A phase 1 study of the c-Met inhibitor, tivantinib (ARQ197) in children with relapsed or refractory solid tumors: A Children's Oncology Group study phase 1 and pilot consortium trial (ADVL1111).
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:The c-Met receptor tyrosine kinase is dysregulated in many pediatric cancers. Tivantinib is an oral small molecule that inhibits the c-Met receptor tyrosine kinase. A phase 1 and pharmacokinetic (PK) trial evaluating tivantinib was conducted in children with relapsed/refractory solid tumors. METHODS:Oral tivantinib capsules were administered twice daily with food, continuously in 28-day cycles. Dose levels 170, 200, and 240 mg/m2 /dose were evaluated using a rolling-six design (Part A). In Part B, subjects received tivantinib powder sprinkled on food at the recommended phase 2 dose (RP2D) from Part A. PK, CYP2C19 genotyping, and baseline tumor tissue c-Met expression were analyzed. RESULTS:Thirty-six patients were enrolled: 20 in Part A, 6 in a PK expansion cohort, and 10 in Part B. Fifteen patients had primary central nervous system tumors and 21 had solid tumors. In Part A, there were no dose-limiting toxicities. One grade 4 intracranial hemorrhage occurred in a patient with a progressive brain tumor in the expanded PK cohort (240 mg/m2 ). PK analysis showed marked interpatient variability (20-fold) in the Cmax and AUC0-8h across all dose levels. Sprinkling tivantinib powder over food did not alter exposure. Membranous and total c-Met expression was moderate (2), low (4), or not detected (26). Two patients had stable disease as the best response. CONCLUSIONS:The RP2D of tivantinib given with food in children with refractory solid tumors is 240 mg/m2 /dose. PK of tivantinib in children demonstrated high variability. Objective responses were not observed in this phase 1 trial.
Project description:A c-Met inhibitor tivantinib is a candidate anticancer agent for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and CYP2C19 is the key metabolic enzyme for tivantinib. Previous Japanese phase I studies in patients with solid tumors (except HCC) recommend 360 mg twice daily (BID) and 240 mg BID for CYP2C19 extensive metabolizers (EM) and poor metabolizers (PM), respectively. In this study, Japanese patients with HCC in whom sorafenib treatment has failed were enrolled to evaluate the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of oral tivantinib as a single agent. The dose was escalated separately in EM and PM, from 120 mg BID to 240 mg BID, in both capsule and tablet formulations. A total of 28 patients (EM: 21, PM: 7) received tivantinib. At a dose of 120 mg BID, dose-limiting toxicities (DLT) did not develop in 12 EM (capsule: 6, tablet: 6) and 7 PM (capsule: 4, tablet: 3) during the DLT-observation period (for 29 days after first dosing). At this dose, the pharmacokinetic profiles of tivantinib (AUC0-12 and Cmax ) did not remarkably differ between EM and PM. When treated with 240 mg BID, 5 of 9 EM (capsule: 4 of 6, tablet: 1 of 3) developed neutropenia-related DLT accompanying plasma tivantinib concentration higher than expected from the previous studies. Consequently, PM did not receive 240 mg BID. In conclusion, 120 mg BID of tivantinib is recommended among Japanese patients with HCC regardless of CYP2C19 phenotype.
