Variation and Distribution of L-A Helper Totiviruses in Saccharomyces sensu stricto Yeasts Producing Different Killer Toxins.
ABSTRACT: Yeasts within the Saccharomyces sensu stricto cluster can produce different killer toxins. Each toxin is encoded by a medium size (1.5-2.4 Kb) M dsRNA virus, maintained by a larger helper virus generally called L-A (4.6 Kb). Different types of L-A are found associated to specific Ms: L-A in K1 strains and L-A-2 in K2 strains. Here, we extend the analysis of L-A helper viruses to yeasts other than S. cerevisiae, namely S. paradoxus, S. uvarum and S. kudriavzevii. Our sequencing data from nine new L-A variants confirm the specific association of each toxin-producing M and its helper virus, suggesting co-evolution. Their nucleotide sequences vary from 10% to 30% and the variation seems to depend on the geographical location of the hosts, suggesting cross-species transmission between species in the same habitat. Finally, we transferred by genetic methods different killer viruses from S. paradoxus into S. cerevisiae or viruses from S. cerevisiae into S. uvarum or S. kudriavzevii. In the foster hosts, we observed no impairment for their stable transmission and maintenance, indicating that the requirements for virus amplification in these species are essentially the same. We also characterized new killer toxins from S. paradoxus and constructed "superkiller" strains expressing them.
Project description:Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the main microorganism responsible for the fermentation of wine. Nevertheless, in the last years wineries are facing new challenges due to current market demands and climate change effects on the wine quality. New yeast starters formed by non-conventional Saccharomyces species (such as S. uvarum or S. kudriavzevii) or their hybrids (S. cerevisiae x S. uvarum and S. cerevisiae x S. kudriavzevii) can contribute to solve some of these challenges. They exhibit good fermentative capabilities at low temperatures, producing wines with lower alcohol and higher glycerol amounts. However, S. cerevisiae can competitively displace other yeast species from wine fermentations, therefore the use of these new starters requires an analysis of their behavior during competition with S. cerevisiae during wine fermentation. In the present study we analyzed the survival capacity of non-cerevisiae strains in competition with S. cerevisiae during fermentation of synthetic wine must at different temperatures. First, we developed a new method, based on QPCR, to quantify the proportion of different Saccharomyces yeasts in mixed cultures. This method was used to assess the effect of competition on the growth fitness. In addition, fermentation kinetics parameters and final wine compositions were also analyzed. We observed that some cryotolerant Saccharomyces yeasts, particularly S. uvarum, seriously compromised S. cerevisiae fitness during competences at lower temperatures, which explains why S. uvarum can replace S. cerevisiae during wine fermentations in European regions with oceanic and continental climates. From an enological point of view, mixed co-cultures between S. cerevisiae and S. paradoxus or S. eubayanus, deteriorated fermentation parameters and the final product composition compared to single S. cerevisiae inoculation. However, in co-inoculated synthetic must in which S. kudriavzevii or S. uvarum coexisted with S. cerevisiae, there were fermentation performance improvements and the final wines contained less ethanol and higher amounts of glycerol. Finally, it is interesting to note that in co-inoculated fermentations, wine strains of S. cerevisiae and S. uvarum performed better than non-wine strains of the same species.
Project description:We determined that extrachromosomal 2? plasmid was present in 67 of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae 100-genome strains; in addition to variation in the size and copy number of 2?, we identified three distinct classes of 2?. We identified 2? presence/absence and class associations with populations, clinical origin and nuclear genotypes. We also screened genome sequences of S. paradoxus, S. kudriavzevii, S. uvarum, S. eubayanus, S. mikatae, S. arboricolus and S. bayanus strains for both integrated and extrachromosomal 2?. Similar to S. cerevisiae, we found no integrated 2? sequences in any S. paradoxus strains. However, we identified part of 2? integrated into the genomes of some S. uvarum, S. kudriavzevii, S. mikatae and S. bayanus strains, which were distinct from each other and from all extrachromosomal 2?. We identified extrachromosomal 2? in one S. paradoxus, one S. eubayanus, two S. bayanus and 13 S. uvarum strains. The extrachromosomal 2? in S. paradoxus, S. eubayanus and S. cerevisiae were distinct from each other. In contrast, the extrachromosomal 2? in S. bayanus and S. uvarum strains were identical with each other and with one of the three classes of S. cerevisiae 2?, consistent with interspecific transfer.
