A twenty-four-hour observational study of hand hygiene compliance among health-care workers in Debre Berhan referral hospital, Ethiopia.
ABSTRACT: Hand hygiene (HH) is recognized as the single most effective strategy for preventing health care-associated infections. In developing countries, data on hand hygiene compliance is available only for few health-care facilities. This study aimed to assess hand hygiene compliance among health-care workers in Debre Berhan referral hospital, Ethiopia.This study employed the WHO hand hygiene observation method. Direct observation of the health care workers (HCWs) was conducted using an observation record form in five different wards. Trained and validated observers watched HCWs while they had direct contact with patients or their surroundings, and the observers then recorded all possible hand hygiene opportunities and hand hygiene actions. Observation was conducted over a 24 h period to minimize selection bias. More than 200 opportunities per ward were observed according to WHO recommendation, except in neonatal intensive care unit. HH compliance was calculated by dividing the number of times hand hygiene was performed by the total number of opportunities for hand hygiene. A 95% confidence interval (CI) was computed for compliance with the exact binomial method.A total of 917 hand hygiene opportunities were observed during the study. Overall HH compliance was 22.0% (95% CI: 19.4-24.9). HH compliance was similar across all professional categories and did not vary by shift. Levels of compliance were lower before patient contact (2.4%; 95% CI: 0.9-5.3), before an aseptic procedure (3.6%; 95% CI: 1.6-7.6) and after contact with patient surroundings (3.3%; 95% CI: 1.2-7.9), whereas better levels of compliance were found after body fluid exposure (75.8%; 95% CI: 68.0-82.3) and after patient contact (42.8%; 95% CI: 35.2-50.7).HH compliance of HCWs was found to be low in Debre Berhan referral hospital. Compliance with indications that protect patients from infection was lower than that protect the HCWs. The findings of this study indicate that HH compliance needs further improvement.
Project description:<h4>Importance</h4>Hand hygiene (HH) is essential to prevent hospital-acquired infections.<h4>Objective</h4>To determine whether providing real-time feedback on a simplified HH action improves compliance with the World Health Organization's "5 Moments" and the quality of the HH action.<h4>Design, setting, and participants</h4>This open-label, cluster randomized, stepped-wedge clinical trial was conducted between June 1, 2017, and January 6, 2018 (with a follow-up in March 2018), in a geriatric hospital of the University of Geneva Hospitals, Switzerland. All 12 wards and 97 of 306 eligible health care workers (HCWs) volunteered to wear a novel electronic wearable device that delivered real-time feedback on duration of hand rubbing and application of a hand-sized customized volume of alcohol-based handrub (ABHR).<h4>Interventions</h4>This study had 3 sequential periods: baseline (no device), transition (device monitoring without feedback), and intervention (device monitoring and feedback). The start of the transition period was randomly allocated based on a computer-generated block randomization.<h4>Main outcomes and measures</h4>The primary outcome was HH compliance, according to the direct observation method during intervention as compared with baseline. Secondary outcomes included the volume of ABHR and duration of hand rubbing measured by the device during intervention as compared with transition.<h4>Results</h4>All wards and respective HCWs were evenly assigned to group 1 (26 participants), 2 (22 participants), 3 (25 participants), or 4 (24 participants). Twelve HCWs did not fully complete the intervention but were included in the analysis. During 759 observation sessions, 6878 HH opportunities were observed. HH compliance at intervention (62.9%; 95% CI, 61.1%-64.7%) was lower than at baseline (66.6%; 95% CI, 64.8%-68.4%). After adjusting for covariates, HH compliance was not different between periods (odds ratio, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.75-1.42; P?=?.85). Days since study onset (OR, 0.997; 95% CI, 0.994-0.998; P?<?.001), older age (OR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.95-0.99; P?=?.015), and workload (OR, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.20-0.41; P?