Interleukin-26 Production in Human Primary Bronchial Epithelial Cells in Response to Viral Stimulation: Modulation by Th17 cytokines.
ABSTRACT: Interleukin (IL)-26 is abundant in human airways and this cytokine is involved in the local immune response to a bacterial stimulus in vivo. Specifically, local exposure to the toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 agonist endotoxin does increase IL-26 in human airways and this cytokine potentiates chemotactic responses in human neutrophils. In addition to T-helper (Th) 17 cells, alveolar macrophages can produce IL-26, but it remains unknown whether this cytokine can also be produced in the airway mucosa per se in response to a viral stimulus. Here, we evaluated whether this is the case using primary bronchial epithelial cells from the airway epithelium in vitro, and exploring the signaling mechanisms involved, including the modulatory effects of additional Th17 cytokines. Finally, we assessed IL-26 and its archetype signaling responses in healthy human airways in vivo. We found increased transcription and release of IL-26 protein after stimulation with the viral-related double stranded (ds) RNA polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly-IC) and showed that this IL-26 release involved mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB). The release of IL-26 in response to a viral stimulus was modulated by additional Th17 cytokines. Moreover, there was transcription of IL26 mRNA and expression of the protein in epithelial cells of bronchial brush and tissue biopsies respectively after harvest in vivo. In addition, the extracellular IL-26 protein concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples did correlate with increased epithelial cell transcription of an archetype intracellular signaling molecule downstream of the IL-26-receptor complex, STAT1, in the bronchial brush biopsies. Thus, our study suggests that viral stimulation causes the production of IL-26 in lining epithelial cells of human airway structural cells that constitute a critical immune barrier and that this production is modulated by Th17 cytokines.
Project description:Exposure to respiratory pathogens is a leading cause of exacerbations of airway diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Pellino-1 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase known to regulate virally-induced inflammation. We wished to determine the role of Pellino-1 in the host response to respiratory viruses in health and disease. Pellino-1 expression was examined in bronchial sections from patients with GOLD stage two COPD and healthy controls. Primary bronchial epithelial cells (PBECs) in which Pellino-1 expression had been knocked down were extracellularly challenged with the TLR3 agonist poly(I:C). C57BL/6 Peli1 -/- mice and wild type littermates were subjected to intranasal infection with clinically-relevant respiratory viruses: rhinovirus (RV1B) and influenza A. We found that Pellino-1 is expressed in the airways of normal subjects and those with COPD, and that Pellino-1 regulates TLR3 signaling and responses to airways viruses. In particular we observed that knockout of Pellino-1 in the murine lung resulted in increased production of proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF? upon viral infection, accompanied by enhanced recruitment of immune cells to the airways, without any change in viral replication. Pellino-1 therefore regulates inflammatory airway responses without altering replication of respiratory viruses.
Project description:Shp2 played an important role in cigarette-smoke-mediated inflammation, surfactant homeostasis and asthmatic airway remodeling. However, whether shp2 plays a key role in epithelium-associated allergic reaction is still unknown. In this study, LPS and OVA were observed to induce the production of IL-25 in bronchial epithelial cells in vitro via the activation of MAPK p38 and JNK. Furthermore, blockage of Shp2 by its specific inhibitor PHPS1 or by siRNA-mediated depletion was found to reduce the production of IL-25 in epithelial cells as well as the up-regulated LPS-triggered activation of JNK but not p38. To confirm the role of intra-bronchial epithelial Shp2 in OVA-induced allergic reaction, we generated CC10-rtTA/(tetO)7-Cre/Shp2f/f mice, where Shp2 was conditionally knocked out in bronchial epithelial cells. Surprisingly, specific deletion of Shp2 in bronchial epithelial cells showed a mild but insignificant effect on the expressions of epithelium-derived cytokines as well as TH2 and TH17 polarization following allergen-induced murine airway inflammation. Collectively, our data suggested that deletion of Shp2 impaired IL-25 production in bronchial epithelial cells in vitro, but might yet have minor influence on OVA-induced allergic reaction in vivo.
