Motivations for Botanical Use by Socioeconomically Diverse, Urban Adults: Does Evidence Support Motivation?
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:The study objectives were to characterize botanical dietary supplement (BDS) use and to compare the motivations for botanical supplement (BS) use to the efficacy of the botanical in a socioeconomically and racially diverse urban adult population. METHODS:Subjects were from the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span (HANDLS) study, a 20-year prospective health disparities study with African American and white adults from Baltimore, Maryland. All study participants completed two dietary recalls and a dietary supplement (DS) questionnaire in Wave 3 (n?=?2140). Diet quality was evaluated by the Healthy Eating Index-2010 and the Mean Adequacy Ratio for 17 micronutrients. A comparison of reported motivations to efficacy reported in the literature of single BS was conducted. RESULTS:Approximately 50% (1062/2140) of participants took DS. Of these, 8% (n?=?178) reported taking either BS or BDS. It was found that BDS users had better diet quality than DS users as well as nonusers of DS. The top three motivations for BDS users were to improve overall health, to maintain health, and to supplement the diet. There is limited evidence for the efficacy of most BS. Review of the efficacy of the 15 BS reported by ?5% of the study population revealed beneficial health roles for only fiber, gingko biloba extract EGb 761, and hawthorn berry. CONCLUSION:To the authors' knowledge, this study is the first to report a better quality diet with BDS use for a racially diverse urban population. Yet, improvement in diet is needed because overall quality did not achieve current recommendations. To improve overall health, it may be beneficial for this population to focus on dietary modifications to reduce the risks associated with chronic diseases. In general, the reported motivations for BS use were not supported by clinical evidence.
Project description:This analysis characterizes use of dietary supplements (DS) and motivations for DS use among U.S. children (?18 years) by family income level, food security status, and federal nutrition assistance program participation using the 2011?2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. About one-third (32%) of children used DS, mostly multivitamin-minerals (MVM; 24%). DS and MVM use were associated with higher family income and higher household food security level. DS use was lowest among children in households participating in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP; 20%) and those participating in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC; 26%) compared to both income-eligible and income-ineligible nonparticipants. Most children who used DS took only one (83%) or two (12%) products; although children in low-income families took fewer products than those in higher income families. The most common motivations for DS and MVM use were to "improve (42% or 46%)" or "maintain (34 or 38%)" health, followed by "to supplement the diet (23 or 24%)" for DS or MVM, respectively. High-income children were more likely to use DS and MVM "to supplement the diet" than middle- or low-income children. Only 18% of child DS users took DS based on a health practitioner's recommendation. In conclusion, DS use was lower among children who were in low-income or food-insecure families, or families participating in nutrition assistance programs.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Dietary supplements are used by one-third of children. We examined motivations for supplement use in children, the types of products used by motivations, and the role of physicians and health care practitioners in guiding choices about supplements. METHODS: We examined motivations for dietary supplement use reported for children (from birth to 19 y of age; n = 8,245) using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010. RESULTS: Dietary supplements were used by 31% of children; many different reasons were given as follows: to "improve overall health" (41%), to "maintain health" (37%), for "supplementing the diet" (23%), to "prevent health problems" (20%), and to "boost immunity" (14%). Most children (~90%) who use dietary supplements use a multivitamin-mineral or multivitamin product. Supplement users tend to be non-Hispanic white, have higher family incomes, report more physical activity, and have health insurance. Only a small group of supplements used by children (15%) were based on the recommendation of a physician or other health care provider. CONCLUSION: Most supplements used by children are not under the recommendation of a health care provider. The most common reasons for use of supplements in children are for health promotion, yet little scientific data support this notion in nutrient-replete children.
Project description:Current estimates report that approximately 25% of U.S. adults use dietary supplements for medicinal purposes. Yet, regulation and transparency within the dietary supplement industry remains a challenge, and economic incentives encourage adulteration or augmentation of botanical dietary supplement products. Undisclosed changes to the dietary supplement composition could impact safety and efficacy; thus, there is a continued need to monitor possible botanical adulteration or mis-identification. Goldenseal, Hydrastis canadensis L. (Ranunculaceae), is a well-known botanical used to combat bacterial infections and digestive problems and is widely available as a dietary supplement. The goal of this study was to evaluate potential adulteration in commercial botanical products using untargeted metabolomics, with H. canadensis supplements serving as a test case. An untargeted ultraperformance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) metabolomics analysis was performed on 35 H. canadensis commercial products. Visual inspection of the chemometric data via principal component analysis (PCA) revealed several products that were distinct from the main groupings of samples, and subsequent evaluation of contributing metabolites led to their confirmation of the outliers as originating from a non-goldenseal species or a mixture of plant materials. The obtained results demonstrate the potential for untargeted metabolomics to discriminate between multiple unknown products and predict possible adulteration.
