Perceived Cognitive Deficits in a Sample of Persons Living With Multiple Sclerosis.
ABSTRACT: PURPOSE:The aims of this study were to describe the nature and diversity of perceived cognitive deficits using the Perceived Deficits Questionnaire (PDQ), to assess the reliability of the PDQ, and to explore self-reported predictors of PDQ scores in a large community-based sample of persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). MATERIALS AND METHODS:Persons with MS enrolled in a randomized controlled trial provided demographic data and completed the PDQ along with measures of cognitive and memory strategies, cognitive abilities, self-efficacy, and depressive symptoms and neuropsychological tests. RESULTS:Most of the 183 participants were non-Hispanic white women, approximately 49 years old, and diagnosed with MS 12.5 years prior. The most frequent cognitive complaints regarded trouble remembering telephone numbers, mind drifting, and forgetting why one came into a room. The PDQ scores were significantly related to self-rated cognitive abilities, depressive symptoms, self-efficacy, and use of cognitive strategies, but not to scores on neuropsychological performance tests. When controlling for other variables, self-rated cognitive abilities was the strongest, significant predictor of perceived cognitive deficits. CONCLUSION:Persons with MS most frequently experience deficits related to short-term memory and attention. The PDQ total is a reliable measure of perceived cognitive deficits in persons with MS, is feasible for use by nurses in clinical settings-can be administered in approximately 5 minutes, and is easily scored.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To explore the feasibility and effects of a computer-assisted cognitive rehabilitation intervention - Memory, Attention, and Problem Solving Skills for Persons with Multiple Sclerosis (MAPSS-MS) - for persons with multiple sclerosis on cognitive performance, memory strategy use, self-efficacy for control of symptoms and neuropsychological competence in activities of daily living (ADL). DESIGN:A randomized controlled single-blinded trial with treatment and wait list control groups. SETTING:Southwestern United States. SUBJECTS:Convenience sample of 61 persons (34 treatment, 27 wait list control) with multiple sclerosis (mean age 47.9 years, SD 8.8). INTERVENTION:The eight-week MAPSS-MS intervention program included two components: (a) eight weekly group sessions focused on building efficacy for use of cognitive compensatory strategies and (b) a computer-assisted cognitive rehabilitation program with home-based training. OUTCOME MEASURES:A neuropsychological battery of performance tests comprising the Minimal Assessment of Cognitive Function in Multiple Sclerosis (MACFIMS) and self-report instruments (use of memory strategies, self-efficacy for control of multiple sclerosis and neuropsychological competence in ADL) were completed at baseline, two months (after classes), and at five months. RESULTS:Both groups improved significantly (P < 0.05) over time on most measures in the MACFIMS battery as well as the measures of strategy use and neuropsychological competence in ADL. There was a significant group-by-time interaction for scores on the measures of verbal memory and the use of compensatory strategies. CONCLUSIONS:The MAPSS-MS intervention was feasible and well-accepted by participants. Given the large relative increase in use of compensatory strategies by the intervention group, it holds promise for enhancing cognitive function in persons with multiple sclerosis.
Project description:Cognitive dysfunction is common in depression during both acute episodes and remission. Vortioxetine is a novel multimodal antidepressant that has improved cognitive function including executive function in depressed patients in randomised placebo-controlled clinical trials. However, it is unclear whether vortioxetine is able to target directly the neural circuitry implicated in the cognitive deficits in depression. Remitted depressed (n=48) and healthy volunteers (n=48) were randomised to receive 14 days treatment with 20?mg vortioxetine or placebo in a double-blind design. The effects of treatment on functional magnetic resonance imaging responses during an N-back working memory task were assessed at baseline and at the end of treatment. Neuropsychological measures of executive function, speed and information processing, attention and learning and memory were examined with the Trail Making Test (TMT), Rey Auditory Learning Test and Digit Symbol Substitution Test before and after treatment; subjective cognitive function was assessed using the Perceived Deficits Questionnaire (PDQ). Compared with placebo, vortioxetine reduced activation in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and left hippocampus during the N-back task compared with placebo. Vortioxetine also increased TMT-A performance and self-reported cognitive function on the PDQ. These effects were seen across both subject groups. Vortioxetine modulates neural responses across a circuit subserving working memory in a direction opposite to the changes described in depression, when performance is maintained. This study provides evidence that vortioxetine has direct effects on the neural circuitry supporting cognitive function that can be dissociated from its effects on the mood symptoms of depression.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:The Parkinson's disease questionnaire-39 (PDQ-39) is a common measure of health related quality of life (HRQoL) that is widely used with Parkinson disease (PD) patients. Previous evidence suggests that the PDQ-39 reflects at least 8 dimensions (i.e., Emotion, Cognitions, Mobility, etc). To date, little research has examined the external/convergent validity of the Cognitions and Emotional Well-being domains of the PDQ-39. METHODS:A convenience sample of 303 PD patients underwent a comprehensive multi-domain neuropsychological evaluation, including tests of execution function, episodic verbal memory, processing speed, language and working memory, as well as completing measures of depression, apathy, state and trait anxiety and HRQoL (PDQ-39). Hierarchical regressions were conducted in order to examine the relationship between scores on neuropsychological tests and the Cognitions index, as well as mood measures and the Emotional Well-being index of the PDQ-39. RESULTS:Neuropsychological test performance did not account for a significant amount of variance in the PDQ-39 Cognitions index scores. Instead, it was depression that significantly contributed to the Cognitions index, above and beyond neuropsychological performance. The PDQ-39 Emotional Well-being index was also related to mood measures, primarily depression and trait anxiety. CONCLUSIONS:The PDQ-39 Cognition index may be more related to mood functioning, as opposed to cognitive functioning, and should not be considered a "proxy" for cognitive functioning. Future studies are needed to better explain the construct of this index.
