Practical Liposomal Formulation for Taxanes with Polyethoxylated Castor Oil and Ethanol with Complete Encapsulation Efficiency and High Loading Efficiency.
ABSTRACT: Taxanes including paclitaxel and docetaxel are effective anticancer agents preferably sufficient for liposomal drug delivery. However, the encapsulation of these drugs with effective amounts into conventional liposomes is difficult due to their high hydrophobicity. Therefore, an effective encapsulation strategy for liposomal taxanes has been eagerly anticipated. In this study, the mixture of polyethoxylated castor oil (Cremophor EL) and ethanol containing phosphate buffered saline termed as CEP was employed as a solvent of the inner hydrophilic core of liposomes where taxanes should be incorporated. Docetaxel-, paclitaxel-, or 7-oxacetylglycosylated paclitaxel-encapsulating liposomes were successfully prepared with almost 100% of encapsulation efficiency and 29.9, 15.4, or 29.1 mol% of loading efficiency, respectively. We then applied the docetaxel-encapsulating liposomes for targeted drug delivery. Docetaxel-encapsulating liposomes were successfully developed HER2-targeted drug delivery by coupling HER2-specific binding peptide on liposome surface. The HER2-targeting liposomes exhibited HER2-specific internalization and enhanced anticancer activity in vitro. Therefore, we propose the sophisticated preparation of liposomal taxanes using CEP as a promising formulation for effective cancer therapies.
Project description:A novel composite liposomal system co-encapsulating paclitaxel (PTX) with chloroquine phosphate (CQ) was designed for treating PTX-resistant carcinoma. It was confirmed that liposomal CQ can sensitize PTX by means of autophagy inhibition and competitively binding with multidrug-resistance transporters. Furthermore, according to the in vitro cytotoxicity and apoptosis assay, real-time observation of cellular uptake, and in vivo tissue distribution study, co-encapsulation of PTX and CQ in liposomes was validated as superior to the mixture of PTX liposome plus CQ liposome due to the simultaneous delivery and synergetic effect of the two drugs. Consequently, this composite liposome achieved significantly stronger anticancer efficacy in vivo than the PTX liposome plus CQ liposome mixture. This study helps to guide and enlighten ongoing and future clinical trials about the optimal administration modes for drug combination therapy.
Project description:Although the encapsulation of paclitaxel into liposomes has been extensively studied, its significant hydrophobic and uncharged character has generated substantial difficulties concerning its efficient encapsulation into the inner water core of liposomes. We found that a more hydrophilic paclitaxel molecule, 7-glucosyloxyacetylpaclitaxel, retained tubulin polymerization stabilization activity. The hydrophilic nature of 7-glucosyloxyacetylpaclitaxel allowed its efficient encapsulation into the inner water core of liposomes, which was successfully accomplished using a remote loading method with a solubility gradient between 40% ethylene glycol and Cremophor EL/ethanol in PBS. Trastuzumab was then conjugated onto the surface of liposomes as immunoliposomes to selectively target human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2)-overexpressing cancer cells. In vitro cytotoxicity assays revealed that the immunoliposomes enhanced the toxicity of 7-glucosyloxyacetylpaclitaxel in HER2-overexpressing cancer cells and showed more rapid suppression of cell growth. The immunoliposomes strongly inhibited the tumor growth of HT-29 cells xenografted in nude mice. Notably, mice survived when treated with the immunoliposomes formulation, even when administered at a lethal dose of 7-glucosyloxyacetylpaclitaxel in vivo. This data successfully demonstrates immunoliposomes as a promising candidate for the efficient delivery of paclitaxel glycoside.
Project description:ADVERSE EVENT:A drug interaction leading to severe skin and mucosal toxicity. DRUGS IMPLICATED:Paclitaxel, docetaxel and amiodarone. THE PATIENT:A 77-year-old woman with a history of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and palpitations, managed with amiodarone, was treated for HER2-positive invasive ductal breast cancer with paclitaxel and trastuzumab as an adjunct to surgery. EVIDENCE THAT LINKS THE DRUG TO THE EVENT:There was a strong temporal relationship between the taxane therapy and the development of severe skin and mucosal toxicity due to an unexpected reduction in taxane clearance. MANAGEMENT:Initially, conversion of paclitaxel to docetaxel, then cessation of docetaxel, symptomatic treatment, rehydration and placement of a nasogastric tube. MECHANISM:Increased exposure to paclitaxel and subsequently docetaxel due to interaction with amiodarone was suspected and confirmed on pharmacokinetic sampling. Analysis of two blood samples taken 9 and 10 days after docetaxel revealed plasma levels of 4.73 and 4.09 ng ml-1 , respectively, leading to a 79% decreased individual (Bayesian maximum a posteriori) clearance estimate of 9.15 l h-1 , corresponding to an estimated fivefold increase in AUC. Paclitaxel was also present in these samples (20 and 21 days after the last administration). IMPLICATIONS FOR THERAPY:Amiodarone inhibits cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms 2C8 and 3A4 as well as P-glycoprotein (P-gp) for which taxanes are substrates. However, interactions with amiodarone are not specified in the prescribing information. Clinicians should be aware of this interaction, particularly in an ageing population, where more patients requiring taxanes may already be receiving amiodarone for a comorbid cardiac condition.