Recommendation for incorporation of a different lymph node scoring system in future AJCC N category for oral cancer.
ABSTRACT: To compare the prognostic value of 3 different lymph node scoring systems " log odds of positive nodes (LODDS), lymph node ratio (rN), and lymph node yield " in an effort to improve the staging of oral cancer. We identified 3958 oral cancer patients from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database from 2007 to 2013. In univariate analysis, LODDS, pN, rN, and lymph node yield were prognostic factors for 5-year disease-specific survival (DSS) and overall survival (OS). Multivariate analysis indicated that patients with LODDS 4 had worst 5-year DSS and OS. Stage migration occurred in pN1 and pN2 patients with LODDS 4. In pN1 patients, those with LODDS 4 had the worst 5-year DSS (41.2%) and OS (31.6%) than patients with pN1 and LODDS 2-3. In pN2 patients, those with LODDS4 had the worst 5-year DSS (34.5%) and OS (27.4%) than patients with pN2 and LODDS 2-3. The proposed staging system, which incorporates LODDS with AJCC pN, had better discriminability and prediction accuracy for predicting survival. We also noted that patients with LODDS 4 given adjuvant radiotherapy had better 5-year DSS and OS. The LODDS should be considered as a future candidate measurement for N category in oral cancer.
Project description:Background:In the TNM system only the anatomic location is used to define nodal status. In this study we aim to evaluate the effectiveness of combining the location and ratio of metastatic lymph node (pN-NR) for the prognosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods:Patients with pN1/pN2 NSCLC were retrieved from the SEER database. The optimal cut point of NR was determined with the maximal selecting test. All patients were divided into 4 categories with combination of pN (pN1 or pN2) and NR (low or high). The pN-NR was investigated as a predictor of overall survival (OS) and cause-specific survival (CSS) using Cox regression models. Survival curves were plotted using the Kaplan-Meier method and the difference was compared with log-rank test. Results:A total of 12,170 patients were enrolled. The optimal cut point of NR was 0.3. Patients were divided into 4 groups: pN1-NR <0.3, pN1-NR ?0.3, pN2-NR <0.3 and pN2-NR ?0.3. The pN-NR was an independent prognostic factor for survival. Compared with pN1-NR <0.3, the hazard ratio of OS was 1.405 (95% CI: 1.295-1.524), 1.183 (95% CI: 1.113-1257) and 1.717 (95% CI: 1.607-1.835) times higher for pN1-NR ?0.3, pN2-NR <0.3 and pN2-NR ?0.3 group, respectively. The survival curves of OS separated well between the 4 pN-NR groups, with 5-year OS 47.1% for pN1-NR <0.3, 43.0% for pN2-NR <0.3, 35.0% for pN1-NR ?0.3 and 28.5% for pN2-NR ?0.3, and the P value between neighboring curves was statistically significantly. The same trend was observed for CSS. Subgroup analysis revealed similar results except the pneumonectomy group. Conclusions:pN-NR could be a good predictor for the prognosis of NSCLC.
Project description:Preoperative differentiation between limited (pN1; 1-3 axillary metastases) and advanced (pN2-3; ?4 axillary metastases) nodal disease can provide relevant information regarding surgical planning and guiding adjuvant radiation therapy. The aim was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of preoperative axillary ultrasound (US) and breast MRI for differentiation between pN1 and pN2-3 in clinically node-positive breast cancer. A total of 49 patients were included with axillary metastasis confirmed by US-guided tissue sampling. All had undergone breast MRI between 2008-2014 and subsequent axillary lymph node dissection. Unenhanced T2-weighted MRI exams were reviewed by two radiologists independently. Each lymph node on the MRI exams was scored using a confidence scale (0-4) and compared with histopathology. Diagnostic performance parameters were calculated for differentiation between pN1 and pN2-3. Interobserver agreement was determined using Cohen's kappa coefficient. At final histopathology, 67.3% (33/49) and 32.7% (16/49) of patients were pN1 and pN2-3, respectively. Breast MRI was comparable to US in terms of accuracy (MRI reader 1 vs US, 71.4% vs 69.4%, p?=?0.99; MRI reader 2 vs US, 73.5% vs 69.4%, p?=?0.77). In the case of 1-3 suspicious lymph nodes, pN2-3 was observed in 30.4% on US (positive predictive value (PPV) 69.6%) and in 22.2-24.3% on MRI (PPV 75.7-77.8%). In the case of ?4 suspicious lymph nodes, pN1 was observed in 33.3% on US (negative predictive value (NPV) 66.7%) and in 38.5-41.7% on MRI (NPV 58.3-61.5%). Interobserver agreement was considered good (k?=?0.73). In clinically node-positive patients, the diagnostic performance of axillary US and breast MRI is comparable and limited for accurate differentiation between pN1 and pN2-3. Therefore, there seems no added clinical value of preoperative breast MRI regarding nodal staging in patients with positive axillary US.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The lymph node ratio (LNR), i.e. the number of positive lymph nodes (LN) divided by the total number of analyzed LN, has been described as a strong outcome predictor in node-positive colon cancer patients. However, most published analyses are constrained by relatively low numbers of analyzed LN. