What Clinical Information Is Valuable to Doctors Using Mobile Electronic Medical Records and When?
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:There has been a lack of understanding on what types of specific clinical information are most valuable for doctors to access through mobile-based electronic medical records (m-EMRs) and when they access such information. Furthermore, it has not been clearly discussed why the value of such information is high. OBJECTIVE:The goal of this study was to investigate the types of clinical information that are most valuable to doctors to access through an m-EMR and when such information is accessed. METHODS:Since 2010, an m-EMR has been used in a tertiary hospital in Seoul, South Korea. The usage logs of the m-EMR by doctors were gathered from March to December 2015. Descriptive analyses were conducted to explore the overall usage patterns of the m-EMR. To assess the value of the clinical information provided, the usage patterns of both the m-EMR and a hospital information system (HIS) were compared on an hourly basis. The peak usage times of the m-EMR were defined as continuous intervals having normalized usage values that are greater than 0.5. The usage logs were processed as an indicator representing specific clinical information using factor analysis. Random intercept logistic regression was used to explore the type of clinical information that is frequently accessed during the peak usage times. RESULTS:A total of 524,929 usage logs from 653 doctors (229 professors, 161 fellows, and 263 residents; mean age: 37.55 years; males: 415 [63.6%]) were analyzed. The highest average number of m-EMR usage logs (897) was by medical residents, whereas the lowest (292) was by surgical residents. The usage amount for three menus, namely inpatient list (47,096), lab results (38,508), and investigation list (25,336), accounted for 60.1% of the peak time usage. The HIS was used most frequently during regular hours (9:00 AM to 5:00 PM). The peak usage time of the m-EMR was early in the morning (6:00 AM to 10:00 AM), and the use of the m-EMR from early evening (5:00 PM) to midnight was higher than during regular business hours. Four factors representing the types of clinical information were extracted through factor analysis. Factors related to patient investigation status and patient conditions were associated with the peak usage times of the m-EMR (P<.01). CONCLUSIONS:Access to information regarding patient investigation status and patient conditions is crucial for decision making during morning activities, including ward rounds. The m-EMRs allow doctors to maintain the continuity of their clinical information regardless of the time and location constraints. Thus, m-EMRs will best evolve in a manner that enhances the accessibility of clinical information helpful to the decision-making process under such constraints.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Specialty consultation is a critical aspect of emergency department (ED) practice, and a delay in providing consultation might have a significant clinical effect and worsen ED overcrowding. Although mobile electronic medical records (EMR) are being increasingly used and are known to improve the workflow of health care providers, limited studies have evaluated their effectiveness in real-life clinical scenarios. OBJECTIVE:For this study, we aimed to determine the association between response duration to an ED specialty consultation request and the frequency of mobile EMR use. METHODS:This retrospective study was conducted in an academic ED in Seoul, South Korea. We analyzed EMR and mobile EMR data from May 2018 to December 2018. Timestamps of ED consultation requests were retrieved from a PC-based EMR, and the response interval was calculated. Doctors' log frequencies were obtained from the mobile EMR, and we merged data using doctors' deidentification numbers. Pearson's product-moment correlation was performed to identify this association. The primary outcome was the relationship between the frequency of mobile EMR usage and the time interval from ED request to consultation completion by specialty doctors. The secondary outcome was the relationship between the frequency of specialty doctors' mobile EMR usage and the response time to consultation requests. RESULTS:A total of 25,454 consultations requests were made for 15,555 patients, and 252 specialty doctors provided ED specialty consultations. Of the 742 doctors who used the mobile EMR, 208 doctors used it for the specialty consultation process. After excluding the cases lacking essential information, 21,885 consultations with 208 doctors were included for analysis. According to the mobile EMR usage pattern, the average usage frequency of all users was 13.3 logs/day, and the average duration of the completion of the specialty consultation was 51.7 minutes. There was a significant inverse relationship between the frequency of mobile EMR usage and time interval from ED request to consultation completion by specialty doctors (coefficient=-0.19; 95% CI -0.32 to -0.06; P=.005). Secondary analysis with the response time was done. There was also a significant inverse relationship between the frequency of specialty doctors' mobile EMR usage and the response time to consultation requests (coefficient=-0.18; 95% CI -0.30 to -0.04; P=.009). CONCLUSIONS:Our findings suggest that frequent mobile EMR usage is associated with quicker response time to ED consultation requests.
