Direct analysis of volatile organic compounds in foods by headspace extraction atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry.
ABSTRACT: The rapid screening of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by direct analysis has potential applications in the areas of food and flavour science. Currently, the technique of choice for VOC analysis is gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). However, the long chromatographic run times and elaborate sample preparation associated with this technique have led a movement towards direct analysis techniques, such as selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS), proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) and electronic noses. The work presented here describes the design and construction of a Venturi jet-pump-based modification for a compact mass spectrometer which enables the direct introduction of volatiles for qualitative and quantitative analysis.Volatile organic compounds were extracted from the headspace of heated vials into the atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source of a quadrupole mass spectrometer using a Venturi pump. Samples were analysed directly with no prior sample preparation. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to differentiate between different classes of samples.The interface is shown to be able to routinely detect problem analytes such as fatty acids and biogenic amines without the requirement of a derivatisation step, and is shown to be able to discriminate between four different varieties of cheese with good intra and inter-day reproducibility using an unsupervised PCA model. Quantitative analysis is demonstrated using indole standards with limits of detection and quantification of 0.395 ?g/mL and 1.316 ?g/mL, respectively.The described methodology can routinely detect highly reactive analytes such as volatile fatty acids and diamines without the need for a derivatisation step or lengthy chromatographic separations. The capability of the system was demonstrated by discriminating between different varieties of cheese and monitoring the spoilage of meats.
Project description:Here we report a new method for oxosteroid identification utilizing "tandem mass tag hydrazine" (TMTH) carbonyl-reactive derivatisation reagent. TMTH is a reagent with a chargeable tertiary amino group attached through a linker to a carbonyl-reactive hydrazine group. Thirty oxosteroids were analysed after derivatisation with TMTH by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and were found to give high ion-currents compared to underivatised molecules. ESI-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analysis of the derivatives yielded characteristic fragmentation patterns with specific mass reporter ions derived from the TMT group. A shotgun ESI-MS method incorporating TMTH derivatisation was applied to a urine sample.
Project description:Efficacy assessments using a combination of baricitinib and methotrexate necessitate the development of an analytical method for the determination of both drugs in plasma with precision. A high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of baricitinib and methotrexate in rat plasma. Extraction of baricitinib, methotrexate, and tolbutamide (internal standard; IS) from 50 µL of rat plasma was carried out by protein precipitation with methanol. Chromatographic separation of the analytes was performed on the YMC pack ODS AM (150 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 µm) column under gradient conditions with methanol: 2.0 mM ammonium acetate buffer as the mobile phases at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. The precursor ion and product ion transition for both analytes and IS were monitored on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer, operated with selective reaction monitoring in positive ionization mode. The method was validated over a concentration range of 0.5-250.00 ng/mL for baricitinib and methotrexate. Mean extraction recoveries for baricitinib, methotrexate, and IS of 86.8%, 89.4%, and 91.8% were consistent across low, medium, and high QC levels, respectively. Precision and accuracy at low, medium, and high quality control levels were less than 15% across the analytes. Benchtop, wet, freeze-thaw, and long-term stability were evaluated for both of the analytes. The analytical method was applied to support the pharmacokinetic study of simultaneous estimation of baricitinib and methotrexate in Wistar rats. Assay reproducibility was demonstrated by reanalysis of 18 incurred samples.
Project description:Because of its high degree of selectivity and chemical resolution, mass spectrometry (MS) is rapidly becoming the analytical method of choice for high-throughput evaluations and clinical diagnostics. While advances in MS resolving power have increased by an order of magnitude over the past decade, advances in sample introduction are still needed for high-throughput screening applications where the time frame of chromatographic separation would limit the duty cycle. Infrared matrix-assisted laser desorption electrospray ionization (IR-MALDESI) is an ambient ionization source that has been shown to be applicable for direct analyses and mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) of complex biological samples in a high-throughput manner. To increase a range of detectable features in IR-MALDESI experiments, we integrated the home-built ion source with a commercially available drift tube ion mobility spectrometer-mass spectrometer (IMS-MS) and analyzed small polar molecules, lipids, carbohydrates, and intact proteins. We also describe in detail how the pulsed ionization source was synchronized with IMS-MS.