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the prognostic impact of LNR in colon cancer patients with high numbers of analyzed LN. METHODS:One hundred sixty-six colon cancer patients underwent open colon resection. All node-positive patients were analyzed for this study. The number of analyzed LN, of positive LN, the disease-free (DFS) and overall survival (OS) time were prospectively recorded. Patients were dichotomously allocated to a high or a low LNR-group, respectively, with the median LNR (0.125) as a cut-off value. Median follow-up was 34.3 months. RESULTS:Fifty-eight patients (34.9%) were node-positive. The median number of analyzed LN was 23 (range 8-54). DFS and OS were significantly shorter in pN2 vs pN1 patients (p?<?0.001, and p?=?0.001, respectively), and in LNR high vs low patients (p?=?0.032, and p?=?0.034, respectively). pN2 (vs pN1) disease showed hazard ratios (HR) of 6.2 (p?<?0.001), and 6.8 (p?<?0.005; for DFS and OS, respectively), while LNR high (vs low) showed HR of 3.0 (p?=0.041), and 4.5 (p?=?0.054). CONCLUSIONS:LNR is a reasonable outcome predictor in node-positive colon cancer patients. However, LNR is inferior to pN-stage in predicting survival in patients with high number of harvested lymph nodes.
Project description:The tumour-node-metastasis (TNM) classification is the most widely used tool for penile cancer. However, the current system is based on few studies and has been unchanged since 2009. We determined whether a modified pathological N staging system that incorporates the laterality and number of lymph node metastases (LNMs) increases the accuracy of the results in predicting survival compared with the 7th edition of the pathological N staging system of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) for penile cancer.The clinical and histopathologic data from 111 patients with penile cancer with LNMs were analysed. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analyses were used to determine the impact of the clinical and pathological factors on disease-specific survival of these patients. The predictive accuracy was further assessed using the concordance index.According to the 7th edition of the pathological N classification, the 3-year disease-specific survival (DSS) rates for patients with pN1, pN2, and pN3 disease are 89.6%, 65.9%, and 33.6%, respectively (P(N1-N2)=0.030, P(N2-N3)<0.001, P<0.001). Under the modified pathological N category criteria, the 3-year DSS rates for pN1, pN2, and pN3 patients were 90.7%, 60.5%, and 31.4%, respectively (P(N1-N2)=0.005, P(N2-N3)=0.004, P<0.001). In separate multivariate Cox regression models, only modified N stages (hazard ratio: 4.877, 10.895; P=0.018, P<0.001) exhibited independent effects on the outcome. The accuracy of the modified pathological N category was significantly increased.The modified pathological N staging system is a better reflection of the prognosis of patients with penile cancer. Our study should contribute to the improvement of prognostic stratification and systemic treatment to avoid overtreatment of patients.
Project description:The log odds of positive lymph nodes (LODDS) is an empiric transform formula that incorporates positive and negative lymph node data into a single ratio for prognostic utility. We sought to determine the value of the log odds ratio as a prognostic indicator compared with established lymph node indices in advanced-stage rectal cancer patients who have undergone curative resection.Retrospective analysis of rectal cancer operations from 1995 to 2013 identified all stage III cancer patients who underwent curative resection. Patients were stratified into three groups according to calculated lymph node ratios (LNRs) and log odds ratios (LODDS). The relationship between LNR, LODDS, and 5-year overall survival (OS) were assessed.OS for all patients was 81.4%. Both LNR and LODDS stratifications identified differences in 5-year OS. LODDS stratification was significantly associated with OS (p = .04). Additional significant clinicopathologic demographic variables included sex (p = .02), venous invasion (p = .02), tumor location (p < .001), and receipt of adjuvant chemotherapy (p = .047). LODDS separated survival among patients in the low LNR group (LNR1).This study confirms that the measure of lymph node involvement transformed by the log odds ratio is a suitable predictor of 5-year overall survival in stage III rectal cancer. LODDS may be applied to stratify high-risk patients in the management of adjuvant therapy.Traditionally, clinicians have relied solely on the total number of positive lymph nodes affected when determining patient prognosis in rectal cancer. However, the current staging strategy does not account for "high-risk," biologically aggressive tumors that fall into the same risk categories as less clinically aggressive tumors. The log odds of positive lymph nodes is a logistic transform formula that uses pathologic lymph node data to stratify survival differences among patients within a single stage of disease. This formula allows clinicians to identify whether patients with clinically aggressive tumors fall into higher-risk groups, providing additional insight into how to better counsel patients and manage postoperative therapies.