Project description:While concerns remain regarding Electronic Medical Records (EMR) use impeding doctor-patient communication, resident and faculty patient perspectives post-widespread EMR adoption remain largely unexplored.We aimed to describe patient perspectives of outpatient resident and faculty EMR use and identify positive and negative EMR use examples to promote optimal utilization.This was a prospective mixed-methods study.Internal medicine faculty and resident patients at the University of Chicago's primary care clinic participated in the study.In 2013, one year after EMR implementation, telephone interviews were conducted with patients using open-ended and Likert style questions to elicit positive and negative perceptions of EMR use by physicians. Interview transcripts were analyzed qualitatively to develop a coding classification. Satisfaction with physician EMR use was examined using bivariate statistics.In total, 108 interviews were completed and analyzed. Two major themes were noted: (1) Clinical Functions of EMR and (2) Communication Functions of EMR; as well as six subthemes: (1a) Clinical Care (i.e., clinical efficiency), (1b) Documentation (i.e., proper record keeping and access), (1c) Information Access, (1d) Educational Resource, (2a) Patient Engagement and (2b) Physical Focus (i.e., body positioning). Overall, 85 % (979/1154) of patient perceptions of EMR use were positive, with the majority within the "Clinical Care" subtheme (n?=?218). Of negative perceptions, 66 % (115/175) related to the "Communication Functions" theme, and the majority of those related to the "Physical Focus" subtheme (n?=?71). The majority of patients (90 %, 95/106) were satisfied with physician EMR use: 59 % (63/107) reported the computer had a positive effect on their relationship and only 7 % (8/108) reported the EMR made it harder to talk with their doctors.Despite concerns regarding EMRs impeding doctor-patient communication, patients reported largely positive perceptions of the EMR with many patients reporting high levels of satisfaction. Future work should focus on improving doctors "physical focus" when using the EMR to redirect towards the patient.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Policies promoting widespread adoption of electronic medical records (EMRs) are premised on the hope that they can improve the coordination of care. Yet little is known about whether and how physician practices use current EMRs to facilitate coordination. OBJECTIVES: We examine whether and how practices use commercial EMRs to support coordination tasks and identify work-around practices have created to address new coordination challenges. DESIGN, SETTING: Semi-structured telephone interviews in 12 randomly selected communities. PARTICIPANTS: Sixty respondents, including 52 physicians or staff from 26 practices with commercial ambulatory care EMRs in place for at least 2 years, chief medical officers at four EMR vendors, and four national thought leaders. RESULTS: Six major themes emerged: (1) EMRs facilitate within-office care coordination, chiefly by providing access to data during patient encounters and through electronic messaging; (2) EMRs are less able to support coordination between clinicians and settings, in part due to their design and a lack of standardization of key data elements required for information exchange; (3) managing information overflow from EMRs is a challenge for clinicians; (4) clinicians believe current EMRs cannot adequately capture the medical decision-making process and future care plans to support coordination; (5) realizing EMRs' potential for facilitating coordination requires evolution of practice operational processes; (6) current fee-for-service reimbursement encourages EMR use for documentation of billable events (office visits, procedures) and not of care coordination (which is not a billable activity). CONCLUSIONS: There is a gap between policy-makers' expectation of, and clinical practitioners' experience with, current electronic medical records' ability to support coordination of care. Policymakers could expand current health information technology policies to support assessment of how well the technology facilitates tasks necessary for coordination. By reforming payment policy to include care coordination, policymakers could encourage the evolution of EMR technology to include capabilities that support coordination, for example, allowing for inter-practice data exchange and multi-provider clinical decision support.
