Absolute Minimal Sampling of Homonuclear 2D NMR TOCSY Spectra for High-Throughput Applications of Complex Mixtures.
ABSTRACT: Modern applications of 2D NMR spectroscopy to diagnostic screening, metabolomics, quality control, and other high-throughput applications are often limited by the time-consuming sampling requirements along the indirect time domain t1 . 2D total correlation spectroscopy (TOCSY) provides unique spin connectivity information for the analysis of a large number of compounds in complex mixtures, but standard methods typically require >100 t1 increments for an accurate spectral reconstruction, rendering these experiments ineffective for high-throughput applications. For a complex metabolite mixture it is demonstrated that absolute minimal sampling (AMS), based on direct fitting of resonance frequencies and amplitudes in the time domain, yields an accurate spectral reconstruction of TOCSY spectra using as few as 16 t1 points. This permits the rapid collection of homonuclear 2D NMR experiments at high resolution with measurement times that previously were only the realm of 1D experiments.
Project description:A customized metabolomics NMR database, termed (1)H((13)C)-TOCCATA, is introduced, which contains complete (1)H and (13)C chemical shift information on individual spin systems and isomeric states of common metabolites. Since this information directly corresponds to cross sections of 2D (1)H-(1)H TOCSY and 2D (13)C-(1)H HSQC-TOCSY spectra, it allows the straightforward and unambiguous identification of metabolites of complex metabolic mixtures at (13)C natural abundance from these types of experiments. The (1)H((13)C)-TOCCATA database, which is complementary to the previously introduced TOCCATA database for the analysis of uniformly (13)C-labeled compounds, currently contains 455 metabolites, and it can be used through a publicly accessible web portal. We demonstrate its performance by applying it to 2D (1)H-(1)H TOCSY and 2D (13)C-(1)H HSQC-TOCSY spectra of a cell lysate from E. coli, which yields a substantial improvement over other databases, as well as 1D NMR-based approaches, in the number of compounds that can be correctly identified with high confidence.
Project description:An increasing number of organisms can be fully (13)C-labeled, which has the advantage that their metabolomes can be studied by high-resolution two-dimensional (2D) NMR (13)C-(13)C constant-time (CT) total correlation spectroscopy (TOCSY) experiments. Individual metabolites can be identified via database searching or, in the case of novel compounds, through the reconstruction of their backbone-carbon topology. Determination of quantitative metabolite concentrations is another key task. Because strong peak overlaps in one-dimensional (1D) NMR spectra prevent straightforward quantification through 1D peak integrals, we demonstrate here the direct use of (13)C-(13)C CT-TOCSY spectra for metabolite quantification. This is accomplished through the quantum mechanical treatment of the TOCSY magnetization transfer at short and long-mixing times or by the use of analytical approximations, which are solely based on the knowledge of the carbon-backbone topologies. The methods are demonstrated for carbohydrate and amino acid mixtures.
Project description:Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is the most widely used nondestructive technique in analytical chemistry. In recent years, it has been applied to metabolic profiling due to its high reproducibility, capacity for relative and absolute quantification, atomic resolution, and ability to detect a broad range of compounds in an untargeted manner. While one-dimensional (1D) (1)H NMR experiments are popular in metabolic profiling due to their simplicity and fast acquisition times, two-dimensional (2D) NMR spectra offer increased spectral resolution as well as atomic correlations, which aid in the assignment of known small molecules and the structural elucidation of novel compounds. Given the small number of statistical analysis methods for 2D NMR spectra, we developed a new approach for the analysis, information recovery, and display of 2D NMR spectral data. We present a native 2D peak alignment algorithm we term HATS, for hierarchical alignment of two-dimensional spectra, enabling pattern recognition (PR) using full-resolution spectra. Principle component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS) regression of full resolution total correlation spectroscopy (TOCSY) spectra greatly aid the assignment and interpretation of statistical pattern recognition results by producing back-scaled loading plots that look like traditional TOCSY spectra but incorporate qualitative and quantitative biological information of the resonances. The HATS-PR methodology is demonstrated here using multiple 2D TOCSY spectra of the exudates from two nematode species: Pristionchus pacificus and Panagrellus redivivus. We show the utility of this integrated approach with the rapid, semiautomated assignment of small molecules differentiating the two species and the identification of spectral regions suggesting the presence of species-specific compounds. These results demonstrate that the combination of 2D NMR spectra with full-resolution statistical analysis provides a platform for chemical and biological studies in cellular biochemistry, metabolomics, and chemical ecology.