Project description:Airway epithelial cells contribute to the inflammatory response of the lung, and their innate immune response is primarily mediated via Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling. Cystic fibrosis (CF) airways are chronically infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, suggesting a modified immune response in CF. We investigated the TLR-4 expression and the inflammatory profile (IL-8 and IL-6 secretion) in CF bronchial epithelial cell line CFBE41o- and its CF transmembrane ion condcutance regulator (CFTR)-corrected counterpart grown under air-liquid interface conditions after stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from gram-negative bacteria. In CFTR-corrected cells, IL-8 and IL-6 secretions were constitutively activated but significantly increased after LPS stimulation compared with CFBE41o-. Blocking TLR-4 by a specific antibody significantly inhibited IL-8 secretion only in CFTR-corrected cells. Transfection with specific siRNA directed against TLR-4 mRNA significantly reduced the response to LPS in both cell lines. Fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis revealed significantly higher levels of TLR-4 surface expression in CFTR-corrected cells. In histologic lung sections of patients with CF, the TLR-4 expression in the bronchial epithelium was significantly reduced compared with healthy control subjects. In CF the loss of CFTR function appears to decrease innate immune responses, possibly by altering the expression of TLR-4 on airway epithelial cells. This may contribute to chronic bacterial infection of CF airways.
Project description:A hallmark of cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease is neutrophilic airway inflammation. Elevated neutrophil counts have been associated with decreased forced expiratory volume in 1 second and poor clinical measures in patients with CF. Interleukin 8 (IL-8), epithelial neutrophil activating protein 78 (ENA-78), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) contribute to neutrophil activation and disease pathogenesis in the airways of patients with CF. Drugs that modify the production of these chemokines in the airways could potentially benefit CF patients. Thus, we determined the effects of fenofibrate on their production in cell populations obtained from the airways. Human small airway epithelial cells and CF bronchial epithelial cells were treated with IL-1? to induce inflammation. We cotreated the cells with fenofibrate at concentrations ranging from 10 to 50 ?M to determine if this drug could attenuate the inflammation. IL-8, ENA-78, TNF-?, GM-CSF, and G-CSF production were measured from the cell culture supernates by ELISA. ANOVA statistical testing was conducted using SPSS 17.0. IL-1? increased the production of each of the chemokines by several fold. Fenofibrate reduced IL-1? induced production of each of these neutrophilic chemokines at the concentrations used. IL-1? increases the production of neutrophilic chemokines in airway epithelial cells. Cotreatment with fenofibrate blunts these processes. Fenofibrate should be explored as a therapeutic option to modulate the abundant neutrophilic inflammation observed in CF.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Exposure to ozone (O?) induces neutrophilic inflammation and goblet cell hyperplasia in humans and experimental animals. Because the solute carrier family 26-member 4 (Slc26a4; pendrin) gene induces mucin production and intraluminal acidification in the airways, it was hypothesized to be a key molecule in O?-induced airway injury. Thus, we evaluated the role of Slc26a4 and the protective effects of ammonium chloride (NH?Cl) in O?-induced airway injury in mice. METHODS:Six-week-old female BALB/c mice were exposed to filtered air or O? for 21 days (2 ppm for 3 hr/day). NH?Cl (0, 0.1, 1, and 10 mM) was administered intratracheally into the airways. Airway resistance was measured using a flexiVent system, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cells were differentially counted. Slc26a4 and Muc5ac proteins and mRNA were measured via western blotting, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and immunostaining. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, interferon (IFN)-?, interleukin (IL)-17, IL-1?, and caspase-1 were analyzed via western blotting. RESULTS:The levels Slc26a4 protein and mRNA significantly increased in lung tissues from Day 7 to Day 21 of O? exposure, with concomitant increases in lung resistance, numbers of goblet cells in lung tissues, and inflammatory cells and thiocyanate (SCN-) levels in BALF in a time-dependent manner. Treatment with NH?Cl significantly reduced these changes to levels similar to those of sham-treated mice, with a concomitant reduction of Slc26a4 proteins in lung lysates and SCN- levels in BALF. Slc26a4 protein was co-expressed with muc5ac protein in the bronchial epithelium, as indicated by immunofluorescence staining. NH?Cl treatment also significantly attenuated the O?-induced increases in IFN-?, TNF-?, IL-17, IL-1?, and p20-activated caspase-1. CONCLUSION:Slc26a4 may be involved in O?-induced inflammatory and epithelial changes in the airways via activation of the inflammasome and the induction of IL-17 and IFN-?. NH?Cl shows a potential as a therapeutic agent for controlling O?-induced airway inflammation and epithelial damage by modulating Slc26a4 expression.
