Description of the case mix experienced by chiropractic students during a clinical internship.
ABSTRACT: The primary objective of this study was to describe the case mix experienced by chiropractic students during their clinical internship at the Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College. Secondary objectives were to characterize teaching clinic patient populations, assess the similarity to previously published data for practicing chiropractors, and describe the treatment plans being recommended by interns.A prospective, observational study was conducted using a convenience sample of 24 chiropractic interns. Data were collected by interns using a standardized form that was completed for each new patient and each new complaint examined during the 1-year internship. Standardized forms included data regarding patient demographics, complaint characteristics, and treatment recommendations.Data were included for 23 of 24 participating interns, who described 828 patients and a total of 948 unique complaint presentations. Overall, 60% of patients were female, 86% were 18 to 64 years old, and 23% were naive to chiropractic care. Of all presenting complaints, 93% were pain-based, 67% were chronic, 65% included spinal complaints, and 7% presented with red flags; individual interns' experiences were variable and are described. On average, treatment recommendations called for 9.4 visits and often included multimodal treatment approaches, most commonly soft-tissue therapies (91%), home-based active care (84%), and spine manipulation (70%).The findings of this study suggest that patients presenting to CMCC teaching clinics are similar to those reported previously to attend private chiropractic clinics. While all participating interns encountered multiple complex clinical cases, very few had experience with pediatric populations. This study adds to the few that detail the characteristics of patients attending chiropractic teaching clinics; to our knowledge it is the first to describe average case loads of chiropractic interns.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The uptake of Self-Management Support (SMS) among clinicians is suboptimal. To date, few studies have tested knowledge translation (KT) interventions to increase the application of SMS in chiropractic teaching clinics.<h4>Study objective</h4>Evaluate the feasibility of implementing a KT intervention to promote the use of a SMS strategy among chiropractic interns, their supervisors, and individuals with spine pain compared to controls.<h4>Methods</h4>Mixed methods pilot clustered-clinical trial. Clusters of 16 Patient Management Teams were allocated to a complex KT intervention (online and workshop training). Primary feasibility outcomes for clinicians, interns and patients were rates of recruitment, retention, and adherence to protocol. A nominal group technique and interviews were used to seek end-users' views on the implementation process, and generate possible solutions.<h4>Results</h4>In total, 16 (84%) clinicians, 65 (26%) interns and 42 patients agreed to participate. All clinicians in the intervention group completed all KT intervention components, 23 interns (85%) completed the online training and 14 interns (51.8%) attended the workshop training. All clinicians in the intervention and seven (78%) in the control group completed all outcome measures at baseline and 6-month follow-up, while 15 (55.6%) and 23 (60.5%) interns in the intervention and control groups completed the questionnaires at baseline and 6-month follow-up, respectively. Among patients, 10 (52.6%) and 12 (52.2%) in the intervention and control groups respectively completed the questionnaires at the end of the study. Based on interview findings, solutions to improve the feasibility of conducting a full trial include: making SMS a part of the internship, changing the time of introducing the study to the interns, and having more training on SMS.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Recruitment and retention of chiropractic interns and patients for a larger implementation trial in a single outpatient teaching clinic may be challenging.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Patient safety research has lagged within academic settings, including chiropractic teaching institutions. To develop a robust patient safety culture, the Institute of Medicine emphasized the need for employee's attitudes to be understanding and positive. To initiate the assessment of the current culture and future needs, this study evaluated patient safety attitudes among chiropractic teaching clinic stakeholders (supervising clinicians, student interns, and administrative staff) and compared their standardized survey scores to established medical survey databases. METHODS:We conducted a cross-sectional, mixed methods survey design with quantitative analytic priority. Chiropractic interns, clinical faculty, and clinic staff of 5 international chiropractic educational programs completed a modified version of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) Patient Safety Culture for Medical Offices Survey with open-ended comment fields between 2014 and 2016. Composite means of positive responses were calculated and compared to patient safety, quality of care, and overall self-ratings benchmarks from Canadian providers and academic settings in the AHRQ database. Qualitative responses were thematically categorized for a convergent analysis of quantitative results for the chiropractic sample. RESULTS:Chiropractic survey response rate was 45.3% (n?=?645). Quantitative survey results indicated moderate scores and ranges (57-85%) on all patient safety dimensions for the chiropractic samples. Academic medicine and chiropractic providers' benchmarks scored higher positive responses than chiropractic teaching clinics on most quantitative dimensions, except for work pressure/pace. Teamwork, organizational learning, and patient tracking/follow-up were the most positively endorsed quantitative dimensions, with communication, staff training, office standardization, and leadership support considered areas for improvement in both settings. Qualitative responses for the chiropractic clinics identified a need for open communication; additional staff training and student involvement in creating safety cultures; standardization of office processes including information exchange, scheduling, and equipment maintenance; and leadership support that focused on decreasing work pressure/pace and setting safety priorities. CONCLUSION:As the first report of patient safety attitudes from stakeholders in chiropractic teaching clinics, specific areas of improvement were identified. Chiropractic teaching programs might consider incorporating these and related patient safety concepts into their formal curricula. Mixed methods approach offers teaching clinics opportunities to assess stakeholders' insights and enhance safe delivery of chiropractic care.
