New Ways to Detect Pediatric Sickle Cell Retinopathy: A Comprehensive Review.
ABSTRACT: Sickle retinopathy reflects disease-related vascular injury of the eye, which can potentially result in visual loss from vitreous hemorrhage or retinal detachment. Here we review sickle retinopathy among children with sickle cell disease, describe the epidemiology, pediatric risk factors, pathophysiology, ocular findings, and treatment. Newer, more sensitive ophthalmological imaging modalities are available for retinal imaging, including ultra-widefield fluorescein angiography, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, and optical coherence tomography angiography. Optical coherence tomography angiography provides a noninvasive view of retinal vascular layers that could previously not be imaged and can be quantified for comparative or prospective analyses. Ultra-widefield fluorescein angiography provides a more comprehensive view of the peripheral retina than traditional imaging techniques. Screening for retinopathy by standard fundoscopic imaging modalities detects a prevalence of approximately 10%. In contrast, these more sensitive methods allow for more sensitive examination that includes the retina perimeter where sickle retinopathy is often first detectable. Use of these new imaging modalities may detect a higher prevalence of early sickle pathology among children than has previously been reported. Earlier detection may help in better understanding the pathogenesis of sickle retinopathy and guide future screening and treatment paradigms.
Project description:PURPOSE:Based on standard screening techniques, sickle retinopathy reportedly occurs in 10% of adolescents with sickle cell disease (SCD). We performed a prospective, observational clinical study to determine if ultra-widefield fluorescein angiography (UWFA), spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), and optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) detect more-frequent retinopathy in adolescents with SCD. DESIGN:Cross-sectional study. METHODS:Setting: Institutional. SUBJECTS:Sixteen adolescents with SCD, aged 10-19 years (mean age 14.9 years), and 5 age-equivalent controls (mean age 17.4 years). OBSERVATION PROCEDURES:Examinations including acuity, standard slit-lamp biomicroscopy, UWFA, SD-OCT, and OCT-A were performed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Sickle retinopathy defined by biomicroscopic changes, Goldberg stages I-V, Penman scale, flow void on OCT-A, or macular thinning on SD-OCT. RESULTS:While 22 of 32 SCD eyes (68.8%) had retinopathy on biomicroscopy, by UWFA 4 of 24 (16.7%) SCD eyes had peripheral arterial occlusion (Goldberg I), and 20 of 24 eyes (83.3%) had peripheral arteriovenous anastomoses (Goldberg II) in addition. No patients had Goldberg stages III-V. By SD-OCT and OCT-A, thinning of the macula and flow voids in both the superficial and deep retinal capillary plexus were found in 6 of 30 (20%) eyes. CONCLUSIONS:All 24 eyes with adequate UWFA studies demonstrated sickle retinopathy. SD-OCT and OCT-A, which have not been previously reported in the adolescent population, detected abnormal macular thinning and flow abnormalities undetected by biomicroscopy. These findings suggest that pediatric sickle retinopathy may be more prevalent than previously suspected. If these findings are confirmed with larger cross-sectional and prospective analyses, these approaches may enhance early screening for sickle retinopathy.
Project description:The Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) and other standardized classification schemes have laid a foundation for tremendous advances in the understanding and management of diabetic retinopathy (DR). However, technological advances in optics and image analysis, especially optical coherence tomography (OCT), OCT angiography (OCTa), and ultra-widefield imaging, as well as new discoveries in diabetic retinal neuropathy (DRN), are exposing the limitations of ETDRS and other classification systems to completely characterize retinal changes in diabetes, which we term diabetic retinal disease (DRD). While it may be most straightforward to add axes to existing classification schemes, as diabetic macular edema (DME) was added as an axis to earlier DR classifications, doing so may make these classifications increasingly complicated and thus clinically intractable. Therefore, we propose future research efforts to develop a new, comprehensive, and clinically useful classification system that will identify multimodal biomarkers to reflect the complex pathophysiology of DRD and accelerate the development of therapies to prevent vision-threatening DRD.