Project description:Because of its advantage as a minimally invasive procedure, nasal brushings have been increasingly used and proposed as a valuable approach to study lower airway diseases in lieu of bronchial epithelial cells. However, there is limited or conflicting evidence pertaining to whether nasal samples can be surrogates to bronchial samples. The goal of the present study is to test whether nasal epithelial cells have similar antiviral and inflammatory responses to IL-13 treatment and rhinovirus infection, a condition mimicking virally induced asthma exacerbation. Nasal and bronchial airway epithelial cells taken from the same patient were cultured under submerged and air-liquid interface (ALI) culture in the absence or presence of rhinovirus and IL-13 treatment. Inflammatory cytokines IP-10 and eotaxin-3, antiviral gene Mx1 and viral levels were measured.In the absence of IL-13 treatment, nasal and bronchial cells showed a similar IP-10 response in both ALI and submerged cultures. Under the ALI culture, short term (e.g., 3 days) IL-13 treatment had a minimal effect on viral and Mx1 levels in both cell types. However, prolonged (e.g., 14 days) IL-13 treatments in both cell types decreased viral load and Mx1 expression. Under the submerged culture, IL-13 treatment in both cell types has minimal effects on viral load, IP-10 and Mx1. IL-13-induced eotaxin-3 production was similar in both types of cells under either submerged or ALI culture, which was not affected by viral infection.Our data suggest that nasal epithelial cells could serve as a surrogate to bronchial epithelial cells in future studies aimed at defining the role of type 2 cytokine IL-13 in regulating pro-inflammatory and antiviral responses.
Project description:Lung epithelial cells can influence immune responses to airway allergens. Airway epithelial cells also undergo apoptosis after encountering environmental allergens; yet, relatively little is known about how these are cleared, and their effect on airway inflammation. Here we show that airway epithelial cells efficiently engulf apoptotic epithelial cells and secrete anti-inflammatory cytokines, dependent upon intracellular signalling by the small GTPase Rac1. Inducible deletion of Rac1 expression specifically in airway epithelial cells in a mouse model resulted in defective engulfment by epithelial cells and aberrant anti-inflammatory cytokine production. Intranasal priming and challenge of these mice with house dust mite extract or ovalbumin as allergens led to exacerbated inflammation, augmented Th2 cytokines and airway hyper-responsiveness, with decreased interleukin (IL)-10 in bronchial lavages. Rac1-deficient epithelial cells produced much higher IL-33 upon allergen or apoptotic cell encounter, with increased numbers of nuocyte-like cells. Administration of exogenous IL-10 'rescued' the airway inflammation phenotype in Rac1-deficient mice, with decreased IL-33. Collectively, these genetic and functional studies suggest a new role for Rac1-dependent engulfment by airway epithelial cells and in establishing the anti-inflammatory environment, and that defects in cell clearance in the airways could contribute to inflammatory responses towards common allergens.
Project description:The IL-1 family of cytokines, which now includes 11 members, is well known to participate in inflammation. Although the most recently recognized IL-1 family cytokines (IL-1F5-11) have been shown to be expressed in airway epithelial cells, the regulation of their expression and function in the epithelium has not been extensively studied. We investigated the regulation of IL-1F5-11 in primary normal human bronchial epithelial cells. Messenger (m)RNAs for IL-1F6 and IL-1F9, but not IL-1F5, IL-1F8 or IL-1F10, were significantly up-regulated by TNF, IL-1?, IL-17 and the Toll-like receptor (TLR)3 ligand double-stranded (ds)RNA. mRNAs for IL-1F7 and IL-1F11 (IL-33) were weakly up-regulated by some of the cytokines tested. Notably, mRNAs for IL-1F6 and IL-1F9 were synergistically enhanced by the combination of TNF/IL-17 or dsRNA/IL-17. IL-1F9 protein was detected in the supernatant following stimulation with dsRNA or a combination of dsRNA and IL-17. IL-1F6 protein was detected in the cell lysate but was not detected in the supernatant. We screened for the receptor for IL-1F9 and found that lung fibroblasts expressed this receptor. We found that IL-1F9 activated mitogen-activated protein kinases and the transcription factor NF-?B in primary normal human lung fibroblasts. IL-1F9 also stimulated the expression of the neutrophil chemokines IL-8 and CXCL3 and the Th17 chemokine CCL20 in lung fibroblasts. These results suggest that epithelial activation by TLR3 (e.g., by respiratory viral infection) and exposure to cytokines from Th17 cells (IL-17) and inflammatory cells (TNF) may amplify neutrophilic inflammation in the airway via induction of IL-1F9 and activation of fibroblasts.