Project description:Due to the extensive use of botanical dietary supplements by consumers in the United States, there is a need for appropriate research and data to support safety assessments. Complexity and variability, both natural and introduced, of botanical dietary supplements make research on these products difficult. Botanical dietary supplements are regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C Act), as amended by the 1994 Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA). They are regulated as a category of food, which differs from the regulation of pharmaceutical products. Both manufacturers and the FDA are faced with the challenge of determining the best approaches for evaluating and monitoring the safety of botanical products. High quality botanicals research requires accurate identification and characterization of the material being studied. Inconsistent results in efficacy studies of botanical dietary supplements have led to efforts to improve the rigor and reproducibility of research in the field. Addressing the challenges associated with botanical dietary supplement safety is a global effort requiring coordination between numerous stakeholders, including researchers, suppliers, manufacturers, and regulators, all of whom play a role in ensuring that high quality products are available on the market.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Epilepsy is the most common brain disease in dogs. Recently, diets have been reported to have a positive impact on seizure activity and behaviour in various species including dogs with idiopathic epilepsy (IE). Historically, classic high fat ketogenic diets (KD) and medium chain triglycerides (MCT) KD have been successfully used to manage drug-resistant epilepsy. Similarly, an MCT enriched diet has been shown to improve seizure control and behavioural comorbidities in some dogs with IE. However, it is unknown whether an MCT dietary supplement (DS) may provide similar positive effects. METHODS:A 6-month prospective, randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover, multicentre dietary trial is designed comparing a 9% metabolic energy based calculated medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) oil supplement to a conventional 'control' DS. Only dogs which will have an International Veterinary Epilepsy Task Force Tier II level like diagnosis of IE which satisfied the following inclusion criteria are included: age between 6 months and ≤ 12 years; weighing between 4 and ≤ 65 kg; unremarkable interictal neurological examinations; no clinically significant findings on routine laboratory diagnostics; unremarkable brain MRI scan; have had at least 3 seizures in the previous 3 months prior to enrolment; treated with at least one ASD and being classified as resistant. All dogs are fed initially for 90 ± 2 days with either the control oil or the MCT oil alongside their normal diet, followed by 97 ± 2 days with the other supplement including a 7-day washout period. Overall, the aim is to recruit thirty-six patients at five different centres and to investigate the effect of MCTs as DS on seizure activity, tolerability, behavioural comorbidities and quality of life (QoL). DISCUSSION:Dietary interventions are rarely studied in a standardised form in veterinary medicine. The background diet, the cohort of animals and ASD received is standardised in this prospective diet trial to ensure representative data about the potential effect of MCT DS. If the study data confirms former findings, this would provide further evidence for the efficacy of MCTs as a management option for canine epilepsy. This publication should offer a repository of trial conditions and variable description with forecasted statistical analysis.
Project description:Motivations to adopt plant-based diets are of great public health interest. We used evidence mapping to identify methods that capture motivations to follow plant-based diets and summarize demographic trends in dietary motivations. We identified 56 publications that described 90 samples of plant-based diet followers and their dietary motivations. We categorized the samples by type of plant-based diet: vegan (19%), vegetarian (33%), semivegetarian (24%), and other, unspecified plant-based diet followers (23%). Of 90 studies examined, 31% administered multiple-choice questions to capture motivations, followed by rate items (23%), Food Choice Questionnaire (17%), free response (9%), and rank choices (10%). Commonly reported motivations were health, sensory/taste/disgust, animal welfare, environmental concern, and weight loss. The methodological variation highlights the importance of using a structured questionnaire to investigate dietary motivations in epidemiological studies. Motivations among plant-based diet followers appear distinct, but evidence on the association between age and motivations appears limited.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The potential effects of botanical dietary supplements (BDS) in the treatment of asthma have been proposed. However, the evidence of the effects of BDS use among patients with COPD is limited. The objective of our study was to exam the trends and effects of BDS use among US adults with COPD. METHODS:A serial, cross-sectional study was conducted by using data of the NHANSE from 1999 to 2016 (n = 53,348). COPD (n = 2,580) was identified by using self-reported diagnosis history, and any BDS use was identified in the past 30 days. The prevalence of BDS use was calculated for respondents with and without COPD. Simple linear regression models were applied to test for trends in BDS use. Multiple logistic regression models were used to identify the factors of BDS use and patients' clinical outcomes, including all-cause hospitalization and abnormal hemoglobin levels, associated with BDS use. The results were weighted to represent national estimates. RESULTS:The prevalence of BDS use was greater among participants who had COPD compared to the referent group (mean 16.77% vs. 15.11%, p = 0.044). The trend of BDS use decreased from 1999 through 2016 in COPD group (p = 0.0023), but the trend remained stable in the non-COPD group (P>0.05). Results of multivariate logistic regression models showed that patients with higher family income (?100% FPL) and graduated from college were more likely to use BDS compared with non-users. BDS use was associated with a lower likelihood of having all-cause hospitalization (adjusted odds ratio = 0.64; 95% CI 0.45-0.92) and abnormal levels of hemoglobin (adjusted odds ratio = 0.67; 95% CI 0.49-0.92) among adult COPD patients, after adjusting for covariates. CONCLUSIONS:The overall use of BDS decreased during 1999 through 2016 for US adults with COPD. The potential benefit of these supplemental medications use for clinical outcomes might exist for adult COPD patients.