Project description:Non-uniform sampling (NUS) allows the accelerated acquisition of multidimensional NMR spectra. The aim of this contribution was the systematic evaluation of the impact of various quantitative NUS parameters on the accuracy and precision of 2D NMR measurements of urinary metabolites. Urine aliquots spiked with varying concentrations (15.6-500.0?µM) of tryptophan, tyrosine, glutamine, glutamic acid, lactic acid, and threonine, which can only be resolved fully by 2D NMR, were used to assess the influence of the sampling scheme, reconstruction algorithm, amount of omitted data points, and seed value on the quantitative performance of NUS in 1H,1H-TOCSY and 1H,1H-COSY45 NMR spectroscopy. Sinusoidal Poisson-gap sampling and a compressed sensing approach employing the iterative re-weighted least squares method for spectral reconstruction allowed a 50% reduction in measurement time while maintaining sufficient quantitative accuracy and precision for both types of homonuclear 2D NMR spectroscopy. Together with other advances in instrument design, such as state-of-the-art cryogenic probes, use of 2D NMR spectroscopy in large biomedical cohort studies seems feasible.
Project description:A simple and robust solvent suppression technique that enables acquisition of high-quality 1D 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of alcoholic beverages on cryoprobe instruments was developed and applied to acquire NMR spectra of Scotch Whisky. The method uses 3 channels to suppress signals of water and ethanol, including those of 13 C satellites of ethanol. It is executed in automation allowing high throughput investigations of alcoholic beverages. On the basis of the well-established 1D nuclear Overhauser spectroscopy (NOESY) solvent suppression technique, this method suppresses the solvent at the beginning of the pulse sequence, producing pure phase signals minimally affected by the relaxation. The developed solvent suppression procedure was integrated into several homocorrelated and heterocorrelated 2D NMR experiments, including 2D correlation spectroscopy (COSY), 2D total correlation spectroscopy (TOCSY), 2D band-selective TOCSY, 2D J-resolved spectroscopy, 2D 1 H, 13 C heteronuclear single-quantum correlation spectroscopy (HSQC), 2D 1 H, 13 C HSQC-TOCSY, and 2D 1 H, 13 C heteronuclear multiple-bond correlation spectroscopy (HMBC). A 1D chemical-shift-selective TOCSY experiments was also modified. The wealth of information obtained by these experiments will assist in NMR structure elucidation of Scotch Whisky congeners and generally the composition of alcoholic beverages at the molecular level.
Project description:BACKGROUND: One-dimensional (1D) 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is widely used in metabolomic studies involving biofluids and tissue extracts. There are several software packages that support compound identification and quantification via 1D 1H NMR by spectral fitting techniques. Because 1D 1H NMR spectra are characterized by extensive peak overlap or spectral congestion, two-dimensional (2D) NMR, with its increased spectral resolution, could potentially improve and even automate compound identification or quantification. However, the lack of dedicated software for this purpose significantly restricts the application of 2D NMR methods to most metabolomic studies. RESULTS: We describe a standalone graphics software tool, called MetaboMiner, which can be used to automatically or semi-automatically identify metabolites in complex biofluids from 2D NMR spectra. MetaboMiner is able to handle both 1H-1H total correlation spectroscopy (TOCSY) and 1H-13C heteronuclear single quantum correlation (HSQC) data. It identifies compounds by comparing 2D spectral patterns in the NMR spectrum of the biofluid mixture with specially constructed libraries containing reference spectra of approximately 500 pure compounds. Tests using a variety of synthetic and real spectra of compound mixtures showed that MetaboMiner is able to identify >80% of detectable metabolites from good quality NMR spectra. CONCLUSION: MetaboMiner is a freely available, easy-to-use, NMR-based metabolomics tool that facilitates automatic peak processing, rapid compound identification, and facile spectrum annotation from either 2D TOCSY or HSQC spectra. Using comprehensive reference libraries coupled with robust algorithms for peak matching and compound identification, the program greatly simplifies the process of metabolite identification in complex 2D NMR spectra.
