Endosomal phosphatidylserine is critical for the YAP signalling pathway in proliferating cells.
ABSTRACT: Yes-associated protein (YAP) is a recently discovered growth-promoting transcription coactivator that has been shown to regulate the malignancy of various cancers. How YAP is regulated is not fully understood. Here, we show that one of the factors regulating YAP is phosphatidylserine (PS) in recycling endosomes (REs). We use proximity biotinylation to find proteins proximal to PS. Among these proteins are YAP and multiple proteins related to YAP signalling. Knockdown of ATP8A1 (an RE PS-flippase) or evectin-2 (an RE-resident protein) and masking of PS in the cytoplasmic leaflet of membranes, all suppress nuclear localization of YAP and YAP-dependent transcription. ATP8A1 knockdown increases the phosphorylated (activated) form of Lats1 that phosphorylates and inactivates YAP, whereas evectin-2 knockdown reduces the ubiquitination and increased the level of Lats1. The proliferation of YAP-dependent metastatic cancer cells is suppressed by knockdown of ATP8A1 or evectin-2. These results suggest a link between a membrane phospholipid and cell proliferation.
Project description:The asymmetric distribution of the amino-containing phospholipids, phosphatidyl-serine (PS) and phosphatidyl-ethanolamine (PE), across the two leaflets of red blood cell (RBC) membrane is essential to the function and survival of the cell. PS and PE are sequestered in the inner leaflet by an ATP-dependent transport activity of a membrane protein known as the RBC flippase that specifically moves amino-phospholipids from the outer to the inner leaflet. The enucleated RBC lacks the means to replace damaged enzymes and inactivation of the flippase can lead to the unwarranted exposure of PS on the cell surface. Loss in the ability to maintain phospholipid asymmetry is exacerbated in RBC disorders and PS-exposing RBCs present in the circulation play a significant role in the pathology of hemoglobinopathies. We identified the Atp8a1 protein, a member of the family of the P(4)-type ATPases, as a RBC flippase candidate. Atp8a1 is expressed in RBC precursors and is present in the membrane of mature red cells. The flippase activity of the protein was established in purified secretory vesicles of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. ATPase activity was stimulated by PS and PE. In addition, Atp8a1 can move PS molecules across the leaflets of the vesicle membrane in presence of ATP.
Project description:The asymmetric distribution of phospholipids in the plasma/organellar membranes is generated and maintained through phospholipid flippases in resting cells, but becomes disrupted in apoptotic cells and activated platelets, resulting in phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure on the cell surface. Stable PS exposure during apoptosis requires inactivation of flippases to prevent PS from being reinternalized. Here we show that flippase ATP8A1 is highly expressed in both murine and human platelets, but is not present in the plasma membrane. ATP8A1 is cleaved by the cysteine protease calpain during apoptosis, and the cleavage is prevented indirectly by caspase inhibition, involving blockage of calcium influx into platelets and subsequent calpain activation. In contrast, in platelets activated with thrombin and collagen and exposing PS, ATP8A1 remains intact. These data reveal a novel mechanism of flippase cleavage and suggest that flippase activity in intracellular membranes differs between platelets undergoing apoptosis and activation.
Project description:P4-ATPases translocate aminophospholipids, such as phosphatidylserine (PS), to the cytosolic leaflet of membranes. PS is highly enriched in recycling endosomes (REs) and is essential for endosomal membrane traffic. Here, we show that PS flipping by an RE-localized P4-ATPase is required for the recruitment of the membrane fission protein EHD1. Depletion of ATP8A1 impaired the asymmetric transbilayer distribution of PS in REs, dissociated EHD1 from REs, and generated aberrant endosomal tubules that appear resistant to fission. EHD1 did not show membrane localization in cells defective in PS synthesis. ATP8A2, a tissue-specific ATP8A1 paralogue, is associated with a neurodegenerative disease (CAMRQ). ATP8A2, but not the disease-causative ATP8A2 mutant, rescued the endosomal defects in ATP8A1-depleted cells. Primary neurons from Atp8a2-/- mice showed a reduced level of transferrin receptors at the cell surface compared to Atp8a2+/+ mice. These findings demonstrate the role of P4-ATPase in membrane fission and give insight into the molecular basis of CAMRQ.
