Changes in motorcycle-related injuries and deaths after mandatory motorcycle helmet law in a district of Vietnam.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:Our study measured the change in head injuries and deaths among motorcycle users in Cu Chi district, a suburban district of Ho Chi Minh City. METHODS:Hospital records for road traffic injuries (RTIs) were collected from the Cu Chi Trauma Centre and motorcycle-related death records were obtained from mortality registries in commune health offices. Head injury severity was categorized using the Abbreviated Injury Score (AIS). Rate ratios (RRs) were used to compare rates pre- and post-law (2005/2006-2009/2010). Cu Chi's population, stratified by year, age, and sex, was used as the denominator. RESULTS:Of records identifying the transportation mode at the time of injury, motorcyclists accounted for most injuries (3,035, 87%) and deaths (238, 90%). Head injuries accounted for 70% of motorcycle-related hospitalizations. Helmet use was not recorded in any death records and not in 97% of medical records. Males accounted for most injuries (73%) and deaths (88%). The median age was 28 years and 32 years for injuries and deaths, respectively. Compared to the pre-law period, rates of motorcycle injuries (RR = 0.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.49-0.58), head injuries (RR = 0.35; 95% CI, 0.31-0.39), severe head injuries (RR = 0.47; 95% CI, 0.34-0.63), and deaths (RR = 0.69; 95% CI, 0.53-0.89) significantly decreased in the post-law period. CONCLUSIONS:Rates of head injuries and deaths among motorcycle riders decreased significantly after implementation of the mandatory helmet law in Vietnam. To further examine the impact of the motorcycle helmet law, including compliance and helmet quality, further emphasis should be placed on gathering helmet use data from injured motorcyclists.
Project description:CONTEXT:Motorcycle crashes account for a disproportionate number of motor vehicle deaths and injuries in the U.S. Motorcycle helmet use can lead to an estimated 42% reduction in risk for fatal injuries and a 69% reduction in risk for head injuries. However, helmet use in the U.S. has been declining and was at 60% in 2013. The current review examines the effectiveness of motorcycle helmet laws in increasing helmet use and reducing motorcycle-related deaths and injuries. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION:Databases relevant to health or transportation were searched from database inception to August 2012. Reference lists of reviews, reports, and gray literature were also searched. Analysis of the data was completed in 2014. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS:A total of 60 U.S. studies qualified for inclusion in the review. Implementing universal helmet laws increased helmet use (median, 47 percentage points); reduced total deaths (median, -32%) and deaths per registered motorcycle (median, -29%); and reduced total injuries (median, -32%) and injuries per registered motorcycle (median, -24%). Repealing universal helmet laws decreased helmet use (median, -39 percentage points); increased total deaths (median, 42%) and deaths per registered motorcycle (median, 24%); and increased total injuries (median, 41%) and injuries per registered motorcycle (median, 8%). CONCLUSIONS:Universal helmet laws are effective in increasing motorcycle helmet use and reducing deaths and injuries. These laws are effective for motorcyclists of all ages, including younger operators and passengers who would have already been covered by partial helmet laws. Repealing universal helmet laws decreased helmet use and increased deaths and injuries.
Project description:Motorcycles are the most common type of vehicle involved in traffic deaths in developing countries. Although helmets can provide protection against injury, there is limited evidence available regarding which type of helmet best protects against head and neck injuries in this setting. This review was conducted based on articles in the PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science databases. We compared full-face helmets with other types of helmet with regard to head and neck injury prevention in road accidents involving motorcyclists. Of 702 studies, six were eligible with a total of 6,529 participants. When compared with partial and open helmets, the odds ratio of full-face helmets was 0.356 (95% CI of 0.280, 0.453) and 0.636 (95% CI of 0.453, 0.894), respectively, for reduction of head and neck injuries. In conclusion, full-face helmets reduced head and neck injuries in motorcycle accidents to a greater extent than other types of helmet. Policy makers should recommend that motorcyclists use full-face helmets.