Project description:Described here is a set of three-dimensional (3D) NMR experiments that rely on CACA-TOCSY magnetization transfer via the weak ³J(C?C?) coupling. These pulse sequences, which resemble recently described (13)C detected CACA-TOCSY (Takeuchi et al. 2010) experiments, are recorded in (1)H(2)O, and use (1)H excitation and detection. These experiments require alternate (13)C-(12)C labeling together with perdeuteration, which allows utilizing the small ³J(C?C?) scalar coupling that is otherwise masked by the stronger (1)J(CC) couplings in uniformly (13)C labeled samples. These new experiments provide a unique assignment ladder-mark that yields bidirectional supra-sequential information and can readily straddle proline residues. Unlike the conventional HNCA experiment, which contains only sequential information to the ¹³C(?) of the preceding residue, the 3D hnCA-TOCSY-caNH experiment can yield sequential correlations to alpha carbons in positions i-1, i + 1 and i-2. Furthermore, the 3D hNca-TOCSY-caNH and Hnca-TOCSY-caNH experiments, which share the same magnetization pathway but use a different chemical shift encoding, directly couple the (15)N-(1)H spin pair of residue i to adjacent amide protons and nitrogens at positions i-2, i-1, i + 1 and i + 2, respectively. These new experimental features make protein backbone assignments more robust by reducing the degeneracy problem associated with the conventional 3D NMR experiments.
Project description:Higher-rank correlation spectroscopy is introduced as an alternative to 3D Fourier-transform (FT) NMR spectroscopy for resonance assignment and molecular structure determination. The method combines standard 2D FT spectra that share a common frequency dimension, such as a 2D (13)C-(1)H HSQC and a 2D (1)H-(1)H TOCSY spectrum, and constructs higher-rank correlation spectra with ultra-high spectral resolution. Spectral overlap along a common dimension, in particular the (1)H dimension, is addressed by a spectral filtering method, which identifies mismatches between the 1(st) and 2(nd) moments of cross-peak profiles. The method, which provides a substantial speed-up over traditional 3D FT spectroscopy while effectively suppressing false peaks, is demonstrated for the triple-rank (13)C-(1)H HSQC-TOCSY spectrum of a cyclic decapeptide with different mixing times. Higher-rank correlation spectroscopy is usefully applicable to the analysis of a wide range of NMR spectra of synthetic and natural products.
Project description:Multidimensional TOCSY and NOESY are central experiments in chemical and biophysical NMR. Limited efficiencies are an intrinsic downside of these methods, particularly when targeting labile sites. This study demonstrates that the decoherence imparted on these protons through solvent exchanges can, when suitably manipulated, lead to dramatic sensitivity gains per unit time in the acquisition of these experiments. To achieve this, a priori selected frequencies are encoded according to Hadamard recipes, while concurrently subject to looped selective inversion or selective saturation procedures. Suitable processing then leads to protein, oligosaccharide and nucleic acid cross-peak enhancements of ?200-1000% per scan, in measurements that are ?10-fold faster than conventional counterparts. The extent of these gains will depend on the solvent exchange and relaxation rates of the targeted sites; these gains also benefit considerably from the spectral resolution provided by ultrahigh fields, as corroborated by NMR experiments at 600?MHz and 1?GHz. The mechanisms underlying these experiments' enhanced efficiencies are analyzed on the basis of three-way polarization transfer interplays between the water, labile and non-labile protons, and the experimental results are rationalized using both analytical and numerical derivations. Limitations as well as further extensions of the proposed methods, are also discussed.
Project description:The higher order structure (HOS) of protein therapeutics is essential for drug safety and efficacy and can be evaluated by two-dimensional (2D) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy at atomic resolution. 1Hn-15N amide correlated and 1H-13C methyl correlated NMR spectroscopies at natural isotopic abundance have been demonstrated as feasible on protein therapeutics as large as monoclonal antibodies and show great promise for use in establishing drug substance structural consistency across manufacturing changes and in comparing a biosimilar to an originator reference product. Spectral fingerprints from 1Hn-1H? correlations acquired using 2D homonuclear proton-proton J-correlated NMR experiments provide a complementary approach for high-resolution assessment of the HOS of lower molecular weight (<25?kDa) protein therapeutics. Here, we evaluate different pulse sequences (COSY, TOCSY and TACSY) used to generate proton-proton J-correlated NMR spectral fingerprints and appraise the performance of each method for application to protein therapeutic HOS assessment and comparability.