Project description:Purpose:To describe the multimodal imaging and treatment of a 37-year-old male presenting with bilateral ischemic retinopathy induced by methamphetamine abuse. Observations:A 37-year-old male presented with progressively deteriorating vision and was found to have branch retinal artery occlusion and central retinal vein occlusion in both eyes along with secondary vitreous hemorrhage in the left eye following seven years of intermittent intranasal methamphetamine abuse. Fundus fluorescein angiography and optical coherence tomography angiography revealed large areas of non-perfusion in the peripheral retina along with peripapillary neovascularization. Systemic evaluation revealed ischemic foci scattered in the deep brain on magnetic resonance angiography scanning. Based on the retinal findings, the patient was diagnosed with methamphetamine-induced ischemic retinopathy. He received panretinal photocoagulation, which improved the vision in the right eye and vitreous hemorrhage in the left eye. The vision in the left eye remained stable. Conclusions and importance:This case highlights that intranasal methamphetamine abuse is associated with bilateral simultaneous central retinal vein occlusion and branch retinal artery occlusion. To our knowledge, extensive bilateral ischemic retinopathy has not been documented previously with newer modalities. In addition, PRP may be considered for the treatment of ischemic retinopathy induced by methamphetamine abuse.
Project description:In recent years, advances in optical coherence tomography (OCT) techniques have increased our understanding of diabetic retinopathy, an important microvascular complication of diabetes. OCT angiography is a non-invasive method that visualizes the retinal vasculature by detecting motion contrast from flowing blood. Visible-light OCT shows promise as a novel technique for quantifying retinal hypoxia by measuring the retinal oxygen delivery and metabolic rates. In this article, we discuss recent insights provided by these techniques into the vascular pathophysiology of diabetic retinopathy. The next milestones for these modalities are large multicenter studies to establish consensus on the most reliable and consistent outcome parameters to study diabetic retinopathy.
Project description:PURPOSE:To examine the features of the tapetal-like reflex (TLR) in female carriers of RPGR-associated retinopathy by means of adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO) and spectral domain optical coherence tomography. METHODS:Nine molecularly confirmed RPGR carriers and three healthy controls underwent ocular examination and the following retinal imaging modalities: color photography, near-infrared reflectance, fundus autofluorescence, spectral domain optical coherence tomography, and AOSLO. After identifying TLR areas across all imaging modalities, normalized local contrast of outer retinal bands on spectral domain optical coherence tomography was calculated and AOSLO-acquired photoreceptor mosaic analysis was performed. RESULTS:Seven carriers had TLR areas, which colocalized with increased rod photoreceptor reflectivity on confocal AOSLO and reduced cone photoreceptor densities. Parafoveal TLR areas also exhibited reduced local contrast (i.e., increased reflectivity) of the outer retinal bands on spectral domain optical coherence tomography (inner segment ellipsoid zone and outer segment interdigitation zone). Healthy controls did not show TLR. CONCLUSION:The cellular resolution provided by AOSLO affords the characterization of the photoreceptor mosaic in RPGR carriers with a TLR. Features revealed include reduced cone density, increased cone inner segment diameter, and increased rod outer segment reflectivity.
Project description:Paraneoplastic retinopathy can be the first manifestation of systemic malignancy. A subset of paraneoplastic retinopathy is characterized by negative-type electroretinography (ERG) without fundus abnormality. Here we describe the multimodal imaging and clinico-pathological correlation of a unique case of acute progressive paravascular placoid neuroretinopathy with suspected retinal depolarizing bipolar cell dysfunction preceding the diagnosis of metastatic small cell carcinoma of the prostate.ERG was performed according to the International Society for Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision standards. Imaging modalities included near-infrared reflectance, blue-light autofluorescence, fluorescein and indocyanine green angiographies, spectral domain optical coherence tomography, ultra-widefield colour and green-light autofluorescence imaging, microperimetry and adaptive optics imaging. Patient serum was screened for anti-retinal antibodies using western blotting. Immunostaining and histological analyses were performed on sections from human retinal tissues and a patient prostate biopsy.Serial multimodal retinal imaging, microperimetry and adaptive optics photography demonstrated a paravascular distribution of placoid lesions characterized by hyper-reflectivity within the outer nuclear layer resembling type 2 acute macular neuroretinopathy. There was no visible lesion within the inner nuclear layer despite electronegative-type ERG. Six months later, the patient presented with metastatic small cell carcinoma of the prostate. Tumour cells were immunopositive for glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, enolase and recoverin as well as neuroendocrine markers. The patient's serum reacted to cytoplasmic and nuclear antigens in the prostate biopsy and in human retina. Anti-retinal antibodies against several antigens were detected by both commercial and in-house western blots.A spectrum of autoreactive anti-retinal antibodies is associated with a unique phenotype of acute progressive paravascular placoid neuroretinopathy resulting in degeneration of photoreceptor cells, inner retinal dysfunction and classic electronegative ERG in paraneoplastic retinopathy. Detailed clinical, functional and immunological phenotyping of paraneoplastic retinopathy illustrated the complex mechanism of paraneoplastic syndrome.