Project description:The Saccharomycetaceae yeast family recently became recognized for expanding of the repertoire of different dsRNA-based viruses, highlighting the need for understanding of their cross-dependence. We isolated the Saccharomyces paradoxus AML-15-66 killer strain from spontaneous fermentation of serviceberries and identified helper and satellite viruses of the family Totiviridae, which are responsible for the killing phenotype. The corresponding full dsRNA genomes of viruses have been cloned and sequenced. Sequence analysis of SpV-LA-66 identified it to be most similar to S. paradoxus LA-28 type viruses, while SpV-M66 was mostly similar to the SpV-M21 virus. Sequence and functional analysis revealed significant differences between the K66 and the K28 toxins. The structural organization of the K66 protein resembled those of the K1/K2 type toxins. The AML-15-66 strain possesses the most expressed killing property towards the K28 toxin-producing strain. A genetic screen performed on S. cerevisiae YKO library strains revealed 125 gene products important for the functioning of the S. paradoxus K66 toxin, with 85% of the discovered modulators shared with S. cerevisiae K2 or K1 toxins. Investigation of the K66 protein binding to cells and different polysaccharides implies the ?-1,6 glucans to be the primary receptors of S. paradoxus K66 toxin. For the first time, we demonstrated the coherent habitation of different types of helper and satellite viruses in a wild-type S. paradoxus strain.
Project description:A multispecies-based taxonomic microarray targeting coding sequences of diverged orthologous genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces paradoxus, Saccharomyces mikatae, Saccharomyces bayanus, Saccharomyces kudriavzevii, Naumovia castellii, Lachancea kluyveri and Candida glabrata was designed to allow identification of isolates of these species and their interspecies hybrids. Analysis of isolates of several Saccharomyces species and interspecies hybrids demonstrated the ability of the microarray to differentiate these yeasts on the basis of their specific hybridization patterns. Subsequent analysis of 183 supposed S. cerevisiae isolates of various ecological and geographical backgrounds revealed one misclassified S. bayanus or Saccharomyces uvarum isolate and four aneuploid interspecies hybrids, one between S. cerevisiae and S. bayanus and three between S. cerevisiae and S. kudriavzevii. Furthermore, this microarray design allowed the detection of multiple introgressed S. paradoxus DNA fragments in the genomes of three different S. cerevisiae isolates. These results show the power of multispecies-based microarrays as taxonomic tools for the identification of species and interspecies hybrids, and their ability to provide a more detailed characterization of interspecies hybrids and recombinants.
Project description:Saccharomyces cerevisiae killer strains secrete a protein toxin active on nonkiller strains of the same (or other) yeast species. Different killer toxins, K1, K2, K28, and Klus, have been described. Each toxin is encoded by a medium-size (1.5- to 2.3-kb) M double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) located in the cytoplasm. M dsRNAs require L-A helper virus for maintenance. L-A belongs to the Totiviridae family, and its dsRNA genome of 4.6 kb codes for the major capsid protein Gag and a minor Gag-Pol protein, which form the virions that separately encapsidate L-A or the M satellites. Different L-A variants exist in nature; on average, 24% of their nucleotides are different. Previously, we reported that L-A-lus was specifically associated with Mlus, suggesting coevolution, and proposed a role of the toxin-encoding M dsRNAs in the appearance of new L-A variants. Here we confirm this by analyzing the helper virus in K2 killer wine strains, which we named L-A-2. L-A-2 is required for M2 maintenance, and neither L-A nor L-A-lus shows helper activity for M2 in the same genetic background. This requirement is overcome when coat proteins are provided in large amounts by a vector or in ski mutants. The genome of another totivirus, L-BC, frequently accompanying L-A in the same cells shows a lower degree of variation than does L-A (about 10% of nucleotides are different). Although L-BC has no helper activity for M dsRNAs, distinct L-BC variants are associated with a particular killer strain. The so-called L-BC-lus (in Klus strains) and L-BC-2 (in K2 strains) are analyzed. IMPORTANCE:Killer strains of S. cerevisiae secrete protein toxins that kill nonkiller yeasts. The "killer phenomenon" depends on two dsRNA viruses: L-A and M. M encodes the toxin, and L-A, the helper virus, provides the capsids for both viruses. Different killer toxins exist: K1, K2, K28, and Klus, encoded on different M viruses. Our data indicate that each M dsRNA depends on a specific helper virus; these helper viruses have nucleotide sequences that may be as much as 26% different, suggesting coevolution. In wine environments, K2 and Klus strains frequently coexist. We have previously characterized the association of Mlus and L-A-lus. Here we sequence and characterize L-A-2, the helper virus of M2, establishing the helper virus requirements of M2, which had not been completely elucidated. We also report the existence of two specific L-BC totiviruses in Klus and K2 strains with about 10% of their nucleotides different, suggesting different evolutionary histories from those of L-A viruses.
Project description:Production and balance of glycerol is essential for the survival of yeast cells in certain stressful conditions as hyperosmotic or cold shock that occur during industrial processes as winemaking. These stress responses are well-known in S. cerevisiae, however, little is known in other phylogenetically close related Saccharomyces species associated with natural or fermentation environments such as S. uvarum, S. paradoxus or S. kudriavzevii. In this work we have investigated the expression of four genes (GPD1, GPD2, STL1, and FPS1) crucial in the glycerol pool balance in the four species with a biotechnological potential (S. cerevisiae; S. paradoxus; S. uvarum; and S. kudriavzevii), and the ability of strains to grow under osmotic and cold stresses. The results show different pattern and level of expression among the different species, especially for STL1. We also studied the function of Stl1 glycerol symporter in the survival to osmotic changes and cell growth capacity in winemaking environments. These experiments also revealed a different functionality of the glycerol transporters among the different species studied. All these data point to different strategies to handle glycerol accumulation in response to winemaking stresses as hyperosmotic or cold-hyperosmotic stress in the different species, with variable emphasis in the production, influx, or efflux of glycerol.
