Melanosis coli: Harmless pigmentation? A case-control retrospective study of 657 cases.
ABSTRACT: The association of melanosis coli with the development of colorectal polyps remains uncertain.From a total of 18263 patients who had received colonoscopy in our hospital, 219 with melanosis coli cases and 438 controls matched by age and sex (at 1:2 ratio) were included in this study. The association of incidence, number, location, and pathology of colorectal neoplasm with grades and distribution of melanosis coli were analyzed.Melanosis coli was associated with significantly more colorectal polyps than control, a higher incidence of numerous colorectal polyps (number ? 20) (7.3% vs 0.5%; p < 0.001), and higher number of small colorectal polyps (diameter ? 5 mm; p < 0.01). Patients with melanosis coli had higher incidences of low-grade adenomas (31.1% vs 23.3%, p < 0.05) and non-adenoma polyps (20.1% vs 12.8%, p < 0.05) than the controls. On multivariate analysis, melanosis coli was independently associated with increased detecting rates of low grade adenoma (OR = 1.54; 95%: 1.06-2.23; p < .05), non-adenoma polyp (OR = 1.72; 95%: 1.11-2.70; p < .05) and numerous polyps (OR = 16.2, 95%: 3.66-71.6; p < .05). There was no significant difference in the incidence of high-grade adenomas or adenocarcinomas in the two population groups, but the numbers of these lesions were insufficient to permit firm conclusions. No significant differences in incidence, number, and pathology of colorectal polyps between individuals with melanosis coli of three different grades of severity were found. Melanosis located predominantly in the right colon had an interestingly lower incidence of colonic polyps in right colon than did melanosis located predominantly in the left colon or total colon (8.9% vs. 26.3%, 24.0%, p < 0.05). Patients with melanosis coli had significantly more nonspecific distal ileal ulcers than did controls (8.0% vs 0%, p < 0.001).Melanosis coli is associated with a higher incidence and number of colonic non-adenoma polyps and low-grade adenomas, and higher incidence of distal ileal ulcers. Melanosis coli may not be a harmless pigmentation, but a sign of chronic injury of colonic and intestinal mucosa.
Project description:Although there is a growing interest in developing circulating microRNA (miRNA) as noninvasive diagnostic biomarkers for the detection of high-risk colorectal adenomas and early-stage CRCs, but the comparative diagnostic significance of serum vs. exosomal miRNAs remains unexplored.Based upon published literature, we performed an initial discovery step by investigating the expression of a miRNA panel in 20 normal colonic mucosa, 27 adenomas, and 19 CRC tissues. We performed subsequent validation by quantifying expression of candidate miRNAs in total serum and in exosomes from 26 adenoma patients and 47 healthy controls, and evaluated their clinical significance and potential diagnostic value in colorectal adenomas.We observed that the expression of four miRNAs, miR-21, miR-29a, miR-92a, and miR-135b, was significantly higher in colorectal adenomas vs. normal colonic mucosa. During validation, expression of miR-21, miR-29a and miR-92a in serum was significantly higher in adenomas vs. healthy controls, significantly correlated with adenoma size and total adenoma number within the colorectum, and significantly discriminated patients with advanced adenomas. In contrast, although exosomal miR-21 and miR-29a levels in adenoma patients were significantly higher than those of healthy volunteers, only exosomal miR-21 significantly correlated with adenoma size and total adenoma number, and could discriminate patients with high-risk adenomas.Compared to exosomal miRNAs, serum levels of miR-21, miR-29a and miR-92a are superior diagnostic biomarkers in patients with high-risk adenomatous polyps.
Project description:Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Inflammatory activity within the stroma of invasive colorectal tumours is known to be a key predictor of disease activity with type, density and location of immune cells impacting on patient prognosis. To date, there has been no report of inflammatory phenotype within pre-malignant human colonic adenomas. Assessing the stromal microenvironment and particularly, inflammatory activity within colorectal neoplastic lesions is central to understanding early colorectal carcinogenesis. Inflammatory cell infiltrate was assessed by immunohistochemistry in paired colonic adenoma and adjacent normal colonic mucosa samples, and adenomas exhibiting increasing degrees of epithelial cell dysplasia. Macrophage phenotype was assessed using double stain immunohistochemistry incorporating expression of an intracellular enzyme of function. A targeted array of inflammatory cytokine and receptor genes, validated by RT-PCR, was used to assess inflammatory gene expression. Inflammatory cell infiltrates are a key feature of sporadic adenomatous colonic polyps with increased macrophage, neutrophil and T cell (specifically helper and activated subsets) infiltration in adenomatous colonic polyps, that increases in association with characteristics of high malignant potential, namely, increasing degree of cell dysplasia and adenoma size. Macrophages within adenomas express iNOS, suggestive of a pro-inflammatory phenotype. Several inflammatory cytokine genes (CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL3, CCL20, IL8, CCL23, CCL19, CCL21, CCL5) are dysregulated in adenomas. This study has provided evidence of increased inflammation within pre-malignant colonic adenomas. This may allow potential mechanistic pathways in the initiation and promotion of early colorectal carcinogenesis to be identified.
