Atrial-ventricular differences in rabbit cardiac voltage-gated Na+ currents: Basis for atrial-selective block by ranolazine.
ABSTRACT: Class 1 antiarrhythmic drugs are highly effective in restoring and maintaining sinus rhythm in atrial fibrillation patients but carry a risk of ventricular tachyarrhythmia. The antianginal agent ranolazine is a prototypic atrial-selective voltage-gated Na+ channel blocker but the mechanisms underlying its atrial-selective action remain unclear.The present study examined the mechanisms underlying the atrial-selective action of ranolazine.Whole-cell voltage-gated Na+ currents (INa) were recorded at room temperature (?22°C) from rabbit isolated left atrial and right ventricular myocytes.INa conductance density was ?1.8-fold greater in atrial than in ventricular cells. Atrial INa was activated at command potentials ?7 mV more negative and inactivated at conditioning potentials ?11 mV more negative than ventricular INa. The onset of inactivation of INa was faster in atrial cells than in ventricular myocytes. Ranolazine (30 ?M) inhibited INa in atrial and ventricular myocytes in a use-dependent manner consistent with preferential activated/inactivated state block. Ranolazine caused a significantly greater negative shift in voltage of half-maximal inactivation in atrial cells than in ventricular cells, the recovery from inactivation of INa was slowed by ranolazine to a greater extent in atrial myocytes than in ventricular cells, and ranolazine produced an instantaneous block that showed marked voltage dependence in atrial cells.Differences exist between rabbit atrial and ventricular myocytes in the biophysical properties of INa. The more negative voltage dependence of INa activation and inactivation, together with trapping of the drug in the inactivated channel, underlies an atrial-selective action of ranolazine.
Project description:Background:Atrial-ventricular differences in voltage-gated Na+ currents might be exploited for atrial-selective antiarrhythmic drug action for the suppression of atrial fibrillation without risk of ventricular tachyarrhythmia. Eleclazine (GS-6615) is a putative antiarrhythmic drug with properties similar to the prototypical atrial-selective Na+ channel blocker ranolazine that has been shown to be safe and well tolerated in patients. Objective:The present study investigated atrial-ventricular differences in the biophysical properties and inhibition by eleclazine of voltage-gated Na+ currents. Methods:The fast and late components of whole-cell voltage-gated Na+ currents (respectively, I Na and I NaL) were recorded at room temperature (?22°C) from rat isolated atrial and ventricular myocytes. Results:Atrial I Na activated at command potentials ?5.5 mV more negative and inactivated at conditioning potentials ?7 mV more negative than ventricular I Na. There was no difference between atrial and ventricular myocytes in the eleclazine inhibition of I NaL activated by 3 nM ATX-II (IC50s ?200 nM). Eleclazine (10 ?M) inhibited I Na in atrial and ventricular myocytes in a use-dependent manner consistent with preferential activated state block. Eleclazine produced voltage-dependent instantaneous inhibition in atrial and ventricular myocytes; it caused a negative shift in voltage of half-maximal inactivation and slowed the recovery of I Na from inactivation in both cell types. Conclusions:Differences exist between rat atrial and ventricular myocytes in the biophysical properties of I Na. The more negative voltage dependence of I Na activation/inactivation in atrial myocytes underlies differences between the 2 cell types in the voltage dependence of instantaneous inhibition by eleclazine. Eleclazine warrants further investigation as an atrial-selective antiarrhythmic drug.
Project description:Atrial-selective inhibition of cardiac Na(+) channel current (I(Na)) and I(Na)-dependent parameters has been shown to contribute to the safe and effective management of atrial fibrillation. The present study examined the basis for the atrial-selective actions of ranolazine. Whole cell I(Na) was recorded at 15°C in canine atrial and ventricular myocytes and in human embryonic kidney (HEK)-293 cells expressing SCN5A. Tonic block was negligible at holding potentials from -140 to -100 mV, suggesting minimal drug interactions with the closed state. Trains of 40 pulses were elicited over a range of holding potentials to determine use-dependent block. Guarded receptor formalism was used to analyze the development of block during pulse trains. Use-dependent block by ranolazine increased at more depolarized holding potentials, consistent with an interaction of the drug with either preopen or inactivated states, but was unaffected by longer pulse durations between 5 and 200 ms, suggesting a weak interaction with the inactivated state. Block was significantly increased at shorter diastolic intervals between 20 and 200 ms. Responses in atrial and ventricular myocytes and in HEK-293 cells displayed a similar pattern. Ranolazine is an open state blocker that unbinds from closed Na(+) channels unusually fast but is trapped in the inactivated state. Kinetic rates of ranolazine interactions with different states of atrial and ventricular Na(+) channels were similar. Our data suggest that the atrial selectivity of ranolazine is due to a more negative steady-state inactivation curve, less negative resting membrane potential, and shorter diastolic intervals in atrial cells compared with ventricular cells at rapid rates.