Project description:This phase I study aimed to determine tolerability and preliminary efficacy of single-agent alpelisib (BYL719) in Japanese patients with advanced solid malignancies. The primary objective of the study was to estimate the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and/or recommended phase II dose (RP2D) of oral alpelisib in patients with advanced solid tumors who had progressed despite standard therapy. The expansion part included patients with PIK3CA mutation/amplification; safety, preliminary efficacy, pharmacokinetic (PK)/pharmacodynamic profile, and food effect on the PK profile of alpelisib at the MTD/RP2D were determined. Oral alpelisib was given as a single agent on a continuous 28-day treatment cycle once daily. Overall, 33 patients received alpelisib. Dose-limiting toxicities were observed in 2 patients in the escalation part (at 400 mg/day) and 1 patient in the expansion part (at 350 mg/day). The RP2D of alpelisib was determined as 350 mg/day based on overall safety profile in the dose escalation part and previous data from a Western population; the MTD was not determined. The most common all-grade treatment-suspected adverse events were hyperglycemia and maculopapular rash (48.5% each) and diarrhea (45.5%). The PK of alpelisib in the Japanese population was similar to that reported in the Western population. The overall response rate, disease control rate, and median progression-free survival at 350 mg/day were 3%, 57.6%, and 3.4 months, respectively. Alpelisib as single agent showed a favorable safety profile and encouraging preliminary efficacy in Japanese patients with advanced solid tumors.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Eribulin mesylate is a novel anticancer agent that inhibits microtubule growth, without effects on shortening, and promotes nonproductive tubulin aggregate formation. We performed a phase 1 trial to determine the dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs), maximum tolerated or recommended phase 2 dose (MTD/RP2D), and pharmacokinetics (PK) of eribulin in children with refractory or recurrent solid (excluding central nervous system) tumors. METHODS:Eribulin was administered intravenously on days 1 and 8 in 21-day cycles. Three dose levels (1.1, 1.4, and 1.8 mg/m2 /dose) were evaluated using the rolling six design with additional patients enrolled into a PK expansion cohort at the MTD. PK samples were obtained following the day 1, cycle 1 dose. RESULTS:Twenty-three patients, ages 3-17 (median 14) years were enrolled; 20 were evaluable for toxicity. DLTs occurred in 0/6 and 1/6 subjects at the 1.1 and 1.4 mg/m2 /dose, respectively. One subject at the 1.4 mg/m2 /dose had grade 4 neutropenia and grade 3 fatigue. At the 1.8 mg/m2 /dose, 2/5 subjects experienced dose-limiting (grade 4) neutropenia. Grade 3/4 non-DLTs included lymphopenia and hypokalemia, while low-grade toxicities included anorexia and nausea. No episodes of grade > 2 corrected QT interval prolongation or peripheral neuropathy were reported. Eribulin pharmacokinetic parameters were highly variable; the median elimination half-life was 39.6 (range 24.2-96.4) hr. A partial response was observed in one patient (Ewing sarcoma). CONCLUSIONS:Eribulin was well tolerated in children with refractory or recurrent solid tumors with neutropenia identified as the primary DLT. The RP2D of eribulin is 1.4 mg/m2 /dose on days 1 and 8 of a 21-day cycle.
Project description:Tepotinib is a highly selective and potent MET inhibitor in development for the treatment of patients with solid tumors. Given the favorable tolerability and safety profiles up to the maximum tested dose in the first-in-human (FIH) trial, an efficacy-driven translational modeling approach was proposed to establish the recommended phase II dose (RP2D). To study the in vivo pharmacokinetics (PKs)/target inhibition/tumor growth inhibition relationship, a subcutaneous KP-4 pancreatic cell-line xenograft model in mice with sensitivity to MET pathway inhibition was selected as a surrogate tumor model. Further clinical PK and target inhibition data (derived from predose and postdose paired tumor biopsies) from a FIH study were integrated with the longitudinal PKs and target inhibition profiles from the mouse xenograft study to establish a translational PK/pharmacodynamic (PD) model. Preclinical data showed that tumor regression with tepotinib treatment in KP-4 xenograft tumors corresponded to 95% target inhibition. We therefore concluded that a PD criterion of sustained, near-to-complete (>95%) phospho-MET inhibition in tumors should be targeted for tepotinib to be effective. Simulations of dose-dependent target inhibition profiles in human tumors that exceeded the PD threshold in more than 90% of patients established an RP2D of tepotinib 500 mg once daily. This translational mathematical modeling approach supports an efficacy-driven rationale for tepotinib phase II dose selection of 500 mg once daily. Tepotinib at this dose has obtained regulatory approval for the treatment of patients with non-small cell lung cancer harboring MET exon 14 skipping.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>Trilaciclib is a first-in-class CDK4/6 inhibitor that transiently arrests hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) in the G1 phase of the cell cycle to preserve them from chemotherapy-induced damage (myelopreservation). We report integrated analyses of preclinical and clinical data that informed selection of the recommended Phase II dose (RP2D) used in trilaciclib trials in extensive-stage small cell lung cancer (ES-SCLC).<h4>Methods</h4>A semi-mechanistic pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) model developed from preclinical data guided selection of an optimal dose for G1 bone marrow arrest in a first-in-human Phase I study (G1T28-1-01). PK, PD, safety, and efficacy data from G1T28-1-01 and two Phase Ib/IIa studies (G1T28-02/-03) in ES-SCLC were analyzed to support RP2D selection.<h4>Results</h4>Model simulation of bone marrow arrest based on preclinical data predicted that a ≥ 192 mg/m<sup>2</sup> dose would induce a 40-50% decrease in total bone marrow proliferation in humans and almost 100% cell cycle arrest of cycling HSPCs. Consistent with this model, analysis of bone marrow aspirates in healthy volunteers after trilaciclib 192 mg/m<sup>2</sup> administration demonstrated almost 100% G1 arrest in HSPCs and 40% decrease in total bone marrow proliferation, with minimal toxicity. G1T28-02/-03 reported similar PK parameters with trilaciclib 200 mg/m<sup>2</sup> but slightly lower exposures than expected compared with healthy volunteers; consequently, 240 and 280 mg/m<sup>2</sup> doses were also tested to match healthy volunteer exposures. Based on PK and relevant safety data, 240 mg/m<sup>2</sup> was selected as the RP2D, which was also favored by myelopreservation endpoints in G1T28-02/-03.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Integrated PK/PD, safety, and efficacy data support 240 mg/m<sup>2</sup> as the RP2D for trilaciclib. CLINICALTRIALS.<h4>Gov identifiers</h4>NCT02243150; NCT02499770; NCT02514447.