Project description:Dereplication of crude plant extracts through liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry is a powerful technique for the discovery of novel natural products. Unfortunately, this technique is often plagued by a low level of confidence in natural product identification. This is mainly due to the lack of extensive chromatographic and mass spectrometric optimizations that result in improper and incomplete MS/MS fragmentation data. This study proposes a solution to this problem by the optimization of chromatographic separation and mass spectrometry parameters. We report herein a direct and high-throughput strategy for natural product dereplication in five Salvia species using high-resolution ESI-QTOF-MS/MS data. In the present study, we were able to identify a total of forty-seven natural products in crude extracts of five Salvia species using MS/MS fragmentation data. In addition to dereplication of Salvia species, quantitative profiling of twenty-one bioactive constituents of the genus was also performed on an ion trap mass spectrometer. For the quantitation study, method development focused on chromatographic optimizations to achieve maximum sensitivity. The developed dereplication and quantitation strategy can be extended to develop comprehensive metabolic profiles of other plant genera and species and thus can prove useful in the field of drug discovery from plants.
Project description:Elevated chromatographic temperatures are well recognized to provide beneficial analytical effects. Previously, we demonstrated that elevated chromatographic temperature enhances the identification of hydrophobic peptides from enriched membrane samples. Here, we quantitatively assess and compare the recovery of peptide analytes from both simple and complex tryptic peptide matrices using selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mass spectrometry. Our study demonstrates that elevated chromatographic temperature results in significant improvements in the magnitude of peptide recovery for both hydrophilic and hydrophobic peptides from both simple and complex peptide matrices. Importantly, the analytical benefits for quantitative measurements in mouse whole brain matrix are highlighted, suggesting broad utility in the proteomic analyses of complex mammalian tissues. Any improvement in peptide recovery from chromatographic separations translates directly to the apparent sensitivity of downstream mass analysis in microcapillary liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (muLC-MS) based proteomic applications. Therefore, the incorporation of elevated chromatographic temperatures should result in significant improvements in peptide quantification as well as detection and identification.
Project description:Bergenia species are important medicinal plants used in indigenous systems of medicine for their antilithiatic and diuretic properties. An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to hybrid linear ion trap triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QqQLIT-MS/MS) method has been developed and validated for the estimation of quantitative variation of eight major bioactive phenolics in the rhizomes (150 samples) of four species of this herb, Bergenia (B. ciliata, B. ligulata, B. purpurascens and B. stracheyi). Chromatographic separation was obtained on a Waters ACQUITY UPLCTM BEH (ethylene bridged hybrid) C18 column with a mobile phase consisting of 0.1% (v/v) formic acid aqueous solution and acetonitrile under a gradient elution manner. A hybrid linear ion trap triple quadrupole mass spectrometer was operated in negative electrospray ionization mode with multiple reactions monitoring for detection and quantification of the eight compounds. The validated method demonstrated good linearity (r2 ? 0.9991), precision (RSD ? 1.87%) and accuracy (95.16-102.11%, RSD ? 1.83%) for all reference analytes. The quantitative results revealed that B. ligulata contains the highest amount of the major active marker-bergenin. The results also suggest that sensitive UHPLC-QqQLIT-MS/MS method, a sensitive, accurate and convenient one, could be helpful in identification of potential accession(s), rapid quality control and establishing authenticity of Bergenia species as raw material for pharmaceutical industries.