Project description:Cognitive symptoms are an important component of depression and the Perceived Deficits Questionnaire-Depression is one of only a few instruments available for the subjective assessment of cognitive dysfunction in depression. Thus, the present study aimed to validate a Korean version of the PDQ-D (K-PDQ-D) using patients with major depressive disorder (MDD).This study included 128 MDD patients who were assessed at study entry and 86 of these patients were then completed 12 weeks of antidepressant monotherapy. All subjects were assessed with the K-PDQ-D, the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS), the EuroQol-5 dimensions questionnaire (EQ-5D), and the number of sick leave days taken in the previous week. The internal consistency, Guttman's split-half and test-retest reliabilities, factorial analyses, and concurrent and predictive validities of the K-PDQ-D were investigated.The K-PDQ-D exhibited excellent internal consistency and reliabilities, and was composed of four factors with high coefficients of determination. The concurrent validity analyses revealed that the K-PDQ-D scores were significantly correlated with the MADRS, SDS, and EQ-5D scores and the number of sick leave days taken. The K-PDQ-D scores at study entry significantly predicted changes in sick leave days and EQ-5D score from study entry to the 12-week endpoint.The newly developed K-PDQ-D is a reliable and valid instrument for the evaluation of subjective cognitive symptoms in MDD patients. The K-PDQ-D may assist in the gathering of unique information regarding subjective cognitive complaints, which is important for the comprehensive evaluation of patients with MDD.
Project description:There is a scarcity of evidence on subjectively reported cognitive difficulties in individuals at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis and whether these self-perceived cognitive difficulties may relate to objective cognitive deficits, psychopathology, functioning, and adherence to cognitive remediation (CR). Secondary, exploratory analyses to a randomized, clinical trial were conducted with 52 UHR individuals receiving a CR intervention. Participants completed the Measure of Insight into Cognition-Self Report (MIC-SR), a measure of daily life cognitive difficulties within the domains of attention, memory, and executive functions along with measures of neuropsychological test performance, psychopathology, functioning, and quality of life. Our study found participants with and without objectively defined cognitive deficits reported self-perceived cognitive deficits of the same magnitude. No significant relationship was revealed between self-perceived and objectively measured neurocognitive deficits. Self-perceived cognitive deficits associated with attenuated psychotic symptoms, overall functioning, and quality of life, but not with adherence to, or neurocognitive benefits from, a CR intervention. Our findings indicate that UHR individuals may overestimate their cognitive difficulties, and higher levels of self-perceived cognitive deficits may relate to poor functioning. If replicated, this warrants a need for both subjective and objective cognitive assessment in at-risk populations as this may guide psychoeducational approaches and pro-functional interventions. Self-perceived cognitive impairments do not seem to directly influence CR adherence and outcome in UHR states. Further studies are needed on potential mediator between self-perceived cognitive deficits and functioning and quality of life.
Project description:Background: Individuals with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) have significant impairments in processing speed (PS) and such impairments may underlie other cognitive deficits common in MS and limit performance of everyday life activities. Objective: To examine the efficacy of a computerized PS intervention, Speed of Processing Training (SPT), in persons with MS on PS, memory and everyday activities. Methods: Twenty-one individuals with clinically definite MS and an objectively assessed impairment in PS were included in a controlled randomized clinical trial, randomly assigned to a treatment group or a control group. Participants were assessed prior to and within 1 week of completing the treatment. Outcome measures included traditional neuropsychological tests measuring PS and memory, and an assessment of PS in daily life activities. Results: The treatment group showed a significant improvement on neuropsychological tests of PS and new learning and memory. A significant improvement was additionally noted in the treatment group on measures of PS in everyday life. These changes were not observed in the control group. Conclusions: Results provide preliminary data in support of SPT in treating PS deficits in persons with MS. Additional research is needed with larger samples and more comprehensive outcome measures.