Project description:Colorectal cancer is a preventable disease if caught at early stages. This disease is highly aggressive and has a higher incidence in African Americans. Several biomarkers and mutations of aggressive tumor behavior have been defined such as metastasis-associated in colon cancer 1 (MACC1) that was associated with metastasis in colorectal cancer patients. Here, we aim to assess colon tissue MACC1 protein and circulating MACC1 transcripts in colon preneoplastic and neoplastic African American patients.Patients' tissue samples (n = 143) have been arranged on three tissue microarrays for normal (n = 26), adenoma (n = 68) and cancer (n = 49) samples. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect MACC1 expression. Blood samples (n = 93) from normal (n = 45), hyperplastic (n = 15) and tubular adenoma (n = 33) patients were used to assess MACC1 transcripts using qRT-PCR. Distribution of continuous variables was tested between different diagnoses with Kruskal-Wallis test. Categorical variables were tested by Chi square test. We assessed the prognostic ability of IHC staining by calculating area under receiver operating characteristics curve (ROC) for adenoma and cancer separately. Differences between groups in terms of MACC1 transcript levels in plasma were calculated by using non-parametric (exact) Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney tests. We performed all calculations with SPSS, version 21.In patient tissues, there was a statistically significant difference in MACC1 expression in normal vs. adenoma samples (p = 0.004) and normal vs. cancer samples (p < 0.001). There was however no major difference in MACC1 expression between adenoma vs. cancer cases or tubular adenomas vs tubulovillous adenomas. The area under the curve for both normal vs. adenoma and normal vs. cancer cases were 70 and 67 %, respectively. MACC1 expression was not correlated to age, gender or anatomical sample location. In patient plasma, MACC1 transcripts in adenoma patients were significantly higher than in plasma from normal patients (p = 0.014). However, the difference between normal and hyperplastic plasma MACC1 transcripts was not statistically significant.Metastasis-associated in colon cancer 1 is expressed at early stages of colorectal oncogenesis within the affected colonic tissue in this patient cohort. The plasma transcripts can be used to stratify African American patients at risk for potential malignant colonic lesions.
Project description:Prevention of colorectal cancer is a major health care issue. People who have undergone colonoscopy screening and had colorectal polyps removed have a higher risk of being diagnosed with polyps again compared to the normal population. Therefore, it would be ideal to find appropriate means that effectively help to prevent the reoccurrence of polyps after polypectomy. So far, pharmaceutical chemoprevention with NSAIDs including aspirin has been shown to be effective but not gained general acceptance due to side effects. Nutraceuticals such as polyphenols from tea plants have demonstrated remarkable therapeutic and preventive effects in molecular, epidemiological and clinical trials. However, placebo-controlled trials demonstrating the efficacy of nutraceuticals for the (secondary) prevention of colorectal polyps as precursors for colorectal cancer are missing.We present the design of a randomized, placebo controlled, multicentre trial to investigate the effect of diet supplementation with green tea extract containing 300 mg epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), the major polyphenol in green tea, on the recurrence of colon adenomas. Patients who have undergone polypectomy for colonic polyps will be randomized to receive either green tea extract containing 150 mg EGCG two times daily or a placebo over the course of three years. After a one month run-in period in which all patients will receive the active intervention, 2534 patients will be randomized, and 2028 patients are expected to complete the whole study course. Incidence, number and histology of adenoma at endpoint colonoscopy at three years will be compared in both groups.The beneficial safety profile of decaffeinated green tea extract, the quantifiable and known active content EGCG, and the accumulating evidence of its cancer preventive potential require, in our view, a validation of this compound for the nutriprevention of colorectal adenoma. Good accessibility and low costs might render this neutraceutical a top candidate for wider use as food supplement in colon cancer prevention.ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01360320.