Project description:Type IV P-type ATPases (P4-ATPases) and CDC50 family proteins form a putative phospholipid flippase complex that mediates the translocation of aminophospholipids such as phosphatidylserine (PS) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) from the outer to inner leaflets of the plasma membrane. In Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, at least eight members of P4-ATPases were identified, but only a single CDC50 family protein, CDC50A, was expressed. We demonstrated that CDC50A associated with and recruited P4-ATPase ATP8A1 to the plasma membrane. Overexpression of CDC50A induced extensive cell spreading and greatly enhanced cell migration. Depletion of either CDC50A or ATP8A1 caused a severe defect in the formation of membrane ruffles, thereby inhibiting cell migration. Analyses of phospholipid translocation at the plasma membrane revealed that the depletion of CDC50A inhibited the inward translocation of both PS and PE, whereas the depletion of ATP8A1 inhibited the translocation of PE but not that of PS, suggesting that the inward translocation of cell-surface PE is involved in cell migration. This hypothesis was further examined by using a PE-binding peptide and a mutant cell line with defective PE synthesis; either cell-surface immobilization of PE by the PE-binding peptide or reduction in the cell-surface content of PE inhibited the formation of membrane ruffles, causing a severe defect in cell migration. These results indicate that the phospholipid flippase complex of ATP8A1 and CDC50A plays a major role in cell migration and suggest that the flippase-mediated translocation of PE at the plasma membrane is involved in the formation of membrane ruffles to promote cell migration.
Project description:The molecule responsible for the enzyme activity plasma membrane (PM) aminophospholipid translocase (APLT), which catalyzes phosphatidylserine (PS) translocation from the outer to the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane, is unknown in mammals. A Caenorhabditis elegans study has shown that ablation of transbilayer amphipath transporter-1 (TAT-1), which is an ortholog of a mammalian P-type ATPase, Atp8a1, causes PS externalization in the germ cells. We demonstrate here that the hippocampal cells of the dentate gyrus, and Cornu Ammonis (CA1, CA3) in mice lacking Atp8a1 exhibit a dramatic increase in PS externalization. Although their hippocampi showed no abnormal morphology or heightened apoptosis, these mice displayed increased activity and a marked deficiency in hippocampus-dependent learning, but no hyper-anxiety. Such observations indicate that Atp8a1 plays a crucial role in PM-APLT activity in the neuronal cells. In corroboration, ectopic expression of Atp8a1 but not its close homolog, Atp8a2, caused an increase in the population (V(max) ) of PM-APLT without any change in its signature parameter K(m) in the neuronal N18 cells. Conversely, expression of a P-type phosphorylation-site mutant of Atp8a1 (Atp8a1*) caused a decrease in V(max) of PM-APLT without significantly altering its K(m) . The Atp8a1*-expressing N18 cells also exhibited PS externalization without apoptosis. Together, our data strongly indicate that Atp8a1 plays a central role in the PM-APLT activity of some mammalian cells, such as the neuronal N18 and hippocampal cells.
Project description:Type IV P-type ATPases (P4-ATPases) use the energy from ATP to "flip" phospholipid across a lipid bilayer, facilitating membrane trafficking events and maintaining the characteristic plasma membrane phospholipid asymmetry. Preferred translocation substrates for the budding yeast P4-ATPases Dnf1 and Dnf2 include lysophosphatidylcholine, lysophosphatidylethanolamine, derivatives of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine containing a 7-nitro-2-1,3-benzoxadiazol-4-yl (NBD) group on the sn-2 C6 position, and were presumed to include phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine species with two intact acyl chains. We previously identified several mutations in Dnf1 transmembrane (TM) segments 1 through 4 that greatly enhance recognition and transport of NBD phosphatidylserine (NBD-PS). Here we show that most of these Dnf1 mutants cannot flip diacylated PS to the cytosolic leaflet to establish PS asymmetry. However, mutation of a highly conserved asparagine (Asn-550) in TM3 allowed Dnf1 to restore plasma membrane PS asymmetry in a strain deficient for the P4-ATPase Drs2, the primary PS flippase. Moreover, Dnf1 N550 mutants could replace the Drs2 requirement for growth at low temperature. A screen for additional Dnf1 mutants capable of replacing Drs2 function identified substitutions of TM1 and 2 residues, within a region called the exit gate, that permit recognition of dually acylated PS. These TM1, 2, and 3 residues coordinate with the "proline + 4" residue within TM4 to determine substrate preference at the exit gate. Moreover, residues from Atp8a1, a mammalian ortholog of Drs2, in these positions allow PS recognition by Dnf1. These studies indicate that Dnf1 poorly recognizes diacylated phospholipid and define key substitutions enabling recognition of endogenous PS.