Project description:In herbalism, botanical supplements are commonly believed to be safe remedies, however, botanical supplements and dietary ingredients interact with transport and metabolic processes, affecting drug disposition. Although a large number of studies have described that botanical supplements interfere with drug metabolism, the mode of their interaction with drug transport processes is not well described. Such interactions may result in serious undesired effects and changed drug efficacy, therefore, some studies on interaction between botanical supplement ingredients and drug transporters such as P-gp and OATPs are described here, suggesting that the interaction between botanical supplements and the drug transporters is clinically significant.
Project description:Cannabidiol (CBD) and ?(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) interact with transient receptor potential (TRP) channels and enzymes of the endocannabinoid system.The effects of 11 pure cannabinoids and botanical extracts [botanical drug substance (BDS)] from Cannabis varieties selected to contain a more abundant cannabinoid, on TRPV1, TRPV2, TRPM8, TRPA1, human recombinant diacylglycerol lipase ? (DAGL?), rat brain fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), COS cell monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), human recombinant N-acylethanolamine acid amide hydrolase (NAAA) and anandamide cellular uptake (ACU) by RBL-2H3 cells, were studied using fluorescence-based calcium assays in transfected cells and radiolabelled substrate-based enzymatic assays. Cannabinol (CBN), cannabichromene (CBC), the acids (CBDA, CBGA, THCA) and propyl homologues (CBDV, CBGV, THCV) of CBD, cannabigerol (CBG) and THC, and tetrahydrocannabivarin acid (THCVA) were also tested.CBD, CBG, CBGV and THCV stimulated and desensitized human TRPV1. CBC, CBD and CBN were potent rat TRPA1 agonists and desensitizers, but THCV-BDS was the most potent compound at this target. CBG-BDS and THCV-BDS were the most potent rat TRPM8 antagonists. All non-acid cannabinoids, except CBC and CBN, potently activated and desensitized rat TRPV2. CBDV and all the acids inhibited DAGL?. Some BDS, but not the pure compounds, inhibited MAGL. CBD was the only compound to inhibit FAAH, whereas the BDS of CBC > CBG > CBGV inhibited NAAA. CBC = CBG > CBD inhibited ACU, as did the BDS of THCVA, CBGV, CBDA and THCA, but the latter extracts were more potent inhibitors.These results are relevant to the analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects of cannabinoids and Cannabis extracts.
Project description:Introduction: Recent nationwide surveys found that natural products, including botanical dietary supplements, are used by ∼18% of adults. In many cases, there is a paucity of toxicological data available for these substances to allow for confident evaluations of product safety. The National Toxicology Program (NTP) has received numerous nominations from the public and federal agencies to study the toxicological effects of botanical dietary supplements. The NTP sought to evaluate the utility of in vitro quantitative high-throughput screening (qHTS) assays for toxicological assessment of botanical and dietary supplements. Materials and Methods: In brief, concentration-response assessments of 90 test substances, including 13 distinct botanical species, and individual purported active constituents were evaluated using a subset of the Tox21 qHTS testing panel. The screen included 20 different endpoints that covered a broad range of biologically relevant signaling pathways to detect test article effects upon endocrine activity, nuclear receptor signaling, stress response signaling, genotoxicity, and cell death signaling. Results and Discussion: Botanical dietary supplement extracts induced measurable and diverse activity. Elevated biological activity profiles were observed following treatments with individual chemical constituents relative to their associated botanical extract. The overall distribution of activity was comparable to activities exhibited by compounds present in the Tox21 10K chemical library. Conclusion: Botanical supplements did not exhibit minimal or idiosyncratic activities that would preclude the use of qHTS platforms as a feasible method to screen this class of compounds. However, there are still many considerations and further development required when attempting to use in vitro qHTS methods to characterize the safety profile of botanical/dietary supplements.