Project description:A helmet is critical for preventing head injuries during motorcycle accidents. However, South Korean motorcyclists have a lower prevalence of wearing a helmet, compared to developed countries. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate whether helmet wearing was associated with the clinical outcomes in Korean motorcycle accidents. Data were obtained from the Emergency Department-based Injury In-depth Surveillance database 2011-2015. We considered the patients had experienced a motorcycle accident and were only diagnosed with a craniocerebral trauma (CCT). The primary outcome was mortality and the secondary outcomes were the severity and hospitalization duration. The patients were separated whether they were wearing a helmet and the outcomes were compared using multivariate logistic regression after propensity score matching (PSM). Among 1,254,250 patients in the database, 2,549 patients were included. After PSM, 1,016 patients in each group were matched. The univariate analyses revealed that helmet wearing was associated with lesser severity (P < 0.001) and shorter hospitalization (P < 0.001). The regression analysis revealed that mortality was also lower in a helmet-wearing group (odds ratio: 0.34, 95% confidence interval: 0.21-0.56). In conclusion, wearing a helmet may reduce the mortality from a CCT after a motorcycle accident and associated with lesser severity and shorter hospitalization.
Project description:Transportation by motorcycle and bicycle has become popular in Taiwan, this study was designed to investigate the protective effect of helmet use during motorcycle and bicycle accidents by using a propensity score-matched study based on trauma registry system data.Data of adult patients hospitalized for motorcycle or bicycle accidents between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2015 were retrieved from the Trauma Registry System. These included 7735 motorcyclists with helmet use, 863 motorcyclists without helmet use, 76 bicyclists with helmet use, and 647 bicyclists without helmet use. The primary outcome measurement was in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes were the hospital length of stay (LOS), intensive care unit (ICU) admission rate, and ICU LOS. Normally distributed continuous data were analyzed by the unpaired Student t-test, and non-normally distributed data were compared using the Mann-Whitney U-test. Two-sided Fisher exact or Pearson chi-square tests were used to compare categorical data. Propensity score matching (1:1 ratio using optimal method with a 0.2 caliper width) was performed using NCSS software, adjusting for the following covariates: sex, age, and comorbidities. Further logistic regression was used to evaluate the effect of helmet use on mortality rates of motorcyclists and bicyclists, respectively.The mortality rate for motorcyclists with helmet use (1.1%) was significantly lower than for motorcyclists without helmet use (4.2%; odds ratio [OR] 0.2; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.17-0.37; p < 0.001). Among bicyclists, there was no significant difference in mortality rates between the patients with helmet use (5.3%) and those without helmet use (3.7%; OR 1.4; 95% CI: 0.49-4.27; p = 0.524). After propensity-score matching for covariates, including sex, age, and comorbidities, 856 well-balanced pairs of motorcyclists and 76 pairs of bicyclists were identified for outcome comparison, showing that helmet use among motorcyclists was associated with lower mortality rates (OR 0.2; 95% CI: 0.09-0.44; p < 0.001). In contrast, helmet use among bicyclists was not associated with a decrease in mortality (OR 1.3; 95% CI: 0.30-5.96; p = 0.706). The hospital LOS was also significantly shorter for motorcyclists with helmet use than for those without (9.5 days vs. 12.0 days, respectively, p < 0.001) although for bicyclists, helmet use was not associated with hospital LOS. Fewer motorcyclists with helmet use were admitted to the ICU, regardless of the severity of injury; however, no significant difference of ICU admission rates was found between bicyclists with and without helmets.Motorcycle helmets provide protection to adult motorcyclists involved in traffic accidents and their use is associated with a decrease in mortality rates and the risk of head injuries. However, no such protective effect of helmet use was observed for bicyclists involved in collisions.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:According to official statistics in Taiwan, the main body region of injury causing bicyclist deaths is the head, and bicyclists are 2.6 times more likely to be fatally injured than motorcyclists. There is currently a national helmet law for motorcyclists but not for bicyclists. OBJECTIVES:The primary aim of this study was to determine whether bicyclist casualties have higher odds of head-related hospitalisation than motorcyclists. This study also aims to investigate the determinants of head injury-related hospitalisation among bicyclists and motorcyclists. METHODS:Using linked data from the National Traffic Accident Dataset and the National Health Insurance Research Database for the period 2003-2012, this study investigates the crash characteristics of bicyclist and motorcyclist casualties presenting to hospitals due to motor vehicle crashes. Head injury-related hospitalisation was used as the study outcome for both road users to evaluate whether various factors (eg, human attributes, road and weather conditions, vehicle characteristics) are related to hospital admission of those who sustained serious injuries. RESULTS:Among 1 239 474 bicyclist and motorcyclist casualties, the proportion of bicyclists hospitalised for head injuries was higher than that of motorcyclists (10.0% vs 6.5%). However, the multiple logistic regression model shows that, after adjustment of this result for other factors such as helmet use, bicyclists were 18% significantly less likely to be hospitalised for head injuries than motorcyclists (AOR 0.82, 95% CI 0.79 to 0.85). Other important determinants of head injury-related hospitalisation for bicyclists and motorcyclists include female riders, elderly riders, crashes occurring in rural areas, moped riders, riding unhelmeted, intoxicated bicyclists and motorcyclists, unlicensed motorcyclists, dusk and dawn conditions and single-vehicle crashes. CONCLUSIONS:Our finding underscores the importance of helmet use in reducing hospitalisation due to head injuries among bicyclists while current helmet use is relatively low.