Project description:The development of selective atrial antiarrhythmic agents is a current strategy for suppression of atrial fibrillation (AF).Whole-cell patch clamp techniques were used to evaluate inactivation of peak sodium channel current (I(Na)) in myocytes isolated from canine atria and ventricles. The electrophysiological effects of therapeutic concentrations of ranolazine (1 to 10 micromol/L) and lidocaine (2.1 to 21 micromol/L) were evaluated in canine isolated coronary-perfused atrial and ventricular preparations. Half-inactivation voltage of I(Na) was approximately 15 mV more negative in atrial versus ventricular cells under control conditions; this difference increased after exposure to ranolazine. Ranolazine produced a marked use-dependent depression of sodium channel parameters, including the maximum rate of rise of the action potential upstroke, conduction velocity, and diastolic threshold of excitation, and induced postrepolarization refractoriness in atria but not in ventricles. Lidocaine also preferentially suppressed these parameters in atria versus ventricles, but to a much lesser extent than ranolazine. Ranolazine produced a prolongation of action potential duration (APD90) in atria, no effect on APD90 in ventricular myocardium, and an abbreviation of APD90 in Purkinje fibers. Lidocaine abbreviated both atrial and ventricular APD90. Ranolazine was more effective than lidocaine in terminating persistent AF and in preventing the induction of AF.Our study demonstrates important differences in the inactivation characteristics of atrial versus ventricular sodium channels and a striking atrial selectivity for the action of ranolazine to produce use-dependent block of sodium channels, leading to suppression of AF. Our results point to atrium-selective sodium channel block as a novel strategy for the management of AF.
Project description:We have previously shown that non-equilibrium Na(+) current (INa) reactivation drives isoproterenol-induced phase-3 early afterdepolarizations (EADs) in mouse ventricular myocytes. In these cells, EAD initiation occurs secondary to potentiated sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) release and enhanced Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchange (NCX). This can be abolished by tetrodotoxin-blockade of INa, but not ranolazine, which selectively inhibits ventricular late INa.Since repolarization of human atrial myocytes is similar to mouse ventricular myocytes in that it is relatively rapid and potently modulated by Ca(2+), we investigated whether similar mechanisms can evoke EADs in human atrium. Indeed, phase-3 EADs have been shown to re-initiate atrial fibrillation (AF) during autonomic stimulation, which is a well-recognized initiator of AF.We integrated a Markov model of INa gating in our human atrial myocyte model. To simulate experimental results, we rapidly paced this cell model at 10Hz in the presence of 0.1?M acetylcholine and 1?M isoproterenol, and assessed EAD occurrence upon return to sinus rhythm (1Hz).Cellular Ca(2+) loading during fast pacing results in a transient period of hypercontractility after return to sinus rhythm. Here, fast repolarization and enhanced NCX facilitate INa reactivation via the canonical gating mode (i.e., not late INa burst mode), which drives EAD initiation. Simulating ranolazine administration reduces atrial peak INa and leads to faster repolarization, during which INa fails to reactivate and EADs are prevented.Non-equilibrium INa reactivation can critically contribute to arrhythmias, specifically in human atrial myocytes. Ranolazine might be beneficial in this context by blocking peak (not late) atrial INa.
Project description:Atrial-selective inhibition of cardiac sodium channel current (INa) and INa-dependent parameters has been shown to contribute to the safe and effective management of atrial fibrillation. The present study was designed to examine the basis for the atrial-selective actions of Wenxin Keli.Whole cell INa was recorded at room temperature in canine atrial and ventricular myocytes. Trains of 40 pulses were elicited over a range of pulse durations and interpulse intervals to determine tonic and use-dependent block. A Markovian model for INa that incorporates interaction of Wenxin Keli with different states of the channel was developed to examine the basis for atrial selectivity of the drug.Our data indicate that Wenxin Keli does not bind significantly to either closed or open states of the sodium channel, but binds very rapidly to the inactivated state of the channel and dissociates rapidly from the closed state. Action potentials recorded from atrial and ventricular preparations in the presence of 5g/L Wenxin Keli were introduced into the computer model in current clamp mode to simulate the effects on maximum upstroke velocity (Vmax). The model predicted much greater inhibition of Vmax in atrial vs. ventricular cells at rapid stimulation rates.Our findings suggest that atrial selectivity of Wenxin Keli to block INa is due to more negative steady-state inactivation, less negative resting membrane potential, and shorter diastolic intervals in atrial vs. ventricular cells at rapid activation rates. These actions of Wenxin Keli account for its relatively safe and effective suppression of atrial fibrillation.