Project description:This study examined the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics (PK) of napabucasin in healthy Asian and non-Asian participants and investigated the potential for QT/QTc interval prolongation. This five-part (A-E) study proceeded in a stepwise manner, unless stopping criteria were met. Parts A-D were randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, and included healthy Asian male and female and non-Asian male participants. PK parameters were measured following single-dose napabucasin (80-1200 mg) in the fasted or fed state (Part D). Potential QT/QTc interval prolongation was assessed using digital 12-lead electrocardiogram (Parts B and C). Part E was open-label, and examined the PK of single-dose napabucasin (240-720 mg) in healthy non-Asian males. Safety and tolerability were measured in Parts A-E. Changes from baseline in the Fridericia-corrected QT interval (ΔQTcF) and other electrocardiogram parameters were analyzed using a linear mixed-effects model. Napabucasin was well-tolerated across the study (n = 70), and no serious adverse events or significant safety issues were reported when administered with or without food. The most frequent treatment-emergent adverse events were diarrhea and abdominal pain, and these were mild in severity. No prolongation of the QTcF interval was reported following single-dose napabucasin (240-1200 mg) and changes in other cardiac parameters were negligible. The PK profile of napabucasin was consistent with earlier studies. Single-dose napabucasin was tolerated in healthy male and female participants, and no significant safety (including no QTcF prolongation) or tolerability issues were identified, irrespective of food intake. Clinical studies of napabucasin in advanced cancers are ongoing.
Project description:Purpose This phase 1 study examined safety, pharmacokinetics (PK), and efficacy of the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor ABT-767 in patients with advanced solid tumors and BRCA1/2 mutations or with high-grade serous ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal cancer. Methods Patients received ABT-767 monotherapy orally until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Dose was escalated from 20 mg once daily to 500 mg twice daily (BID). Dose-limiting toxicities, recommended phase 2 dose (RP2D), food effect, objective response rate, and biomarkers predicting response were determined. Results Ninety-three patients were treated with ABT-767; 80 had a primary diagnosis of ovarian cancer. ABT-767 demonstrated dose-proportional PK up to 500 mg BID and half-life of ~2 h. Food had no effect on ABT-767 bioavailability. Most common grade 3/4 treatment-related adverse events were nausea, fatigue, decreased appetite, and anemia. Anemia showed dose-dependent increase. RP2D was 400 mg BID. Objective response rate by RECIST 1.1 was 21% (17/80) in all evaluable patients and 20% (14/71) in evaluable patients with ovarian cancer. Response rate by RECIST 1.1 and/or CA-125 was 30% (24/80) in patients with ovarian cancer. Mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2, homologous recombination deficiency (HRD), and platinum sensitivity were associated with tumor response. Median progression-free survival was longer for HRD positive (6.7 months) versus HRD negative patients (1.8 months) with ovarian cancer. Conclusions ABT-767 had an acceptable safety profile up to the established RP2D of 400 mg BID and dose-proportional PK. Patients with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation, HRD positivity, and platinum sensitivity were more sensitive to ABT-767.