Project description:Background:In addition to the stepwise manner of lymph-node metastasis from the primary tumour, the skip lymph-node metastasis (SLNM) was identified as a low-incidence metastasis of gastric cancer (GC). So far, both the mechanism and outcome of SLNM have not been elucidated completely. The purpose of this study was to analyse the clinical significance and the potential mechanism of SLNM in GC patients who had lymph-node metastasis. Methods:Clinicopathological data and follow-up information of 505 GC patients who had lymph-node metastasis were analysed to demonstrate the significance of SLNM in evaluating the prognostic outcome. According to the pathological results, all GC patients who had lymph-node metastasis were categorized into three groups: patients with the perigastric lymph-node metastasis, patients with the perigastric and extragastric lymph-node metastasis and patients with SLNM.Results: Among the 505 GC patients who had lymph-node metastasis, 24 (4.8%) had pathologically identified SLNM. The location of lymph-node metastasis was not significantly associated with 5-year survival rate and overall survival (OS) (P = 0.194). The stratified survival analysis results showed that the status of SLNM was significantly associated with the OS in patients with pN1 GC (P = 0.001). The median OS was significantly shorter in 19 pN1 GC patients with SLNM than in 100 patients with perigastric lymph-node metastasis (P < 0.001). The case-control matched logistic regression analysis results showed that tumour size (P = 0.002) was the only clinicopathological factor that may predict SLNM in pN1 GC patients undergoing curative surgery. Among the 19 pN1 GC patients with SLNM, 17 (89.5%) had metastatic lymph nodes along the common hepatic artery, around the celiac artery or in the hepatoduodenal ligament. Conclusions:SLNM may be considered a potentially practicable indicator for prognosis among various subgroups of pN1 GC patients.
Project description:PURPOSE:To determine the postoperative effects of radiotherapy (PORT) on the local recurrence-free survival (LRFS) and overall survival (OS) of stage III-N2 non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). MATERIALS AND METHODS:183 patients with resected stage III-pN2 NSCLC from Hunan Cancer Hospital between 2013 and 2016 were divided into two groups for postoperative chemotherapy (POCT) (n = 105) or combination chemotherapy and radiotherapy (POCRT) (n = 78). The LRFS and OS were compared and the factors affecting local recurrence were illustrated in these two groups. The sites of failure based on the lobe of the primary tumor in two groups were described. RESULTS:PORT leads to a strikingly lower risk for local recurrence and brought superior OS benefit. For different pN2 Subclassification, Patients with multiple-station pN2 ± pN1 disease had the worst LRFS (11 months) and single-station pN2 + multiple station pN1 disease had a relatively short LRFS (24 months) in group POCT. Short LRFS is correlated with multiple-station pN2, older age (Y > 55), patients with a high positive LN ratio > 1/3 and a poor tumor histological differentiation degree. In group POCT, the most frequent failure site occurs at the ipsilateral hilum (21.0%), the bronchial stump (20.0%), followed by LNs4R (19.0%), LNs4L (18.1%), LNs7 (15.2%), most of left-sided tumors more frequently involved the contralateral mediastinum, whereas the ipsilateral recurrences dominated for right-sided tumors, especially for LNs4R. In group POCRT, the highest failure site was the bronchial stump (11.5%), followed by LNs4L (8.97%), LNs1 (7.69%), the ipsilateral hilum (6.41%) and LNs4R (6.41%). CONCLUSION:PORT remarkably reduced local recurrence and improved OS in stage III-pN2 NSCLC, especially in the multiple-station pN2 group.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Globally, colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third and second leading cancer in men and women respectively with 600,000 deaths per year. Traditionally, clinicians have relied solely on nodal disease involvement, and measurements such as lymph node ratio (LNR; the ratio of metastatic/positive lymph nodes to total number of lymph nodes examined), when determining patient prognosis in CRC. The log odds of positive lymph nodes (LODDS) is a logistic transformation formula that uses pathologic lymph node data to stratify survival differences among patients within a single stage of disease. This formula allows clinicians to identify whether patients with clinically aggressive tumours fall into higher-risk groups regardless of nodal positivity and can potentially guide adjuvant treatment modalities. The aim of this study