Project description:High-quality, well-annotated genome sequences and standardized laboratory strains fuel experimental and evolutionary research. We present improved genome sequences of three species of Saccharomyces sensu stricto yeasts: S. bayanus var. uvarum (CBS 7001), S. kudriavzevii (IFO 1802(T) and ZP 591), and S. mikatae (IFO 1815(T)), and describe their comparison to the genomes of S. cerevisiae and S. paradoxus. The new sequences, derived by assembling millions of short DNA sequence reads together with previously published Sanger shotgun reads, have vastly greater long-range continuity and far fewer gaps than the previously available genome sequences. New gene predictions defined a set of 5261 protein-coding orthologs across the five most commonly studied Saccharomyces yeasts, enabling a re-examination of the tempo and mode of yeast gene evolution and improved inferences of species-specific gains and losses. To facilitate experimental investigations, we generated genetically marked, stable haploid strains for all three of these Saccharomyces species. These nearly complete genome sequences and the collection of genetically marked strains provide a valuable toolset for comparative studies of gene function, metabolism, and evolution, and render Saccharomyces sensu stricto the most experimentally tractable model genus. These resources are freely available and accessible through www.SaccharomycesSensuStricto.org.
Project description:Temperature is one of the most important parameters affecting the length and rate of alcoholic fermentation and final wine quality. Wine produced at low temperature is often considered to have improved sensory qualities. However, there are certain drawbacks to low temperature fermentations such as reduced growth rate, long lag phase, and sluggish or stuck fermentations. To investigate the effects of temperature on commercial wine yeast, we compared its metabolome growing at 12 °C and 28 °C in a synthetic must. Some species of the Saccharomyces genus have shown better adaptation at low temperature than Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This is the case of the cryotolerant yeasts Saccharomyces bayanus var. uvarum and Saccharomyces kudriavzevii. In an attempt to detect inter-specific metabolic differences, we characterized the metabolome of these species growing at 12°C, which we compared with the metabolome of S. cerevisiae (not well adapted at low temperature) at the same temperature. Our results show that the main differences between the metabolic profiling of S. cerevisiae growing at 12 °C and 28 °C were observed in lipid metabolism and redox homeostasis. Moreover, the global metabolic comparison among the three species revealed that the main differences between the two cryotolerant species and S. cerevisiae were in carbohydrate metabolism, mainly fructose metabolism. However, these two species have developed different strategies for cold resistance. S. bayanus var. uvarum presented elevated shikimate pathway activity, while S. kudriavzevii displayed increased NAD(+) synthesis.
Project description:There are a number of yeasts that secrete killer toxins, i.e., proteins lethal to sensitive cells of the same or related species. Ustilago maydis, a fungal pathogen of maize, also secretes killer toxins. The best characterized of the U. maydis killer toxins is the KP6 toxin, which consists of two small polypeptides that are not covalently linked. In this work, we show that both are encoded by one segment of the genome of a double-stranded RNA virus. They are synthesized as a preprotoxin that is processed in a manner very similar to that of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae k1 killer toxin, also encoded by a double-strand RNA virus. Active U. maydis KP6 toxin was secreted from S. cerevisiae transformants expressing the KP6 preprotoxin. The two secreted polypeptides were not glycosylated in U. maydis, but one was glycosylated in S. cerevisiae. Comparison of known and predicted cleavage sites among the five killer toxins of known sequence established a three-amino-acid specificity for a KEX2-like enzyme and predicted a new, undescribed processing enzyme in the secretory pathway in the fungi. The mature KP6 toxin polypeptides had hydrophobicity profiles similar to those of other known cellular toxins.
Project description:Viral M-dsRNAs encoding yeast killer toxins share similar genomic organization, but no overall sequence identity. The dsRNA full-length sequences of several known M-viruses either have yet to be completed, or they were shorter than estimated by agarose gel electrophoresis. High-throughput sequencing was used to analyze some M-dsRNAs previously sequenced by traditional techniques, and new dsRNAs from atypical killer strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Torulaspora delbrueckii. All dsRNAs expected to be present in a given yeast strain were reliably detected and sequenced, and the previously-known sequences were confirmed. The few discrepancies between viral variants were mostly located around the central poly(A) region. A continuous sequence of the ScV-M2 genome was obtained for the first time. M1 virus was found for the first time in wine yeasts, coexisting with Mbarr-1 virus in T. delbrueckii. Extra 5'- and 3'-sequences were found in all M-genomes. The presence of repeated short sequences in the non-coding 3'-region of most M-genomes indicates that they have a common phylogenetic origin. High identity between amino acid sequences of killer toxins and some unclassified proteins of yeast, bacteria, and wine grapes suggests that killer viruses recruited some sequences from the genome of these organisms, or vice versa, during evolution.