Project description:Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is the gold standard for quantitative ophthalmic imaging. The majority of commercial and research systems require patients to fixate and be imaged in a seated upright position, which limits the ability to perform ophthalmic imaging in bedridden or pediatric patients. Handheld OCT devices overcome this limitation, but image quality often suffers due to a lack of real-time aiming and patient eye and photographer motion. We describe a handheld spectrally encoded coherence tomography and reflectometry (SECTR) system that enables simultaneous en face reflectance and cross-sectional OCT imaging. The handheld probe utilizes a custom double-pass scan lens for fully telecentric OCT scanning with a compact optomechanical design and a rapid-prototyped enclosure to reduce the overall system size and weight. We also introduce a variable velocity scan waveform that allows for simultaneous acquisition of densely sampled OCT angiography (OCTA) volumes and widefield reflectance images, which enables high-resolution vascular imaging with precision motion-tracking for volumetric motion correction and multivolumetric mosaicking. Finally, we demonstrate in vivo human retinal OCT and OCT angiography (OCTA) imaging using handheld SECTR on a healthy volunteer. Clinical translation of handheld SECTR will allow for high-speed, motion-corrected widefield OCT and OCTA imaging in bedridden and pediatric patients who may benefit ophthalmic disease diagnosis and monitoring.
Project description:To compare the use of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) and adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope fluorescein angiography (AOSLO FA) for characterizing the foveal microvasculature in healthy and vasculopathic eyes.Four healthy controls and 11 vasculopathic patients (4 diabetic retinopathy, 4 retinal vein occlusion, and 3 sickle cell retinopathy) were imaged with OCTA and AOSLO FA. Foveal perfusion maps were semiautomatically skeletonized for quantitative analysis, which included foveal avascular zone (FAZ) metrics (area, perimeter, acircularity index) and vessel density in three concentric annular regions of interest. On each set of OCTA and AOSLO FA images, matching vessel segments were used for lumen diameter measurement. Qualitative image comparisons were performed by visual identification of microaneurysms, vessel loops, leakage, and vessel segments.Adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope FA and OCTA showed no statistically significant differences in FAZ perimeter, acircularity index, and vessel densities. Foveal avascular zone area, however, showed a small but statistically significant difference of 1.8% (P = 0.004). Lumen diameter was significantly larger on OCTA (mean difference 5.7 ?m, P < 0.001). Microaneurysms, fine structure of vessel loops, leakage, and some vessel segments were visible on AOSLO FA but not OCTA, while blood vessels obscured by leakage were visible only on OCTA.Optical coherence tomography angiography is comparable to AOSLO FA at imaging the foveal microvasculature except for differences in FAZ area, lumen diameter, and some qualitative features. These results, together with its ease of use, short acquisition time, and avoidance of potentially phototoxic blue light, support OCTA as a tool for monitoring ocular pathology and detecting early disease.
Project description:Recent developments in optical molecular imaging allow for real-time identification of morphologic and biochemical changes in tissue associated with gastrointestinal neoplasia. This review summarizes widefield and high-resolution imaging modalities in preclinical and clinical evaluation for the detection of colorectal cancer and esophageal cancer. Widefield techniques discussed include high-definition white light endoscopy, narrow band imaging, autofluoresence imaging, and chromoendoscopy; high-resolution techniques discussed include probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy, high-resolution microendoscopy, and optical coherence tomography. New approaches to enhance image contrast using vital dyes and molecular-specific targeted contrast agents are evaluated.
Project description:To assess the ability of optical coherence tomography angiography to image the retinal middle capillary plexus (MCP), and to characterize the MCP as a unique vascular network separate from the superficial and deep capillary plexus (DCP).Healthy and diabetic eyes were imaged using the Avanti XR optical coherence tomography angiography instrument (Optovue Inc, Fremont, CA). Using manual segmentation of the retinal layers, the authors generated en face angiograms to distinguish the three capillary plexuses (superficial capillary plexus, MCP, DCP).In healthy eyes, arterioles gave rise to distinct branches in the MCP, and venules gave rise to prominent vortex like branches in the DCP. The foveal avascular zone was most well-defined at the level of the MCP, and had a larger area in the DCP. In diabetic eyes, the three capillary plexuses showed varying degrees of nonperfusion, including variable shapes and extent of the foveal avascular zone, with loss of border integrity at the MCP. Microaneurysms appeared in all the three capillary plexuses.Using customized segmentation analysis in optical coherence tomography angiography, the authors demonstrate that the MCP is qualitatively and functionally distinct from the superficial capillary plexus and DCP, which may help clarify the pathogenesis of different middle retinal ischemic entities and provide new insights into retinal ischemia in diabetic retinopathy.