Project description:Phosphatidylserine flippase (P4-ATPase) transports PS from the outer to the inner leaflet of the lipid bilayer in the membrane to maintain PS asymmetry, which is important for biological activities of the cell. ATP11A is expressed in multiple tissues and plays a role in myotube formation. However, the detailed cellular function of ATP11A remains elusive. Mutation analysis revealed that I91, L308, and E897 residues in ATP8A2 are important for flippase activity. In order to investigate the roles of these corresponding amino acid residues in ATP11A protein, we assessed the expression and cellular localization of the respective ATP11A mutant proteins. ATP11A mainly localizes to the Golgi and plasma membrane when coexpressed with the ?-subunit of the complex TMEM30A. Y300F mutation causes reduced ATP11A expression, and Y300F and D913K mutations affect correct localization of the Golgi and plasma membrane. In addition, Y300F and D913K mutations also affect PS flippase activity. Our data provides insight into important residues of ATP11A.
Project description:The pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is thought to involve the interaction of numerous genes. Identification of these genes and proteins which regulate liver carcinogenesis is critical for the exploration of novel targeted therapies. Yes?associated protein (YAP) and large tumor suppressor 1 (LATS1) are associated with HCC cells. LATS1 is an upstream inhibitory factor of YAP in the Hippo pathway. The aim of the present study was to measure the expression of LATS1 in Yap?downregulated cancer cells. Immunohistochemistry was used to determine YAP and LATS1 levels in HCC tissue samples. High YAP?expressing cell lines were selected from two human hepatocellular carcinoma cells with different metastatic potential. In addition, changes in cell growth rates and LATS1 expression in human HCC 97H cells, in which YAP had been knocked down using RNA interference (RNAi). The proliferation of cells was evaluated using an MTS assay and changes in the progression of cell division were assessed through cell cycle analysis. Western blot analysis was then used to determine YAP and LATS1 expression levels in 97H cells. The results of the present study demonstrated that overexpression of YAP was negatively correlated with LATS1 expression in HCC cells (P=0.016). Knockdown of YAP using lentivirus?small hairpin (sh)RNA significantly inhibited 97H cell growth; in addition, the downregulation of YAP protein levels (33.4%) was accompanied by downregulation of LATS1 protein levels (68.5%). In conclusion, these results demonstrated that as an inhibitor of YAP, LATS1 was decreased via downregulation of YAP using RNAi. This therefore indicated that the change in YAP levels in HCC cells may regulate LATS1 in a feedback manner.
Project description:Viable cancer cells expose elevated levels of phosphatidylserine (PS) on the exoplasmic face of the plasma membrane. However, the mechanisms leading to elevated PS exposure in viable cancer cells have not been defined. We previously showed that externalized PS may be used to monitor, target and kill tumor cells. In addition, PS on tumor cells is recognized by macrophages and has implications in antitumor immunity. Therefore, it is important to understand the molecular details of PS exposure on cancer cells in order to improve therapeutic targeting. Here we explored the mechanisms regulating the surface PS exposure in human cancer cells and found that differential flippase activity and intracellular calcium are the major regulators of surface PS exposure in viable human cancer cells. In general, cancer cell lines with high surface PS exhibited low flippase activity and high intracellular calcium, whereas cancer cells with low surface PS exhibited high flippase activity and low intracellular calcium. High surface PS cancer cells also had higher total cellular PS than low surface PS cells. Together, our results indicate that the amount of external PS in cancer cells is regulated by calcium dependent flippase activity and may also be influenced by total cellular PS.
Project description:Sorting of plasma membrane proteins into exocytic vesicles at the yeast trans-Golgi network (TGN) is believed to be mediated by their coalescence with specific lipids, but how these membrane-remodeling events are regulated is poorly understood. Here we show that the ATP-dependent phospholipid flippase Drs2 is required for efficient segregation of cargo into exocytic vesicles. The plasma membrane proteins Pma1 and Can1 are missorted from the TGN to the vacuole in drs2? cells. We also used a combination of flippase mutants that either gain or lose the ability to flip phosphatidylserine (PS) to determine that PS flip by Drs2 is its critical function in this sorting event. The primary role of PS flip at the TGN appears to be to control the oxysterol-binding protein homologue Kes1/Osh4 and regulate ergosterol subcellular distribution. Deletion of KES1 suppresses plasma membrane-missorting defects and the accumulation of intracellular ergosterol in drs2 mutants. We propose that PS flip is part of a homeostatic mechanism that controls sterol loading and lateral segregation of protein and lipid domains at the TGN.