Project description:BACKGROUND:When users of electronic medical records (EMRs) are presented with large numbers of irrelevant computerized alerts, they experience alert fatigue, begin to ignore alert information, and override alerts without processing or heeding alert recommendations. Anecdotally, doctors at our study site were dissatisfied with the medication-related alerts being generated, both in terms of volume being experienced and clinical relevance. OBJECTIVE:This study aimed to involve end users in the redesign of medication-related alerts in a hospital EMR, 4 years post implementation. METHODS:This work was undertaken at a private not-for-profit teaching hospital in Sydney, Australia. Since EMR implementation in 2015, the organization elected to implement all medication-related alert types available in the system for prescribers: allergy and intolerance alerts, therapeutic duplication alerts, pregnancy alerts, and drug-drug interaction alerts. The EMR included no medication administration alerts for nurses. To obtain feedback on current alerts and suggestions for redesign, a Web-based survey was distributed to all doctors and nurses at the site via hospital mailing lists. RESULTS:Despite a general dissatisfaction with alerts, very few end users completed the survey. In total, only 3.37% (36/1066) of doctors and 14.5% (60/411) of nurses took part. Approximately 90% (30/33) of doctors who responded held the view that too many alerts were triggered in the EMR. Doctors suggested that most alerts be removed and that alerts be more specific and less sensitive. In contrast, 97% (58/60) of the nurse respondents indicated that they would like to receive medication administration alerts in the EMR. Most nurses indicated that they would like to receive all the alert types available at all severity levels. CONCLUSIONS:Attempting to engage with end users several years post implementation was challenging. Involving users so late in the implementation process may lead to clinicians viewing the provision of feedback to be futile. Seeking user feedback on usefulness, volume, and design of alerts is extremely valuable; however, we suggest this is undertaken early, preferably before system implementation.
Project description:BACKGROUND:In order to retrieve useful information from scientific literature and electronic medical records (EMR) we developed an ontology specific for Multiple Sclerosis (MS). METHODS:The MS Ontology was created using scientific literature and expert review under the Protégé OWL environment. We developed a dictionary with semantic synonyms and translations to different languages for mining EMR. The MS Ontology was integrated with other ontologies and dictionaries (diseases/comorbidities, gene/protein, pathways, drug) into the text-mining tool SCAIView. We analyzed the EMRs from 624 patients with MS using the MS ontology dictionary in order to identify drug usage and comorbidities in MS. Testing competency questions and functional evaluation using F statistics further validated the usefulness of MS ontology. RESULTS:Validation of the lexicalized ontology by means of named entity recognition-based methods showed an adequate performance (F score = 0.73). The MS Ontology retrieved 80% of the genes associated with MS from scientific abstracts and identified additional pathways targeted by approved disease-modifying drugs (e.g. apoptosis pathways associated with mitoxantrone, rituximab and fingolimod). The analysis of the EMR from patients with MS identified current usage of disease modifying drugs and symptomatic therapy as well as comorbidities, which are in agreement with recent reports. CONCLUSION:The MS Ontology provides a semantic framework that is able to automatically extract information from both scientific literature and EMR from patients with MS, revealing new pathogenesis insights as well as new clinical information.
Project description:The Taiwan Biobank (TWB) is a biomedical research database of biopsy data from 200 000 participants. Access to this database has been granted to research communities taking part in the development of precision medicines; however, this has raised issues surrounding TWB's access to electronic medical records (EMRs). The Personal Data Protection Act of Taiwan restricts access to EMRs for purposes not covered by patients' original consent. This commentary explores possible legal solutions to help ensure that the access TWB has to EMR abides with legal obligations, and with governance frameworks associated with ethical, legal, and social implications. We suggest utilizing "hash function" algorithms to create nonretrospective, anonymized data for the purpose of cross-transmission and/or linkage with EMR.
Project description:OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between patient panels of underserved populations and adoption of electronic medical records (EMRs) among office-based physicians. DATA SOURCES: Two thousand three hundred and twenty-six office-based physicians who responded and saw patients in the 2005 and 2006 National Ambulatory Medical Care Surveys. STUDY DESIGN: This study used a cross-sectional design. The unit of analysis was the office-based physician. EMR adoption was defined based on functionalities (No EMR, Limited, or Comprehensive). An EMR was considered to have "comprehensive" functionalities if it included computerized orders for prescriptions and tests, test results, and clinical notes by physicians. Patient panels of underserved populations were measured as proportions of racial/ethnic minorities, Medicaid recipients, or self-pay/no charge/charity care patients treated by a physician using the reported sociodemographic characteristics in patient records linked to their treating physicians. Data were analyzed using multivariate regression analyses controlling for other patient-panel characteristics and characteristics of physicians and their practices. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found a negative association between the proportion of Hispanics treated by a physician and physician adoption of EMRs with "comprehensive" functionalities after adjusting for other covariates. CONCLUSIONS: Physicians treating high shares of Hispanic patients may have lower access to EMRs with essential functionalities.