Project description:Block of Na(+) channel conductance by ranolazine displays marked atrial selectivity that is an order of magnitude higher that of other class I antiarrhythmic drugs. Here, we present a Markovian model of the Na(+) channel gating, which includes activation-inactivation coupling, aimed at elucidating the mechanisms underlying this potent atrial selectivity of ranolazine. The model incorporates experimentally observed differences between atrial and ventricular Na(+) channel gating, including a more negative position of the steady-state inactivation curve in atrial versus ventricular cells. The model assumes that ranolazine requires a hydrophilic access pathway to the channel binding site, which is modulated by both activation and inactivation gates of the channel. Kinetic rate constants were obtained using guarded receptor analysis of the use-dependent block of the fast Na(+) current (I(Na)). The model successfully reproduces all experimentally observed phenomena, including the shift of channel availability, the sensitivity of block to holding or diastolic potential, and the preferential block of slow versus fast I(Na.) Using atrial and ventricular action potential-shaped voltage pulses, the model confirms significantly greater use-dependent block of peak I(Na) in atrial versus ventricular cells. The model highlights the importance of action potential prolongation and of a steeper voltage dependence of the time constant of unbinding of ranolazine from the atrial Na(+) channel in the development of use-dependent I(Na) block. Our model predictions indicate that differences in channel gating properties as well as action potential morphology between atrial and ventricular cells contribute equally to the atrial selectivity of ranolazine. The model indicates that the steep voltage dependence of ranolazine interaction with the Na(+) channel at negative potentials underlies the mechanism of the predominant block of I(Na) in atrial cells by ranolazine.
Project description:Slowed Na? current (INa) decay and enhanced late INa (INa-L) prolong the action potential duration (APD) and contribute to early afterdepolarizations. Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) shortens APD compared with dyssynchronous heart failure (DHF); however, the role of altered Na? channel gating in CRT remains unexplored.Adult dogs underwent left-bundle branch ablation and right atrial pacing (200 beats/min) for 6 weeks (DHF) or 3 weeks followed by 3 weeks of biventricular pacing at the same rate (CRT). INa and INa-L were measured in left ventricular myocytes from nonfailing, DHF, and CRT dogs. DHF shifted voltage-dependence of INa availability by -3 mV compared with nonfailing, enhanced intermediate inactivation, and slowed recovery from inactivation. CRT reversed the DHF-induced voltage shift of availability, partially reversed enhanced intermediate inactivation but did not affect DHF-induced slowed recovery. DHF markedly increased INa-L compared with nonfailing. CRT dramatically reduced DHF-induced enhanced INa-L, abbreviated the APD, and suppressed early afterdepolarizations. CRT was associated with a global reduction in phosphorylated Ca²?/Calmodulin protein kinase II, which has distinct effects on inactivation of cardiac Na? channels. In a canine AP model, alterations of INa-L are sufficient to reproduce the effects on APD observed in DHF and CRT myocytes.CRT improves DHF-induced alterations of Na? channel function, especially suppression of INa-L, thus, abbreviating the APD and reducing the frequency of early afterdepolarizations. Changes in the levels of phosphorylated Ca²?/Calmodulin protein kinase II suggest a molecular pathway for regulation of INa by biventricular pacing of the failing heart.
Project description:Slowly inactivating Na+ channels conducting "late" Na+ current (INa,late) contribute to ventricular arrhythmogenesis under pathological conditions. INa,late was also reported to play a role in chronic atrial fibrillation (AF). The objective of this study was to investigate INa,late in human right atrial cardiomyocytes as a putative drug target for treatment of AF. To activate Na+ channels, cardiomyocytes from transgenic mice which exhibit INa,late (?KPQ), and right atrial cardiomyocytes from patients in sinus rhythm (SR) and AF were voltage clamped at room temperature by 250-ms long test pulses to -30 mV from a holding potential of -80 mV with a 100-ms pre-pulse to -110 mV (protocol I). INa,late at -30 mV was not discernible as deviation from the extrapolated straight line IV-curve between -110 mV and -80 mV in human atrial cells. Therefore, tetrodotoxin (TTX, 10 ?M) was used to define persistent inward current after 250 ms at -30 mV as INa,late. TTX-sensitive current was 0.27±0.06 pA/pF in ventricular cardiomyocytes from ?KPQ mice, and amounted to 0.04±0.01 pA/pF and 0.09±0.02 pA/pF in SR and AF human atrial cardiomyocytes, respectively. With protocol II (holding potential -120 mV, pre-pulse to -80 mV) TTX-sensitive INa,late was always larger than with protocol I. Ranolazine (30 ?M) reduced INa,late by 0.02±0.02 pA/pF in SR and 0.09±0.02 pA/pF in AF cells. At physiological temperature (37°C), however, INa,late became insignificant. Plateau phase and upstroke velocity of action potentials (APs) recorded with sharp microelectrodes in intact human trabeculae were more sensitive to ranolazine in AF than in SR preparations. Sodium channel subunits expression measured with qPCR was high for SCN5A with no difference between SR and AF. Expression of SCN8A and SCN10A was low in general, and lower in AF than in SR. In conclusion, We confirm for the first time a TTX-sensitive current (INa,late) in right atrial cardiomyocytes from SR and AF patients at room temperature, but not at physiological temperature. While our study provides evidence for the presence of INa,late in human atria, the potential of such current as a target for the treatment of AF remains to be demonstrated.
