mice deficient in specific complement components (C3, C5). Antiphospholipid antibodies also induce thrombosis in wild type mice and this effect is attenuated in C3 or C6 deficient mice, or in the presence of a C5 inhibitor. Increased levels of complement activation products have been demonstrated in sera of patients with aPL, though the association with clinical events remains unclear. Eculizumab, a terminal complement inhibitor, has successfully been used to treat catastrophic APS and prevent APS-related thrombotic microangiopathy in the setting of renal transplant. However, the mechanisms of complement activation in APS, its role in the pathogenesis of aPL related complications in humans, and the potential of complement inhibition as a therapeutic target in APS require further study.
Project description:Potentiation of neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) release is one mechanism by which antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL Abs) effect thrombotic events in patients with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). Surface adenosine receptors trigger cyclic AMP (cAMP) formation in neutrophils, and this mechanism has been proposed to regulate NETosis in some contexts. Here we report that selective agonism of the adenosine A2A receptor (CGS21680) suppresses aPL Ab-mediated NETosis in protein kinase A-dependent fashion. CGS21680 also reduces thrombosis in the inferior vena cavae of both control mice and mice administered aPL Abs. The antithrombotic medication dipyridamole is known to potentiate adenosine signaling by increasing extracellular concentrations of adenosine and interfering with the breakdown of cAMP. Like CGS21680, dipyridamole suppresses aPL Ab-mediated NETosis via the adenosine A2A receptor and mitigates venous thrombosis in mice. In summary, these data suggest an anti-inflammatory therapeutic paradigm in APS, which may extend to thrombotic disease in the general population.
Project description:Objectives:We evaluate the performance characteristics of antiphosphatidylserine (anti-PS), antiphosphatidylinositol (anti-PI), and antiphospholipid mixture (APhL) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) compared with anticardiolipin (aCL) and anti-?2 glycoprotein I (anti-?2GPI) in a large group of patients with antiphospholipid (aPL)-related diseases. Methods:Serum samples from 548 patients from the Hopkins and Jamaican systemic lupus erythematosus cohorts, the PROMISSE cohort, and the Antiphospholipid Standardization Laboratory were examined for immunoglobulin G (IgG)/immunoglobulin M (IgM) positivity in aCL, anti-?2GPI, anti-PS, anti-PI, and APhL ELISA assays. Results:All IgG assays were associated with one or more thrombotic and/or obstetric manifestations, with an increased risk associated with higher antibody titers. Analytical performance was similar among assays, but IgG assays performed better than IgM counterparts. Conclusions:Increasing titers of APhL, anti-PS, and anti-PI antibodies could indicate an increased risk of thrombotic and/or obstetric aPL-related manifestations. These assays may be promising biomarkers for particular APS manifestations.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To evaluate the subsequent rate of thrombosis among women with obstetric antiphospholipid syndrome (Ob-APS) in a multicentre database of antiphospholipid antibody (aPL)-positive patients, and the clinical utility of the adjusted Global Antiphospholipid Syndrome Score (aGAPSS), a validated tool to assess the likelihood of developing new thrombosis, in this group of patients.<h4>Design</h4>Retrospective study.<h4>Setting</h4>The Antiphospholipid Syndrome Alliance for Clinical Trials and International Networking Clinical Database and Repository.<h4>Population</h4>Women with Ob-APS.<h4>Methods</h4>Comparison of clinical and laboratory characteristics and measurement of aGAPSS in women with Ob-APS, with or without thrombosis, after initial pregnancy morbidity (PM).<h4>Main outcome measures</h4>Risk factors for thrombosis and aGAPSS.<h4>Results</h4>Of 550 patients, 126 had Ob-APS; 74/126 (59%) presented with thrombosis, and 47 (63%) of these women developed thrombosis after initial PM, in a mean time of 7.6 ± 8.2 years (4.9/100 patient years). Younger age at diagnosis of Ob-APS, additional cardiovascular risk factors, superficial vein thrombosis, heart valve disease, and multiple aPL positivity increased the risk of first thrombosis after PM. Women with thrombosis after PM had a higher aGAPSS compared with women with Ob-APS alone [median 11.5 (4-16) versus 9 (4-13); P = 0.0089].<h4>Conclusion</h4>Based on a retrospective analysis of our multicentre aPL database, 63% of women with Ob-APS developed thrombosis after initial obstetric morbidity; additional thrombosis risk factors, selected clinical manifestations, and high-risk aPL profile increased the risk. Women with subsequent thrombosis after Ob-APS had a higher aGAPSS at entry to the registry. We believe that aGAPSS is a valid tool to improve risk stratification in aPL-positive women.<h4>Tweetable abstract</h4>More than 60% of women with obstetric antiphospholipid syndrome had thrombosis after initial pregnancy morbidity.
Project description:Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a systemic autoimmune disease, characterized by thrombosis, obstetric complications and the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL), which drive endothelial injury and thrombophilia. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been implicated in endothelial and thrombotic pathologies. Here, we characterized the quantity, cellular origin and the surface expression of biologically active molecules in small EVs (sEVs) isolated from the plasma of thrombotic APS patients (n = 14), aPL-negative patients with idiopathic thrombosis (aPL-neg IT, n = 5) and healthy blood donors (HBD, n = 7). Nanoparticle tracking analysis showed similar sEV sizes (110-170 nm) between the groups, with an increased quantity of sEVs in patients with APS and aPL-neg IT compared to HBD. MACSPlex analysis of 37 different sEV surface markers showed endothelial (CD31), platelet (CD41b and CD42a), leukocyte (CD45), CD8 lymphocyte and APC (HLA-ABC) cell-derived sEVs. Except for CD8, these molecules were comparably expressed in all study groups. sEVs from APS patients were specifically enriched in surface expression of CD62P, suggesting endothelial and platelet activation in APS. Additionally, APS patients exhibited increased CD133/1 expression compared to aPL-neg IT, suggesting endothelial damage in APS patients. These findings demonstrate enhanced shedding, and distinct biological properties of sEVs in thrombotic APS.