Project description:The airway epithelium can express factors that drive subepithelial airway remodeling. TGF-?2, vascular epithelial growth factor (VEGF), a disintegrin and metalloprotease 33 (ADAM33), and periostin are hypothesized to be involved in subepithelial remodeling and are overexpressed in adult asthmatic airways. Epidemiologic data suggest that lung function deficits in asthmatic patients are acquired in childhood.We sought to determine whether airway epithelial cells (AECs) from asthmatic children differentially express TGF-?2, VEGF, ADAM33, or periostin compared with cells from atopic nonasthmatic and healthy children intrinsically or in response to IL-4/IL-13 stimulation.Bronchial and nasal epithelial cells were obtained from brushings from well-characterized asthmatic (n = 16), atopic nonasthmatic (n = 9), and healthy (n = 15) children after achievement of anesthesia for elective procedures. After differentiation at an air-liquid interface (ALI) for 3 weeks, conditioned media were sampled and RNA was extracted from unstimulated and IL-4/IL-13-stimulated cultures. TGF-?2 and VEGF levels were measured with ELISA. ADAM33 and periostin expression was assessed by using real-time PCR.TGF-?2 and VEGF production was significantly greater in bronchial and nasal ALI cultures from asthmatic children than in cultures from atopic nonasthmatic and healthy children. TGF-?2 levels increased significantly in asthmatic cultures after IL-4/IL-13 stimulation. Within-subject correlation between nasal and bronchial ALI production of TGF-?2 (r = 0.64, P = .001) and VEGF (r = 0.73, P < .001) was good. Periostin expression was 3.7-fold higher in bronchial cells (P < .001) and 3.9-fold higher in nasal cells (P < .004) from asthmatic children than in cells from atopic nonasthmatic or healthy children. ADAM33 was not differentially expressed by AECs from asthmatic patients compared with that from cells from atopic nonasthmatic or healthy children.AECs from asthmatic children differentially express TGF-?2, VEGF, and periostin compared with cells from atopic nonasthmatic and healthy children. Nasal epithelial cells might be a suitable surrogate for bronchial cells that could facilitate investigation of the airway epithelium in future longitudinal pediatric studies.
Project description:The expression of IL-17F is seen in the airway of asthmatics and its level is correlated with disease severity. Several studies have demonstrated that IL-17F plays a pivotal role in allergic airway inflammation and induces several asthma-related molecules such as CCL20. IL-17F-induced CCL20 may attract Th17 cells into the airway resulting in the recruitment of additional Th17 cells to enhance allergic airway inflammation. We have recently identified, for the first time, that bronchial epithelial cells are its novel cell source in response to IL-33 via ST2-ERK1/2-MSK1 signaling pathway. The receptor for IL-17F is the heterodimeric complex of IL-17RA and IL-17RC, and IL-17F activates many signaling pathways. In a case-control study of 867 unrelated Japanese subjects, a His161 to Arg161 (H161R) substitution in the third exon of the IL-17F gene was associated with asthma. In atopic patients with asthma, prebronchodilator baseline FEV1/FVC values showed a significant association with the H161R variant. Moreover, this variant is a natural antagonist for the wild-type IL-17F. Moreover, IL-17F is involved in airway remodeling and steroid resistance. Hence, IL-17F may play an orchestrating role in the pathogenesis of asthma and may provide a valuable therapeutic target for development of novel strategies.