Project description:Linarin, a flavone glycoside, is considered to be a promising natural product due to its diverse pharmacological activities. Recently, it has been brought into focus for its potential to treat liver failure. In this study, a rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography electrospray-ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of linarin and its three metabolites (acacetin, apigenin, and p-hydroxy benzaldehyde) in plasma and liver tissue samples of normal rats and rats with d-galactosamine (d-GalN)-induced liver injury. After liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) with ethyl acetate, chromatographic separation of the four analytes was achieved using an ACQUITY UPLC BEH-C18 (1.7 μm, 2.1 × 50 mm) with a mobile phase of 0.01% formic acid in methanol and 0.01% formic acid at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. The detection was accomplished on a tandem mass spectrometer via an electrospray ionization (ESI) source by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) in the negative ionization mode. The method had a good linearity over the concentration range of 1.00-200 ng/mL for linarin and its metabolites. The validated method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic and liver tissue distribution study of linarin and its metabolites after a single oral administration of linarin (90 mg/kg) to rats.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Short-chain volatile amines (SCVA) are an interesting compound class playing crucial roles in physiological and toxicological human settings. Dimethylamine (DMA), trimethylamine (TMA), diethylamine (DEA), and triethylamine (TEA) were investigated in detail. METHODS:Headspace gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (HS-GC-MS) was used for the simultaneous qualitative and quantitative determination of four SCVA in different human body fluids. Four hundred microliters of Li-heparin plasma and urine were analyzed after liberation of volatile amines under heated conditions in an aqueous alkaline and saline environment. Target analytes were separated on a volatile amine column and detected on a Thermo DSQ II mass spectrometer scheduled in single ion monitoring mode. RESULTS:Chromatographic separation of selected SCVA was done within 7.5 minutes. The method was developed and validated with respect to accuracy, precision, recovery and stability. Accuracy and precision criteria were below 12% for all target analytes at low and high levels. The selected extraction procedure provided recoveries of more than 92% from both matrices for TMA, DEA and TEA. The recovery of DMA from Li-heparin plasma was lower but still in the acceptable range (>75%). The newly validated method was successfully applied to plasma and urine samples from healthy volunteers. Detected concentrations of endogenous metabolites DMA and TMA are comparable to already known reference ranges. CONCLUSION:Herein, we describe the successful development and validation of a reliable and broadly applicable HS-GC-MS procedure for the simultaneous and quantitative determination of SCVA in human plasma and urine without relying on derivatization chemistry.
Project description:A rapid turnaround is a prerequisite of therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM). For antifungals, this need is still unmet, since hardly any method has been established to simultaneously quantitate concentrations of different antifungal classes. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed allowing quantitation of anidulafungin (ANF), caspofungin (CSF), isavuconazole (ISC), micafungin (MCF), posaconazole (PSC), and voriconazole (VRC). Quantitation was successful with diluted plasma samples, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN), and erythrocytes (RBC). A triple quadrupole mass spectrometer in selected reaction monitoring mode was used with positive electrospray ionization. Cells and calibration standards were extracted with acetonitrile containing internal standard. Internal standards were a CSF derivate for echinocandins and itraconazole for triazoles. Chromatographic separation of the supernatant was achieved by a gradient method facilitating a BetaBasic C4 column. Analytes were quantified in a single 8-min run. Calibration curves were linear and fitted using least squares with a weighting factor of the reciprocal concentration. Limits of detection (ng/ml) were ANF, 8.3; CSF, 31.5; ISC, 1.5; MCF, 97.7; PSC, 3.3; and VRC, 1.4. The lower limits of quantitation (ng/ml) were ANF, 64; CSF, 108; ISC, 4.5; MCF, 160; PSC, 10; and VRC, 4.2. Intraday precisions ranged from 6.3% to 8.8% for azoles and 8.8% to 15.4% for echinocandins. Intraday and interday accuracies (percent bias) of all analytes were within 13.8%. The method was established as standard practice for the quantitation of intracellular antifungal concentrations and optimizes TDM by applying a rapid single method for 6 antifungals.
Project description:Development and validation of a selective, robust high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (HPLC/MS-MS) method for the quantification of morphine, morphine-3-?-glucuronide, morphine-6-?-glucuronide, hydromorphone, and normorphine in human serum.Drug-free human serum samples spiked with morphine, morphine-3-?-glucuronide, morphine-6-?-glucuronide, hydromorphone, and normorphine were prepared by protein precipitation using methanol containing the internal standards. Samples were injected onto a Thermo Scientific AccuCore PFP column for chromatographic separation. Detection was achieved using a Thermo Scientific TSQ Vantage mass spectrometer. Assay validation followed the new Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) C62-A guidelines.The analytical measuring range for all analytes was determined to be 5 to 1000 ng/mL. Intra- and inter-assay precision for three quality control levels were ? 7.0% and ? 13.5%, respectively. Carryover, stability, linearity, matrix effects, extraction and processing efficiency and method comparison characteristics were acceptable relative to the CLSI C62 guidelines.The validation of this HPLC-MS/MS method demonstrated a robust and rapid assay for the quantification of morphine, morphine-3-?-glucuronide, morphine-6-?-glucuronide, hydromorphone, and normorphine.