Project description:Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia and one of the major causes of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Despite good progress within the past years, safe and effective treatment of AF remains an unmet clinical need. The anti-anginal agent ranolazine has been shown to exhibit antiarrhythmic properties via mainly late INa and IKr blockade. This results in prolongation of the atrial action potential duration (APD) and effective refractory period (ERP) with lower effect on ventricular electrophysiology. Furthermore, ranolazine has been shown to be effective in the treatment of AF. TASK-1 is a two-pore domain potassium (K2P) channel that shows nearly atrial specific expression within the human heart and has been found to be upregulated in AF, resulting in shortening the atrial APD in patients suffering from AF. We hypothesized that inhibition TASK-1 contributes to the observed electrophysiological and clinical effects of ranolazine. Methods: We used Xenopus laevis oocytes and CHO-cells as heterologous expression systems for the study of TASK-1 inhibition by ranolazine and molecular drug docking simulations to investigate the ranolazine binding site and binding characteristics. Results: Ranolazine acts as an inhibitor of TASK-1 potassium channels that inhibits TASK-1 currents with an IC50 of 30.6 ± 3.7 µM in mammalian cells and 198.4 ± 1.1 µM in X. laevis oocytes. TASK-1 inhibition by ranolazine is not frequency dependent but shows voltage dependency with a higher inhibitory potency at more depolarized membrane potentials. Ranolazine binds within the central cavity of the TASK-1 inner pore, at the bottom of the selectivity filter. Conclusions: In this study, we show that ranolazine inhibits TASK-1 channels. We suggest that inhibition of TASK-1 may contribute to the observed antiarrhythmic effects of Ranolazine. This puts forward ranolazine as a prototype drug for the treatment of atrial arrhythmia because of its combined efficacy on atrial electrophysiology and lower risk for ventricular side effects.
Project description:Na(V)1.5 is a mechanosensitive voltage-gated sodium-selective ion channel responsible for the depolarizing current and maintenance of the action potential plateau in the heart. Ranolazine is a Na(V)1.5 antagonist with antianginal and antiarrhythmic properties.Mechanosensitivity of Na(V)1.5 was tested in voltage-clamped whole cells and cell-attached patches by bath flow and patch pressure, respectively. In whole cells, bath flow increased peak inward current in both murine ventricular cardiac myocytes (24±8%) and human embryonic kidney 293 cells heterologously expressing Na(V)1.5 (18±3%). The flow-induced increases in peak current were blocked by ranolazine. In cell-attached patches from cardiac myocytes and Na(V)1.5-expressing human embryonic kidney 293 cells, negative pressure increased Na(V) peak currents by 27±18% and 18±4% and hyperpolarized voltage dependence of activation by -11 mV and -10 mV, respectively. In human embryonic kidney 293 cells, negative pressure also increased the window current (250%) and increased late open channel events (250%). Ranolazine decreased pressure-induced shift in the voltage dependence (IC(50) 54 ?mol/L) and eliminated the pressure-induced increases in window current and late current event numbers. Block of Na(V)1.5 mechanosensitivity by ranolazine was not due to the known binding site on DIVS6 (F1760). The effect of ranolazine on mechanosensitivity of Na(V)1.5 was approximated by lidocaine. However, ionized ranolazine and charged lidocaine analog (QX-314) failed to block mechanosensitivity.Ranolazine effectively inhibits mechanosensitivity of Na(V)1.5. The block of Na(V)1.5 mechanosensitivity by ranolazine does not utilize the established binding site and may require bilayer partitioning. Ranolazine block of Na(V)1.5 mechanosensitivity may be relevant in disorders of mechanoelectric dysfunction.