Project description:In recognition of the need to better prepare doctoral candidates with teaching and learning competencies, we devised an innovative internship program in the form of a structured apprenticeship and trialed it in public health higher education. The paid internship was comprised of: (i) Mentoring from an experienced educator, (ii) Structured program of education in pedagogy and curriculum design, and (iii) Opportunities for applied experience. Eleven interns completed the apprenticeship in its first 2 years. The mixed method evaluation assessed the impact of the internship on knowledge, skills, and confidence of interns throughout the internship, and included a cost-consequence analysis. Data collection included surveys and face-to-face interviews with interns and mentors. Changes in intern knowledge and skills were analyzed by intern self-ratings pre- and post-internship on 11 performance descriptors. All interns indicated improvement in at least one area of teaching. Interviews indicated general satisfaction, however raised incompatibilities between the unstructured nature of mentoring and intern expectations and preferences. The economic analysis calculated a cost-offset associated with intern-delivered teaching activities of $58,820 (AUD, 2019). The total cost of the program was calculated to be $70,561 (comprising mentor investment AUD$20,436, intern investment AUD$15,126, scholarship "top-up" payment of $5,000 paid to each of the 7 interns AUD $35,000). This Internship is associated with positive impacts for interns across a range of domains at a net total investment of $11,741.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Hospital-based pharmacy internship (HBPI) is critical for the transition from "pharmacy students" to "professional pharmacists". This study explores the pharmacist interns' experiences and expectations for HBPI from their personal experiences intending to provide references for future hospital pharmacy education reform and policy development.<h4>Methods</h4>This is a multicenter qualitative study applying focus group discussions. Pharmacist interns were invited as participants from large teaching hospitals in Henan, China. A thematic analysis was conducted to qualitatively analyze this data. Nvivo 12 was utilized for data management and processing.<h4>Results</h4>Three focus group discussions were conducted, involving 16 interns as participants. Three themes were summarized regarding interns' expectations and experiences: (1) positive experiences of the HBPI; (2) negative experiences of the HBPI; (3) expectations and suggestions for the HBPI.<h4>Conclusion</h4>This study finds that the HBPI improves the professional knowledge, professional skills, and core competencies of interns. Therefore, the HBPI is an important preparation and transition stage for pharmacy students. However, the current pharmacy internship in China still has imperfections such as the insufficient ability of clinical teachers, unreasonable internship models, and unscientific internship content.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>This study aimed to analyze the demographic and descriptive information of new patients presenting to an educational institution-based chiropractic student clinic in South Africa that could then be used to draw comparisons to other international chiropractic student clinics and local practices.<h4>Methods</h4>We conducted a retrospective descriptive study of all new patient files from January 1, 2016, to July 31, 2016. The variables extracted were age, health profiles, number of musculoskeletal complaints, treatment protocol, and number of treatments that patients received for the initial complaint. Data were analyzed using cross-tabulations and multidimensional χ2 tests.<h4>Results</h4>There were 865 files reviewed. Most patients were aged between 20 and 24 years. Lumbar and pelvic complaints were most common (42.2%), followed by the cervical spine (28%). Lumbar (18.8%) and cervical (16.8%) biomechanical conditions, followed by lumbar myofascial pain syndrome (7.6%), were the most common problems. Musculoskeletal conditions were reported in 99% of cases. The majority (80%) of patients received 9 or fewer treatments for their initial complaint. Manipulation was used in 93.9% of cases, followed by mobilization (8.8%), interferential current (23.5%), and dry needling (19.1%).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Data gathered suggest that there are some general similarities with international training institutions. There are also differences between the study sample and international institutions and South African private chiropractic practice. The dissimilarities were a younger patient population, a lower number of treatment visits, and low exposure to nonmusculoskeletal conditions. These differences may affect the breadth of student education and require further investigation.
Project description:Interns are expected to teach medical students, yet there is little formal training in medical school to prepare them for this role. To enhance the teaching skills of our graduating students we initiated a 4-hour "teaching to teach" course as part of the end of the fourth-year curriculum. Course evaluations demonstrate that students strongly support this program (overall ratings 2000 to 2005: mean=4.4 [scale 1 to 5], n=224). When 2004 course participants were surveyed during the last month of their internship, 84%"agree" or "strongly agree" with the statement: "The teaching to teach course helped prepare me for my role as a teacher during internship" (2005: mean 4.2 [scale 1 to 5], n=45, response rate 60%). A course preparing fourth-year students to teach during internship is both feasible and reproducible, with a minimal commitment of faculty and resident time. Participants identify it as an important addition to their education and as useful during internship.