Project description:BACKGROUND & AIMS:Specific mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene can lead to an attenuated form of familial adenomatous polyposis (AFAP). Although AFAP mutation carriers have a 69% risk of colorectal cancer by age 80, clinical recognition remains a challenge in some cases because they present with few colonic adenomas and are difficult to distinguish clinically from patients with sporadic polyps. METHODS:Family relationships were established using family history reports, the Utah Population Database, and the public records of the Mormon Church. Genetic analysis of representative family members was performed using a 10,000 single nucleotide polymorphism array platform. Colonoscopy data were available on 120 individuals with the AFAP mutation. RESULTS:Two large AFAP kindreds with the identical APC disease-causing mutation (c.426_427delAT) were linked to a founding couple who came to America from England around 1630. Genetic analysis showed that the 2 families share a conserved haplotype of 7.17 Mbp surrounding the mutant APC allele. The data show that 36.6% of the mutation-positive family members have fewer than 10 colonic adenomatous polyps, and 3 (6.8%) of these individuals were diagnosed with colorectal cancer. CONCLUSIONS:In view of the apparent age of this mutation, a notable fraction of both multiple-adenoma patients and perhaps even colon cancer cases in the United States could be related to this founder mutation. The colon cancer risk associated with the mutation makes genetic testing of considerable importance in patients with a personal or family history of either colonic polyps or cancer at a young age.
Project description:Background and Aim:While adenoma detection rate (ADR) is an important quality metric for screening colonoscopy, it remains difficult to be accessed due to the lack of integrated endoscopy and pathology databases. Hence, the use of an adenoma-to-polyp detection rate quotient and polyp detection rate (PDR) has been proposed to predict ADR. This study aimed to examine the usefulness of estimated ADR across different colonic segments in two age groups for Shenzhen people in China. Methods:We retrospectively analyzed 7329 colonoscopy procedures performed by 12 endoscopists between January 2012 and February 2014. The PDR, actual ADR, and estimated ADR of the entire, proximal, and distal colon, and within each colonic segment, in two patient age groups: <50 and ?50?years, were calculated for each endoscopist. Results:The overall polyp and adenoma prevalence rates were 19.1 and 9.3%, respectively. The average age of adenoma-positive patients was significantly higher than that of adenoma-negative patients (54?±?12.6?years vs 42.9?±?13.2?years, respectively). A total of 1739 polyps were removed, among which 826 were adenomas. More adenomatous polyps were found in the proximal colon (60.4%, 341/565) than in the distal colon (40.9%, 472/1154). Overall, both actual and estimated ADR correlated strongly at the entire colon level and within most colonic segments, except for the cecum and rectum. In both age groups, these parameters correlated strongly within the traverse colon and descending colon. Conclusion:Caution should be exercised when predicting ADR within the sigmoid colon and rectum.
Project description:We aimed to estimate the cumulative incidence of advanced colonic neoplasia and analyze the risk factors for advanced colonic neoplasia according to risk components and adenoma location at index colonoscopy.We reviewed 1,974 subjects who underwent a follow-up colonoscopy after a complete screening colonoscopy and the removal of all polyps. We estimated the cumulative incidence of a subsequent advanced neoplasia according to risk groups (normal, low-risk, and high-risk). Risk factors were analyzed by risk components (?3 adenomas, adenoma ?1 cm, and villous-type adenoma) and adenoma location.Overall, 111 advanced neoplasias (5.6%) were newly diagnosed at the follow-up colonoscopy. The 3-year cumulative incidences of advanced neoplasia were 0.8%, 3.1%, and 10.2% in the normal, low-risk, and high-risk groups, respectively (p<0.0001), and the 5-year cumulative incidences were 2.2%, 8.6%, and 20.2%, respectively (p<0.0001). Age ?60 years (hazard ratio [HR], 1.78; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.21 to 2.63), right-sided colonic adenoma (HR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.13 to 2.66), ?3 adenomas (HR, 2.00; 95% CI, 1.22 to 3.28), and adenomas ?1 cm in size (HR, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.20 to 3.44) in the index colonoscopy were independent risk factors for subsequent development of advanced neoplasia.Right-sided colonic adenoma, ?3 adenomas, adenomas ?1 cm, and age ?60 years at the index colonoscopy were significant risk factors for advanced neoplasia following a complete screening colonoscopy and removal of all polyps.