was to investigate whether LODDS in colon cancer provides better prognostication compared to LNR. METHODS:A retrospective study of patients on the prospectively maintained Cabrini Monash University Department of Surgery colorectal neoplasia database, incorporating data from hospitals in Melbourne Australia, identified patients entered between January 2010 and March 2016. Association of LODDS and LNR with clinical variables were analysed. Disease-free (DFS) and overall (OS) survival were investigated with Cox regression and Kaplan-Meier survival analyses. RESULTS:There were 862 treatment episodes identified in the database (402 male, 47%). The median patient age was 73 (range 22-100?years). There were 799 colonic cancers and 63 rectosigmoid cancers. The lymph node yield (LNY) was suboptimal (<?12) in 168 patients (19.5%) (p?=?0.05). The 5-year OS for the different LNR groups were 86, 91 and 61% (p?<?0.001) for LNR0 (655 episodes), LNR1 (128 episodes) and LNR2 (78 episodes), respectively. For LODDS, they were 85, 91 and 61% (p?<?0.001) in LODDS0 (569 episodes), LODDS1 (217 episodes) and LODDS2 (75 episodes) groups (p?<?0.001). Overall survival rates were comparable between the LNR and LODDS group and for LNY?<?12 and stage III patients when each were sub-grouped by LODDS and LNR. CONCLUSION:This study has shown for that the prognostic impact of LODDS is comparable to LNR for colon cancer patients. Accordingly, LNR is recommended for prognostication given its ease of calculation.
Project description:Gallbladder adenocarcinoma is the main histopathological type of gallbladder cancer (GBC), so it is particularly important to understand its biological characteristics. Due to the low incidence of this type of cancer, there are few studies with large sample sizes. The log of positive lymph nodes (LODDS) has been evaluated by many scholars as a lymph node stage that may play a better role than the 8th edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) lymph node staging system in many cancers. However, the effect of LODDS has not been proven in gallbladder adenocarcinoma. Our research aimed to identify independent prognostic factors that are closely related to overall survival (OS) in patients with gallbladder adenocarcinoma over 45 years of age using data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and, End Results (SEER) database. All patients were randomly divided into a modeling cohort and an internal validation cohort. Seven independent prognostic factors associated with OS-age, marital status, grade, tumor size, AJCC 8th edition T stage and M stage, and LODDS-were used to build a nomogram to predict 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival. The C-index of our nomogram was 0.735 (95% CI, 0.716 to 0.754), and together with the calibration curve and ROC curve validation, the results confirmed the prediction effect of our nomogram. We believe that our nomogram will be an accurate and convenient method for patient prognosis assessment in the future.
Project description:Accurate pathologic nodal staging mandates effective collaboration between surgeons and pathologists. The American College of Surgeons Oncology Group Z0030 trial (ACOSOG Z0030) tightly controlled surgical lymphadenectomy practice but not pathologic examination practice. We tested the survival impact of the thoroughness of pathologic examination (using the number of examined lymph nodes as a surrogate).We re-analyzed the mediastinal lymph node dissection arm of ACOSOG Z0030, using logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards models.Of 513 patients, 435 were pN0, 60 were pN1, and 17 were pN2. The mean number of mediastinal lymph nodes examined was 13.5, 13.1, and 17.1; station 10 lymph nodes were 2.4, 2.7, and 2.6; station 11 to 14 nodes were 4.6, 6.1, and 6.7; and total lymph nodes were 19.7, 21.3, and 25.4 respectively. The pN category and histologic evaluation were associated with increased number of examined intrapulmonary lymph nodes. Patients with pN1 had more non-hilar N1 nodes than patients with pN0, patients with N2 had more N2 nodes examined than patients with pN0 or pN1. Patients with pN0 had better survival with examination of more N1 nodes; patients with pN1 had better survival with increased mediastinal nodal examination; the likelihood of discovering N2 disease was significantly associated with increased examination of mediastinal and non-hilar N1 lymph nodes.Despite rigorously standardized surgical hilar/mediastinal lymphadenectomy, the number of lymph nodes examined was associated with the likelihood of detecting nodal metastasis and survival. This may indicate an effect of incomplete pathologic examination.