Project description:PURPOSE:Amongst the ASEAN countries, Malaysia has the highest road fatality risk (>15 fatalities per 100 000 population) with 50% of these fatalities involving motorcyclist. This contributes greatly to ward admissions and poses a significant burden to the general surgery services. From mild rib fractures to severe intra-abdominal exsanguinations, the spectrum of cases managed by surgeons resulting from motorcycle accidents is extensive. The objective of this study is to report the clinical characteristics and identify predictors of death in motorcycle traumatic injuries from a Malaysian trauma surgery centre. METHODS:This is a prospective cross-sectional study of all injured motorcyclists and pillion riders that were admitted to Hospital Sultanah Aminah and treated by the trauma surgery team from May 2011 to February 2015. Only injured motorcyclists and pillion riders were included in this study. Patient demography and predictors leading to mortality were identified. Significant predictors on univariate analysis were further analysed with multivariate analysis. RESULTS:We included 1653 patients with a mean age of (35 ± 16.17) years that were treated for traumatic injuries due to motorcycle accidents. The mortality rate was 8.6% (142) with equal amount of motorcycle riders (788) and pillion riders (865) that were injured. Amongst the injured were male predominant (1 537) and majority of ethnic groups were the Malays (897) and Chinese (350). Severity of injury was reflected with a mean Revised Trauma Score (RTS) of 7.31 ± 1.29, New Injury Severity Score (NISS) of 19.84 ± 13.84 and Trauma and Injury Severity Score (TRISS) of 0.91 ± 0.15. Univariate and multivariate analysis revealed that age≥35, lower GCS, head injuries, chest injuries, liver injuries, and small bowel injuries were significant predictors of motorcycle trauma related deaths with p < 0.05. Higher trauma severity represented by NISS, RTS and TRISS scores was also significant for death with p < 0.05. CONCLUSION:Age, lower GCS, presence of head, chest, liver, small bowel injuries and higher severity on NISS, RTS and TRISS scores are predictive of death in patients involved with motorcycle accidents. This information is important for prognostic mortality risk prevention and counselling.
Project description:The passage of universal helmet legislation requiring motorcycle riders of all ages to wear helmets is a timely and controversial issue with far-reaching public health implications, especially as the number of motorcycle fatalities continues to rise. In 2008, only 20 states had a universal helmet policy, an effective safety measure for reducing motorcycle fatalities and serious injuries. We used state-specific longitudinal data for the continental United States from 1990 through 2005 to determine which industry, political, economic, and demographic factors had a significant influence on the enactment of universal helmet policies. Our findings suggest that political climate and ideology are important predictors of helmet policies.