Project description:The removal of pre-malignant colorectal lesions prevents cancer. Hyoscine has been proposed as a means of improving diagnosis by reducing colonic movements. The aim of this study was to analyze whether this anti-spasmodic enhances the detection of pre-malignant colorectal lesions.In a randomized, double-blinded fashion patients received hyoscine or a saline solution in all consecutive colonoscopies in which the cecum was reached. Lesions were analysed with respect to number, size, location, histology and capillary pattern.A total of 440 colonoscopies were randomized. The overall polyp detection rate (PDR) and the adenoma detection rate (ADR) were 65.2% and 49.3%, respectively. In the hyoscine group, non-polypoid lesions were detected significantly more often (p=0.01). In the placebo group 281 lesions were diagnosed (202 adenomas) and in the hyoscine group 282 lesions were detected (189 adenomas) (p=0.23). The PDR and ADR were similar between the placebo and hyoscine groups (64% vs 66% and 50% vs 47%, respectively). No differences were observed between the two groups in the advanced-ADR or advanced neoplasia detection rate, as well the mean numbers of polyps, adenomas, advanced adenomas and advanced neoplasias detected per patient. The administration of hyoscine also did not improve the diagnostic accuracy of digital chromoendoscopy. The presence of adenomatous polyps in the right colon was detected significantly more frequently in the hyoscine group (OR 5.41 95% CI 2.7 - 11; p<0.01 vs OR 2.3 95% CI 1.1 - 4.6; p=0.02).The use of hyoscine before beginning the withdrawal of the colonoscope does not seem to enhance the PDR and the ADR.
Project description:Development of biomarkers that detect early stage resectable premalignant lesions of colon can provide critical aid in the prevention of colorectal cancer. Recent lines of evidence suggest the utility of mucin expression to predict malignant transformation of colon pre-neoplastic lesions. In this study, we investigated the combined expression of multiple mucins and mucin-associated glycans during the adenoma-carcinoma sequence of colon cancer progression. Further, we evaluated their applicability as markers for differentiating adenomas/adenocarcinomas from hyperplastic polyps. Immunohistochemical analyses performed on colon disease tissue microarrays revealed downregulation of MUC2 and MUC4 expression (p?<?0.0001) while MUC1 and MUC5AC expressions were upregulated (p?=?0.01) during adenoma-adenocarcinoma progression. Expression of MUC17 was downregulated in inflamed tissues compared to normal tissues, but its increased expression differentiated adenomas (p?=?0.0028) and adenocarcinomas (p?=?0.025) from inflammation. Glycan epitope-Tn/STn on MUC1 showed higher expression in hyperplastic polyps (p?=?0.023), adenomas (p?=?0.042) and adenocarcinomas (p?=?0.0096) compared to normal tissues. Multivariate regression analyses indicated that a combination of MUC2, MUC5AC, and MUC17 could effectively discriminate adenoma-adenocarcinoma from hyperplastic polyps. Altogether, a combined analysis of altered mucins and mucin-associated glycans is a useful approach to distinguish premalignant/malignant lesions of colon from benign polyps.
Project description:Serum C-reactive protein (CRP) is a sensitive marker of systemic inflammation. Because there is a well-recognized relationship between local inflammation and colorectal cancer, we aimed to evaluate whether serum CRP levels were associated with the occurrence of colorectal adenomas and serrated polyps using data from a large adenoma prevention trial. A total of 930 participants with a history of colorectal adenomas were enrolled in a randomized trial of calcium supplementation (1,200 mg/day) for the prevention of colorectal adenomas. Outcomes in this analysis are metachronous adenomas (and advanced neoplasms specifically), and serrated polyps at follow-up colonoscopy. High-sensitivity CRP levels were measured 1 year following baseline colonoscopy. Multivariate analysis was performed to estimate risk ratios (RR) using Poisson regression, controlling for potential confounders. We measured serum CRP levels in 689 participants (mean CRP, 3.62 ± 5.72 mg/L). There was no difference in CRP levels with respect to calcium versus placebo treatment assignment (P = 0.99). After adjustment for potential confounders, we found no association between CRP level and risk of recurrent adenoma or advanced lesion [quartile 4 vs. quartile 1: RR, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.99 (0.73-1.34) and 0.92 (0.49-1.75), respectively]. Similarly, no association was seen between CRP levels and risk of serrated polyps or proximal serrated polyps [quartile 4 vs. quartile 1: RR (95% CI) = 1.32 (0.85-2.03) and 1.19 (0.54-2.58), respectively]. In conclusion, this large prospective colorectal adenoma chemoprevention study found no significant relationship between CRP levels and occurrence of adenomas, advanced neoplasms, or serrated polyps.