<?.001) were independently associated with reduced HH compliance. The median (interquartile range) volume of ABHR and duration of hand rubbing in transition and intervention increased from 1.12 (0.76-1.68) mL to 1.71 (1.01-2.76) mL and from 6.5 (4.5-10.5) seconds to 8 (4.5-15.5) seconds, respectively. There were no serious adverse events.<h4>Conclusions and relevance</h4>The use of this device did not change HH compliance, but increased the duration of hand rubbing and volume of ABHR used by HCWs.<h4>Trial registration</h4>isrctn.org Identifier: ISRCTN25430066.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Hand hygiene (HH) is considered the most important measure to tackle the transmission of healthcare-associated pathogens. However, compliance with recommendations is usually low and effective improvement strategies are needed. We aimed to assess the effectiveness of an intervention targeting hand hygiene promotion among healthcare workers (HCWs). METHODS:We conducted a pre-post interventional study design in the university hospital Sahloul, Sousse, Tunisia, from January 2015 to December 2016. The intervention program consisted of training sessions and distribution of posters of hand hygiene guidelines. To assess the evolution of HH observance at pre- and post-intervention, the same observation form was distributed and collected at healthcare workers' workplace. RESULTS:Of the 1201 and 1057 opportunities for hand hygiene observed among all categories of HCWs, overall compliance enhanced significantly from 32.1 to 39.4% (p < 0.001) respectively at pre- and post-intervention. Nurses were the most compliant with a significant improvement from 34.1 to 45.7% (p < 0.001) respectively at pre- and post-intervention. Furthermore, analysis by department showed significant improvement of compliance in orthopedic department (p < 0.001), maxillofacial-surgery department (p < 0.001), pediatrics department (p = 0.013), and emergencies (p = 0.038). CONCLUSION:This study showed the feasibility and effectiveness of a health-setting-based intervention to enhance hand hygiene observance in the context of a developing country.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Hand hygiene is the cornerstone of infection control and reduces rates of healthcare associated infection. There are limited data evaluating hand hygiene adherence and hand hygiene campaign effect in resource-limited settings, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. This study assessed the impact of implementing a World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended multimodal hand hygiene campaign at a hospital in Ethiopia.<h4>Methods</h4>This study included a before-and-after assessment of health care worker (HCW) adherence with WHO hand hygiene guidelines. It was implemented in three phases: 1) baseline evaluation of hand hygiene adherence and hospital infrastructure; 2) intervention (distribution of commercial hand sanitizer and implementation of an abbreviated WHO-recommended multimodal hand hygiene campaign); and 3) post-intervention evaluation of HCW hand hygiene adherence. HCWs' perceptions of the campaign and hand sanitizer tolerability were assessed through a survey performed in the post-intervention period.<h4>Results</h4>At baseline, hand washing materials were infrequently available, with only 20% of sinks having hand-washing materials. There was a significant increase in hand hygiene adherence among HCWs following implementation of a WHO multimodal hand hygiene program. Adherence increased from 2.1% at baseline (21 hand hygiene actions/1000 opportunities for hand hygiene) to 12.7% (127 hand hygiene actions /1000 opportunities for hand hygiene) after the implementation of the hand hygiene campaign (OR?=?6.8, 95% CI 4.2-10.9). Hand hygiene rates significantly increased among all HCW types except attending physicians. Independent predictors of HCW hand hygiene compliance included performing hand hygiene in the post-intervention period (aOR?=?5.7, 95% CI 3.5-9.3), in the emergency department (aOR?=?4.9, 95% CI 2.8-8.6), during patient care that did not involve Attending Physician Rounds (aOR?=?2.4, 95% CI 1.2-4.5), and after patient contact (aOR?=?2.1, 95% CI 1.4-3.3). In the perceptions survey, 64.0% of HCWs indicated preference for commercially manufactured hand sanitizer and 71.4% indicated their hand hygiene adherence would improve with commercial hand sanitizer.<h4>Conclusions</h4>There was a significant increase in hand hygiene adherence among Ethiopian HCWs following the implementation of a WHO-recommended multimodal hand hygiene campaign. Dissatisfaction with the current WHO-formulation for hand sanitizer was identified as a barrier to hand hygiene adherence in our setting.