Project description:The COVID-19 pandemic has had an enormous impact on education globally, forcing the teaching community to think outside the box and create innovative educational plans to benefit students at home. Here, we narrate how the undergraduate, laboratory-based Summer Internship Program of our CONSERVE Center of Excellence, which focuses heavily on engaging women and underrepresented minorities in STEM programming, took a turn from an in-person research experience to a fully virtual one. We share our challenges and how we overcame them. Additionally, we provide a description of our virtual internship professional development curriculum, as well as the creative research projects that our seven interns were able to achieve in an 8-week virtual internship, including projects focused on the microbiological water quality of recycled irrigation water; social media promotion, enhancement and marketing of online educational resources focused on water, microbial contamination, and food crop irrigation; decision support systems for using recycled water in agricultural settings; and the effectiveness of zero-valent iron sand filtration in improving agricultural water quality, to name a few. Upon evaluating our internship program, we observed that more than 80% of our interns were either very satisfied or satisfied with the overall virtual internship experience. Through this experience, both the educators and the interns learned that although a virtual laboratory internship cannot completely replace in-person learning, it can still result in a very meaningful educational experience.
Project description:Although the prevalence of depression among medical interns substantially exceeds that of the general population, the specific factors responsible are not well understood. Recent reports of a moderating effect of a genetic polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) in the serotonin transporter protein gene on the likelihood that life stress will precipitate depression may help to understand the development of mood symptoms in medical interns.To identify psychological, demographic, and residency program factors that are associated with depression among interns and to use medical internship as a model to study the moderating effects of this polymorphism.A prospective cohort study.Thirteen US hospitals.Seven hundred forty interns entering participating residency programs.Subjects were assessed for depressive symptoms using the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), a series of psychological traits, and the 5-HTTLPR genotype prior to internship and then assessed for depressive symptoms and potential stressors at 3-month intervals during internship.The PHQ-9 depression score increased from 2.4 prior to internship to a mean of 6.4 during internship (P < .001). The proportion of participants who met PHQ-9 criteria for depression increased from 3.9% prior to internship to a mean of 25.7% during internship (P < .001). A series of factors measured prior to internship (female sex, US medical education, difficult early family environment, history of major depression, lower baseline depressive symptom score, and higher neuroticism) and during internship (increased work hours, perceived medical errors, and stressful life events) was associated with a greater increase in depressive symptoms during internship. In addition, subjects with at least 1 copy of a less-transcribed 5-HTTLPR allele reported a greater increase in depressive symptoms under the stress of internship (P = .002).There is a marked increase in depressive symptoms during medical internship. Specific individual, internship, and genetic factors are associated with the increase in depressive symptoms.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Descriptive studies of chiropractic patients are not new, several have been performed in the U.S., Australia, Canada, and Europe. None have been performed in a Latin American country. The purpose of this study is to describe the patients who visited a Mexican chiropractic college public clinic with respect to demographics and clinical characteristics.<h4>Methods</h4>This study was reviewed and approved by the IRB of Parker College of Chiropractic and the Universidad Estatal del Valle de Ecatepec (UNEVE). Five hundred patient files from the UNEVE public clinic from May 2005 to May 2007 were selected from an approximate total number of 3,700. Information was collected for demographics, chief complaints, associated complaints, and previous care sought.<h4>Results</h4>The sample comprised 306 (61.2%) female. Most files (44.2%) were in the age range of 40-59 years (mean of 43.4 years). The most frequent complaints were lumbar pain (29.2%) and extremity pain (28.0%), most commonly the knee. Most (62.0%) described their complaints as greater than one year. Trauma (46.6%) was indicated as the initial cause. Mean VAS score was 6.26/10 with 20% rated at 8/10.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Demographic results compared closer to studies conducted with private clinicians (females within the ages of 40-59). The primary complaint and duration was similar to previous studies (low back pain and chronic), except in this population the cause was usually initiated by trauma. The most striking features were the higher number of extremity complaints and the marked increased level of VAS score (20% rated as 8/10).
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Arthritis Research UK funded graduate internship scheme for podiatrists and to explore the experiences of interns and mentors.<h4>Methods</h4>Nine new graduates completed the internship programme (July 2006-June 2010); six interns and two mentors participated in this study. The study was conducted in three phases. Phase 1: quantitative survey of career and research outcomes for interns. Phase 2 and 3: qualitative asynchronous interviews through email to explore the experiences of interns and mentors. Interpretive phenomenological analysis (IPA) of coded transcripts identified recurring themes.<h4>Results</h4>Research outputs included ten peer reviewed publications with authorial contributions from interns, 23 conference abstract presentations and one subsequent 'Jewel in the Crown' award at the British Society for Rheumatology Conference. Career progression includes two National Institute for Health research (NIHR) PhD fellowships, two Arthritis Research UK PhD fellowships, one NIHR Master of Research fellowship and one specialist rheumatology clinical post. Two interns are members of NIHR and professional body committees.Seven important themes arose from the qualitative phases: perceptions of the internship pre-application; internship values; maximising personal and professional development; psychosocial components of the internship; the role of mentoring and networking; access to research career pathways; perceptions of future developments for the internship programme. The role of mentorship and the peer support network have had benefits that have persisted beyond the formal period of the scheme.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The internship model appears to have been perceived to have been valuable to the interns' careers and may have contributed significantly to the broader building of capacity in clinical research in foot and ankle rheumatology. We believe the model has potential to be transferable across health disciplines and on national and international scales.