Project description:Point-of-care electronic medical records (EMRs) are a key tool to manage chronic illness. Several EMRs have been developed for use in treating HIV and tuberculosis, but their applicability to primary care, technical requirements and clinical functionalities are largely unknown.This study aimed to address the needs of clinicians from resource-limited settings without reliable internet access who are considering adopting an open-source EMR.Open-source point-of-care EMRs suitable for use in areas without reliable internet access.The authors conducted a comprehensive search of all open-source EMRs suitable for sites without reliable internet access. The authors surveyed clinician users and technical implementers from a single site and technical developers of each software product. The authors evaluated availability, cost and technical requirements.The hardware and software for all six systems is easily available, but they vary considerably in proprietary components, installation requirements and customisability.This study relied solely on self-report from informants who developed and who actively use the included products.Clinical functionalities vary greatly among the systems, and none of the systems yet meet minimum requirements for effective implementation in a primary care resource-limited setting. The safe prescribing of medications is a particular concern with current tools. The dearth of fully functional EMR systems indicates a need for a greater emphasis by global funding agencies to move beyond disease-specific EMR systems and develop a universal open-source health informatics platform.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:This study aimed to explore how general practitioners (GPs) access and use both guidelines and electronic medical records (EMRs) to assist in clinical decision-making when prescribing antibiotics in Australia. DESIGN:This is an exploratory qualitative study with thematic analysis interpreted using the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) framework. SETTING:This study was conducted in general practice in Victoria, Australia. PARTICIPANTS:Twenty-six GPs from five general practices were recruited to participate in five focus groups between February and April 2018. RESULTS:GPs expressed that current EMR systems do not provide clinical decision support to assist with antibiotic prescribing. Access and use of guidelines were variable. GPs who had more clinical experience were less likely to access guidelines than younger and less experienced GPs. Guideline use and guideline-concordant prescribing was facilitated if there was a practice culture encouraging evidence-based practice. However, a lack of access to guidelines and perceived patients' expectation and demand for antibiotics were barriers to guideline-concordant prescribing. Furthermore, guidelines that were easy to access and navigate, free, embedded within EMRs and fit into the clinical workflow were seen as likely to enhance guideline use. CONCLUSIONS:Current barriers to the use of antibiotic guidelines include GPs' experience, patient factors, practice culture, and ease of access and cost of guidelines. To reduce inappropriate antibiotic prescribing and to promote more rational use of antibiotic in the community, guidelines should be made available, accessible and easy to use, with minimal cost to practicing GPs. Integration of evidence-based antibiotic guidelines within the EMR in the form of a clinical decision support tool could optimise guideline use and increase guideline-concordant prescribing.
Project description:Despite many innovations in information technology, many clinics still rely on paper-based medical records. Critics, however, claim that they are hard to read, because of illegible handwriting, and uncomfortable to use. Moreover, a chronological overview is not always easily possible, content can be destroyed or get lost. There is an overall opinion that electronic medical records (EMRs) should solve these problems and improve physicians' efficiency, patients' safety and reduce the overall costs in practice. However, to date, the evidence supporting this view is sparse.In this protocol, we describe a study exploring differences in speed and accuracy when searching clinical information using the paper-based patient record or the Elektronische DateneRfassung (EDeR). Designed as a randomised vignette study, we hypothesise that the EDeR increases efficiency, that is, reduces time on reading the patient history and looking for relevant examination results, helps finding mistakes and missing information quicker and more reliably. In exploratory analyses, we aim at exploring factors associated with a higher performance.The ethics committee of the Canton Lucerne, Switzerland, approved this study. We presume that the implementation of the EMR software EDeR will have a positive impact on the efficiency of the doctors, which will result in an increase of consultations per day. We believe that the results of our study will provide a valid basis to quantify the added value of an EMR system in an ophthalmological environment.