Project description:Hand hygiene (HH) is an essential component for preventing and controlling of healthcare-associated infection (HAI), whereas compliance with HH among health care workers (HCWs) is frequently poor. This study aimed to assess compliance and correctness with HH before and after the implementation of a multimodal HH improvement strategy launched by the World Health Organization (WHO).A quasi-experimental study design including questionnaire survey generalizing possible factors affecting HH behaviors of HCWs and direct observation method was used to evaluate the effectiveness of WHO multimodal HH strategy in a hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine. Multimodal HH improvement strategy was drawn up according to the results of questionnaire survey. Compliance and correctness with HH among HCWs were compared before and after intervention. Also HH practices for different indications based on WHO "My Five Moments for Hand Hygiene" were recorded.In total, 553 HCWs participated in the questionnaire survey and multimodal HH improvement strategy was developed based on individual, environment and management levels. A total of 5044 observations in 23 wards were recorded in this investigation. The rate of compliance and correctness with HH improved from 66.27% and 47.75% at baseline to 80.53% and 88.35% after intervention. Doctors seemed to have better compliance with HH after intervention (84.04%) than nurses and other HCWs (81.07% and 69.42%, respectively). When stratified by indication, compliance with HH improved for all indications after intervention (P < 0.05) except for "after body fluid exposure risk" and "after touching patient surroundings".Implementing the WHO multimodal HH strategy can significantly improve HH compliance and correctness among HCWs.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Hand hygiene (HH) among healthcare workers (HCWs) is critical for infection prevention and control (IPC) in healthcare facilities (HCFs). Nonetheless, it remains a challenge in HCFs, largely due to lack of high-impact and efficacious interventions. Environmental cues and mobile phone health messaging (mhealth) have the potential to improve HH compliance among HCWs, however, these remain under-studied. Our study will determine the impact of mhealth hygiene messages and environmental cues on HH practice among HCWs in the Greater Kampala Metropolitan Area (GKMA).<h4>Methods</h4>The study is a cluster-randomized trial, which will be guided by the behaviour centred design model and theory for behaviour change. During the formative phase, we shall conduct 30 key informants' interviews and 30 semi-structured interviews to explore the barriers and facilitators to HCWs' HH practice. Besides, observations of HH facilities in 100 HCFs will be conducted. Findings from the formative phase will guide the intervention design during a stakeholders' insight workshop. The intervention will be implemented for a period of 4 months in 30 HCFs, with a sample of 450 HCWs who work in maternity and children's wards. HCFs in the control arm will receive innovatively designed HH facilities and supplies. HCWs in the intervention arm, in addition to the HH facilities and supplies, will receive environmental cues and mhealth messages. The main outcome will be the proportion of utilized HH opportunities out of the 9000 HH opportunities to be observed. The secondary outcome will be E. coli concentration levels in 100mls of hand rinsates from HCWs, an indicator of recent fecal contamination and HH failure. We shall run multivariable logistic regression under the generalized estimating equations (GEE) framework to account for the dependence of HH on the intervention.<h4>Discussion</h4>The study will provide critical findings on barriers and facilitators to HH practice among HCWs, and the impact of environmental cues and mhealth messages on HCWs' HH practice.<h4>Trial registration</h4>ISRCTN Registry with number ISRCTN98148144 . The trial was registered on 23/11/2020.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The burden of healthcare-associated infection (HAI) is 2 to 18 times higher in developing countries. However, few data are available regarding infection prevention and control (IPC) process indicators in these countries. We evaluated hand hygiene (HH) facilities and compliance amongst healthcare workers (HCW) in a 600-bed healthcare facility in Northcentral Nigeria providing tertiary care service for a catchment population of about 20 million. METHODS:An in-house facility assessment tool and the World Health Organization (WHO) direct observation method were used to assess the HH facilities and compliance, respectively. Factors associated with good compliance were determined by multivariate analysis. RESULTS:The facility survey was carried out in all 46 clinical units of the hospital. 72% of the units had no poster or written policy on HH; 87% did not have alcohol-based hand rubs; 98% had at least one handwash sink; 28% had flowing tap water all day while 72% utilized cup and bucket; and 58% had no hand drying facilities. A total of 406 HH opportunities were observed among 175 HCWs. The overall compliance was 31%, ranging from 18% among ward attendants to 82% among medical students. Based on WHO "5 moments" for HH, average compliance was 21% before patient contact, 23% before aseptic procedure, 63% after body fluid exposure risk, 41% after patient contact and 40% after contact with patients' surrounding. Being a medical student was independently associated with high HH compliance, adjusted odds ratio: 13.87 (1.70-112.88). CONCLUSIONS:Availability of HH facilities and HCW compliance in a large tertiary hospital in Nigeria is poor. Our findings confirm that HCWs seem more sensitized to their risk of exposure to potential pathogens than to the prevention of HAI cross-transmission. Inadequate HH facilities probably contributed to the poor compliance. Specific measures such as improved facilities, training and monitoring are needed to improve HH compliance.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Appropriate hand hygiene (HH) is key to reducing healthcare-acquired infections. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends education and training to improve HH knowledge and compliance. Physicians are ranked among the worst of all healthcare workers for compliant handrubbing with its origin probably being the failure to learn this essential behavior during undergraduate medical studies. This study evaluated if the use of Ultraviolet-cabinets (UVc) for fluorescent-alcohol-based handrubs (AHR) during an undergraduate medical student training improved the compliance rate to the WHO hand hygiene recommendations (completeness of AHR application and HH opportunities). METHODS:This randomized trial compared a HH training with personal feedback (using UVc) to a control group. The first year, the students (2nd degree) were convened by groups (clusters) of 6-9 for a demonstration of the correct execution of WHO procedure. Randomization by cluster was done prior HH training. In the control group, the students hand rubbed under visual supervision of a tutor. In the intervention group after the same visual supervision, completeness of fluorescent-AHR hand application was recorded under UVc and was shown to the student. The intervention group had free access to the UVc until complete application. HH practices were included in simulation sessions for the both groups. One year after (3rd degree), all the students were asked to hand rub with fluorescent-AHR. A tutor (blinded to the study group) assessed the completeness of hand application under UVc and the compliance with the WHO opportunities. Complete application of AHR was defined as fluorescence for all the surfaces of hands and wrists. RESULTS:242 students participated (140 in the intervention group and 102 in the control group). One year after the initial training, the rate of complete application of AHR was doubled in the intervention group (60.0% vs. 30.4%, p?<?0.001). In a multivariate analysis which included gender, additional HH or UVc training, surgical traineeship and regular use of AHR, the hazard ratio for the intervention was 3.84 (95%CI: 2.09-7.06). The compliance with the HH WHO's opportunities was increased in the intervention group (58.1% vs. 42.4%, p?<?0.018). CONCLUSION:Using UVc for undergraduate medical students education to hand hygiene improves their technique and compliance with WHO recommendations.