Project description:Cetuximab in combination with an irinotecan-containing regimen is a standard treatment in patients with KRAS wild-type (KRAS?WT), metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). We investigated the addition of the oral MET inhibitor tivantinib to cetuximab?+?irinotecan (CETIRI) based on preclinical evidence that activation of the MET pathway may confer resistance to anti-EGFR therapy. Previously treated patients with KRAS?WT advanced or mCRC were enrolled. The phase 1, open-label 3?+?3, dose-escalation study evaluated the safety and maximally tolerated dose of tivantinib plus CETIRI. The phase 2, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study of biweekly CETIRI plus tivantinib or placebo was restricted to patients who had received only one prior line of chemotherapy. The phase 2 primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). The recommended phase 2 dose was tivantinib (360 mg/m(2) twice daily) with biweekly cetuximab (500 mg/m(2)) and irinotecan (180 mg/m(2)). Among 117 patients evaluable for phase 2 analysis, no statistically significant PFS difference was observed: 8.3 months on tivantinib vs. 7.3 months on placebo (HR, 0.85; 95% confidence interval, 0.55-1.33; P?=?0.38). Subgroup analyses trended in favor of tivantinib in patients with MET-High tumors by immunohistochemistry, PTEN-Low tumors, or those pretreated with oxaliplatin, but subgroups were too small to draw conclusions. Neutropenia, diarrhea, nausea and rash were the most frequent severe adverse events in tivantinib-treated patients. The combination of tivantinib and CETIRI was well tolerated but did not significantly improve PFS in previously treated KRAS?WT mCRC. Tivantinib may be more active in specific subgroups.
Project description:PURPOSE:Ridaforolimus is an investigational, potent, selective mTOR inhibitor. This study was conducted to determine the recommended phase 2 dose (RP2D), maximum tolerated dose, safety, pharmacokinetics, and antitumor activity of oral ridaforolimus in children with advanced solid tumors. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:In this phase 1, multicenter, open-label study in children aged 6 to <18 years with advanced solid tumors, ridaforolimus was administered orally for 5 consecutive days/week in 28-day cycles until progression, unacceptable toxicity, or consent withdrawal. Dose started at 22 mg/m2 and increased to 28 mg/m2 and 33 mg/m2, followed by expansion at the RP2D. RESULTS:Twenty patients were treated; 18 were evaluable for dose-limiting toxicities. One dose-limiting toxicity (grade 3 increased alanine aminotransferase) occurred in 1 patient at 33 mg/m2. Dose escalation concluded at 33 mg/m2; the maximum tolerated dose was not determined. The most common treatment-related adverse events (frequency ?40%) were manageable grade 1-2 stomatitis, thrombocytopenia, hypertriglyceridemia, increased alanine aminotransferase, fatigue, hypercholesterolemia, anemia, and increased aspartate aminotransferase. Ridaforolimus exposure at 28 mg/m2 and 33 mg/m2 exceeded adult target levels. The RP2D for oral ridaforolimus in children was defined as 33 mg/m2. Four patients received at least 4 cycles; 2 with pineoblastoma and diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma had stable disease for 12 and 46 cycles, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:Ridaforolimus is orally bioavailable and well tolerated in children with advanced solid tumors. The RP2D (33 mg/m2, 5 days/week) exceeds the adult RP2D. The favorable toxicity and pharmacokinetic profiles may allow for combination therapy, a promising therapeutic option in pediatric malignancies.
Project description:A previous clinical study in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients in Western countries suggested the potential for combination of a first-in-class non-ATP-competitive c-Met inhibitor tivantinib with an epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor erlotinib. Polymorphisms of CYP2C19, the key metabolic enzyme for tivantinib, should be addressed to translate the previous Western study to Asian population, because higher incidence of poor metabolisers (PMs) is reported in Asian population.Japanese patients with advanced/metastatic NSCLC received tivantinib in combination with erlotinib to evaluate safety and pharmacokinetics. Doses of tivantinib were escalated separately for extensive metabolisers (EMs) and PMs.Tivantinib, when combined with erlotinib, was well tolerated up to 360 mg BID for EMs and 240 mg BID for PMs, respectively. Among 25 patients (16 EMs and 9 PMs), the adverse events (AEs) related to tivantinib and/or erlotinib (>20%, any grade) were rash, diarrhoea, dry skin and nausea. Grade ?3 AEs were leukopenia, anaemia and neutropenia. No dose-limiting toxicity was observed. Pharmacokinetics profile of tivantinib was not clearly different between the combination and monotherapy. Three partial response and three long-term stable disease (?24 weeks) were reported.Two doses of tivantinib in combination with erlotinib were recommended based on CYP2C19 genotype: 360 mg BID for EMs and 240 mg BID for PMs.