Project description:This multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, active-referenced (duloxetine 60 mg), parallel-group study evaluated the short-term efficacy and safety of vortioxetine (10-20 mg) on cognitive function in adults (aged 18-65 years) diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD) who self-reported cognitive dysfunction. Efficacy was evaluated using ANCOVA for the change from baseline to week 8 in the digit symbol substitution test (DSST)-number of correct symbols as the prespecified primary end point. The patient-reported perceived deficits questionnaire (PDQ) and physician-assessed clinical global impression (CGI) were analyzed in a prespecified hierarchical testing sequence as key secondary end points. Additional predefined end points included the objective performance-based University of San Diego performance-based skills assessment (UPSA) (ANCOVA) to measure functionality, MADRS (MMRM) to assess efficacy in depression, and a prespecified multiple regression analysis (path analysis) to calculate direct vs indirect effects of vortioxetine on cognitive function. Safety and tolerability were assessed at all visits. Vortioxetine was statistically superior to placebo on the DSST (P < 0.05), PDQ (P < 0.01), CGI-I (P < 0.001), MADRS (P < 0.05), and UPSA (P < 0.001). Path analysis indicated that vortioxetine's cognitive benefit was primarily a direct treatment effect rather than due to alleviation of depressive symptoms. Duloxetine was not significantly different from placebo on the DSST or UPSA, but was superior to placebo on the PDQ, CGI-I, and MADRS. Common adverse events (incidence ? 5%) for vortioxetine were nausea, headache, and diarrhea. In this study of MDD adults who self-reported cognitive dysfunction, vortioxetine significantly improved cognitive function, depression, and functionality and was generally well tolerated.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The Assessment in Work Productivity and the Relationship with Cognitive Symptoms (AtWoRC) study aimed to assess the association between cognitive symptoms and work productivity in gainfully employed patients receiving vortioxetine for a major depressive episode (MDE). METHODS:Patients diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD) and treated with vortioxetine independently of study enrollment were assessed over 52 weeks at visits that emulated a real-life setting. Patients were classified as those receiving vortioxetine as the first treatment for their current MDE (first treatment) or having shown inadequate response to a previous antidepressant (switch). The primary endpoint was the correlation between changes in patient-reported cognitive symptoms (20-item Perceived Deficits Questionnaire [PDQ-D-20]) and changes in work productivity loss (Work Limitations Questionnaire [WLQ]) at week 12. Additional assessments included changes in symptom and disease severity, cognitive performance, functioning, work loss, and safety. RESULTS:In the week 12 primary analysis, 196 eligible patients at 26 Canadian sites were enrolled, received at least one treatment dose, and attended at least one postbaseline study visit. This analysis demonstrated a significant, strong correlation between PDQ-D-20 and WLQ productivity loss scores (r=0.634; p<0.001), and this correlation was significant in both first treatment and switch patients (p<0.001). A weaker correlation between Digit Symbol Substitution Test and WLQ scores was found (r=-0.244; p=0.003). CONCLUSION:At 12 weeks, improvements in cognitive dysfunction were significantly associated with improvements in workplace productivity in patients with MDD, suggesting a role for vortioxetine in functional recovery in MDD.
Project description:Objective: Episodic memory is frequently impaired in Multiple Sclerosis (MS), but the cognitive characteristics and neuropsychological processes involved remain controversial. Our aim was to study episodic memory dysfunction in MS, using the LASSI-L, a novel memory-based cognitive stress test that uses a new paradigm that capitalizes on semantic interference. Methods: Cross-sectional study in which 93 patients with MS (relapsing-remitting) and 124 healthy controls were included. The LASSI-L test was administered to all participants, as well as a comprehensive neuropsychological battery including a selective reminding test. MS patients were divided into two groups, with cognitive impairment (CI-MS) and cognitively preserved (CP-MS). Results: Reliability of the LASSI-L test was high (Cronbach's alpha 0.892) and there were less ceiling effects. MS patients scored lower than controls on all LASSI-L subtests, except for maximum storage of the initial target items (CRA2). Effect sizes were moderate-large. A delay in learning, difficulties in retroactive semantic interference, failure to recover from proactive semantic interference, and delayed recall were the most frequent findings in MS patients. Scores associated with maximum storage capacity, and retroactive semantic interference were the most strongly associated with cognitive impairment and employment status. Conclusion: We found that deficits in maximum learning, difficulties in recovery from the effects of proactive semantic interference and retroactive semantic interference are three important breakdowns in episodic memory deficits among patients with MS. The LASSI-L showed good psychometric and diagnostic properties. Overall, our study supports the utility of the LASSI-L, as a new cognitive test, useful for neuropsychological assessment in MS in clinical and research settings.