Project description:We sought to determine the minimum number of observations needed to determine hand hygiene (HH) compliance among healthcare workers. The study was conducted at a referral hospital in South Korea. We retrospectively analyzed the result of HH monitoring from January to December 2018. HH compliance was calculated by dividing the number of observed HH actions by the total number of opportunities. Optimal HH compliance rates were calculated based on adherence to the six-step technique recommended by the World Health Organization. The minimum number of required observations (n) was calculated by the following equation using overall mean value (ρ), absolute precision (d), and confidence interval (CI) (1 - α) [the equation: [Formula: see text]]. We considered ds of 5%, 10%, 20%, and 30%, with CIs of 99%, 95%, and 90%. During the study period, 8791 HH opportunities among 1168 healthcare workers were monitored. Mean HH compliance and optimal HH compliance rates were 80.3% and 59.7%, respectively. The minimum number of observations required to determine HH compliance rates ranged from 2 ([Formula: see text]: 30%, CI: 90%) to 624 ([Formula: see text]: 5%, CI: 99%), and that for optimal HH compliance ranged from 5 ([Formula: see text]: 30%, CI: 90%) to 642 ([Formula: see text]: 5%, CI: 99%). Therefore, we found that our hospital required at least five observations to determine optimal HH compliance.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Our primary objective was to assess hand hygiene (HH) compliance before aseptic procedures among birth attendants in the 10 highest-volume facilities in Zanzibar. We also examined the extent to which recontamination contributes to poor HH. Recording exact recontamination occurrences is not possible using the existing World Health Organization HH audit tool. METHODS:In this time-and-motion study, 3 trained coders used WOMBATv2 software to record the hand actions of all birth attendants present in the study sites. The percentage compliance and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for individual behaviors (hand washing/rubbing, avoiding recontamination and glove use) and for behavioral sequences during labor and delivery were calculated. RESULTS:We observed 104 birth attendants and 781 HH opportunities before aseptic procedures. Compliance with hand rubbing/washing was 24.6% (95% CI, 21.6-27.8). Only 9.6% (95% CI, 7.6-11.9) of birth attendants also donned gloves and avoided recontamination. Half of the time when rubbing/washing or glove donning was performed, hands were recontaminated prior to the aseptic procedure. CONCLUSIONS:In this study, HH compliance by birth attendants before aseptic procedures was poor. To our knowledge, this is the first study in a low- to middle-income country to show the large contribution to poor HH compliance from hand and glove recontamination before the procedure. Recontamination is an important driver of infection risk from poor HH. It should be understood for the purposes of improvement and therefore included in HH monitoring and interventions.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Hand hygiene (HH) is the cornerstone of infection control, and the promotion of HH is the focus of the world. The study aims to compare the role of two different types of electronic hand hygiene monitoring systems (EHHMSs) in promoting HH of healthcare workers (HCWs) in the intensive care unit (ICU).<h4>Methods</h4>In a 16-bed ICU of a general tertiary hospital in Shenzhen, the research was divided into three stages with interrupted time series (ITS) design. In the first stage, the direct observation method was used to monitor and feed back the HH compliance rate of HCWs monthly. In the second stage, the type1 EHHMS was applied to monitor and feed back the individual number of HH events monthly. In the third stage, the type2 EHHMS with a function of instant reminder and feedback was employed, and the personal HH compliance rates were fed back monthly. Meanwhile, direct observation continued in the last two stages.<h4>Results</h4>In the second stage, The HH compliance rate increased. However, there was no significant difference in the trajectory of the rate compared with the first stage. In the first month of the third stage, the HH compliance rate increased by 12.324% immediately and then ascended by 1.242% over time. The number of HH events per bed day and HH products' consumption per bed day were consistent with the change of HH compliance rate observed.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Monitoring and feedback can improve the HH of HCWs. The EHHMS, with the function of real-time reminders and feedback, has a more noticeable effect on promoting HH.