Project description:INTRODUCTION: Motorcycles have become an increasingly popular mode of transportation despite their association with a greater risk for injury compared with automobiles. Whereas the recent incidence of annual passenger vehicle fatalities in the United States of America (USA) has progressively declined, motorcycle fatalities have steadily increased in the past 11 years. Although motorcycle injuries (MIs) have been studied, to the author's knowledge there are no published reports on MIs in the USA during this 11-year period. Methods : Study data were derived from a prospectively collected Level I trauma center database. Data sampling included motorcycle crash injury evaluations for the 10-year period ending on 31 August 2008. This retrospective analysis included patient demographic and medical data, helmet use, Glasgow coma scale (GCS) score, injury severity score (ISS), length of hospital stay (LOS), specific injury diagnosis, and death. Data statistics were analyzed using the Spearman correlation coefficient, Kruskal-Wallis tests, and logistic regression. RESULTS: The study identified 1252 motorcycle crash injuries. Helmets were worn by 40.7% of patients for which helmet data were available. The rates of the most common orthopedic injuries were tibia/fibula (19.01%), spine (16.21%), and forearm (10.14%) fractures. The most common non-orthopedic motorcycle crash injuries were concussions (21.09%), skull fractures (8.23%), face fractures (13.66%), and hemo- and pneumothorax (8.79%). There was a significant correlation between greater age and higher ISS (r=0.21, P<0.0001) and longer LOS (r=0.22, P<0.0001). Older patients were also less likely to wear a helmet (OR=0.99, 95% CI: 0.98, 0.997), associated with a significantly higher risk for death (after adjustment for helmet use OR=1.03, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.05). All patients without helmets had a significantly lower GCS score (P=0.0001) and a higher mortality rate (after adjustment for patient demographic data OR=2.28, 95% CI: 1.13, 4.58). Conclusion : Compared with historical reports, the prevalence of skull, face, spine, and pelvis fractures have increased in American motorcycle crashes. Compared to recent European studies, the incidence of USA skull and face fractures is much higher, while the incidence of USA spine and pelvis fractures is more comparable; however, this is not associated with increased in-hospital mortality.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Vietnam's 2007 comprehensive motorcycle helmet policy increased helmet use from about 30% of riders to about 93%. We aimed to simulate the effect that this legislation might have on: (a) road traffic deaths and non-fatal injuries, (b) individuals' direct acute care injury treatment costs, (c) individuals' income losses from missed work and (d) individuals' protection against medical impoverishment. METHODS AND FINDINGS:We used published secondary data from the literature to perform a retrospective extended cost-effectiveness analysis simulation study of the policy. Our model indicates that in the year following its introduction a helmet policy employing standard helmets likely prevented approximately 2200 deaths and 29?000 head injuries, saved individuals US$18 million in acute care costs and averted US$31 million in income losses. From a societal perspective, such a comprehensive helmet policy would have saved $11?000 per averted death or $830 per averted non-fatal injury. In terms of financial risk protection, traffic injury is so expensive to treat that any injury averted would necessarily entail a case of catastrophic health expenditure averted. CONCLUSIONS:The high costs associated with traffic injury suggest that helmet legislation can decrease the burden of out-of-pocket payments and reduced injuries decrease the need for access to and coverage for treatment, allowing the government and individuals to spend resources elsewhere. These findings suggest that comprehensive motorcycle helmet policies should be adopted by low-income and middle-income countries where motorcycles are pervasive yet helmet use is less common.
Project description:PURPOSE:After car accident, motorcycle accident ranks as the second leading cause of traffic fatality in Iran. This study aimed to compare the severity and clinical presentations between drivers and passengers under the same injury circumstance. METHODS:This study was conducted in the trauma center of Shiraz, Iran in 2017. Data on demographics, triage level, blood pressure, respiratory rate, Glasgow coma scale (GCS), injured body region, injury severity score (ISS), revised trauma score (RTS), and result of accident were compared between pairs of drivers and passengers. The agreement of any type of injury between drivers and passengers evaluated by Kappa test. RESULTS:This study included 143 matched pairs of drivers and passengers. Most of the pairs (84.5%) did not use helmet and 77.2% of the riders do not have driving license. ISS was significantly higher in drivers than passengers. In the unmatched pairs, drivers and passengers showed no difference in sustaining injuries in the face, head & neck, chest and soft tissue, but drivers were found more likely to suffer from injuries in the abdomen, extremities, pelvis and spine than passengers. Once one part of the matched pair suffered injury in the head & neck, face, chest, abdomen, extremities and soft tissue & skin injury, the probability that the other part had an injury in the same region was 50%, 9%, 13%, 7%, 22% and 34% respectively. Kappa value for these body regions was 0.006, 0.009, -0.006, 0.068, 0.063 and 0.001, respectively, which was significant in abdomen and extremities. CONCLUSION:Although drivers had higher level of injury severity and some different injury distributions, we recommend equal treatment to drivers and passengers. We also recommend related authorities to develop policies on helmet use, driving license and third-party insurance.