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The intestinal uptake of the taxanes paclitaxel and docetaxel is seriously hampered by drug efflux through P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and drug metabolism via cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A. The resulting low oral bioavailability can be boosted by co-administration of P-gp or CYP3A4 inhibitors. METHODS: Paclitaxel or docetaxel (10?mg/kg) was administered to CYP3A4-humanised mice after administration of the P-gp inhibitor elacridar (25?mg?kg(-1)) and the CYP3A inhibitor ritonavir (12.5?mg?kg(-1)). Plasma and brain concentrations of the taxanes were measured. RESULTS: Oral co-administration of the taxanes with elacridar increased plasma concentrations of paclitaxel (10.7-fold, P<0.001) and docetaxel (four-fold, P<0.001). Co-administration with ritonavir resulted in 2.5-fold (paclitaxel, P<0.001) and 7.3-fold (docetaxel, P<0.001) increases in plasma concentrations. Co-administration with both inhibitors simultaneously resulted in further increased plasma concentrations of paclitaxel (31.9-fold, P<0.001) and docetaxel (37.4-fold, P<0.001). Although boosting of orally applied taxanes with elacridar and ritonavir potentially increases brain accumulation of taxanes, we found that only brain concentrations, but not brain-to-plasma ratios, were increased after co-administration with both inhibitors. CONCLUSIONS: The oral availability of taxanes can be enhanced by co-administration with oral elacridar and ritonavir, without increasing the brain penetration of the taxanes.
Project description:Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) imaging is an emerging modality that can detect and localize paramagnetic molecular probes (so-called spin probes) in vivo. We previously demonstrated that nitroxide spin probes can be encapsulated in liposomes at concentrations exceeding 100 mM, at which nitroxides exhibit a concentration-dependent quenching of their EPR signal that is analogous to the self-quenching of fluorescent molecules. Therefore, intact liposomes encapsulating high concentrations of nitroxides exhibit greatly attenuated EPR spectral signals, and endocytosis of such liposomes represents a cell-activated contrast-generating mechanism. After endocytosis, the encapsulated nitroxide is liberated and becomes greatly diluted in the intracellular milieu. This dequenches the nitroxides to generate a robust intracellular EPR signal. It is therefore possible to deliver a high concentration of nitroxides to cells while minimizing background signal from unendocytosed liposomes. We report here that intracellular EPR signal can be selectively generated in a specific cell type by exploiting its expression of Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 (HER2). When targeted by anti-HER2 immunoliposomes encapsulating quenched nitroxides, Hc7 cells, which are novel HER2-overexpressing cells derived from the MCF7 breast tumor cell line, endocytose the liposomes copiously, in contrast to the parent MCF7 cells or control CV1 cells, which do not express HER2. HER2-dependent liposomal delivery enables Hc7 cells to accumulate 750 ?M nitroxide intracellularly. Through the use of phantom models, we verify that this concentration of nitroxides is more than sufficient for EPR imaging, thus laying the foundation for using EPR imaging to visualize HER2-overexpressing Hc7 tumors in animals.
Project description:Although bacillus Calmette-Guérin cell wall skeleton (BCG-CWS) might function as a potential substitute for live BCG, its use in the treatment of bladder cancer remains limited owing to issues such as insolubility and micrometer-size following exposure to an aqueous environment. Thus, to develop a novel nanoparticulate system for efficient BCG-CWS delivery, liposomal encapsulation was carried out using a modified emulsification-solvent evaporation method (targets: Size, <200 nm; encapsulation efficiency, ~60%). Further, the liposomal surface was functionalized with specific ligands, folic acid (FA), and Pep-1 peptide (Pep1), as targeting and cell-penetrating moieties, respectively. Functionalized liposomes greatly increased the intracellular uptake of BCG-CWS in the bladder cancer cell lines, 5637 and MBT2. The immunoactivity was verified through elevated cytokine production and a THP-1 migration assay. In vivo antitumor efficacy revealed that the BCG-CWS-loaded liposomes effectively inhibited tumor growth in mice bearing MBT2 tumors. Dual ligand-functionalized liposome was also superior to single ligand-functionalized liposomes. Immunohistochemistry supported the enhanced antitumor effect of BCG-CWS, with IL-6 production and CD4 infiltration. Thus, we conclude that FA- and Pep1-modified liposomes encapsulating BCG-CWS might be a good candidate for bladder cancer treatment with high target selectivity.
Project description:Docetaxel (DTX) was loaded in nanoliposomes based on a new remote loading method using mannitol and acetic acid as hydration buffer. DTX loading conditions were optimized, and the final formulations were prepared according to the best parameters which were HSPC/mPEG2000-DSPE/Chol (F1), HSPC/mPEG2000-DSPE/DPPG/Chol (F2), HSPC/mPEG2000-DSPE/DSPG/Chol (F3), at molar ratios of 85/5/10, 80/5/5/10, 80/5/5/10, respectively. DTX-liposomes were found of desired size (~115?nm) and homogeneity (PDI???0.2), high drug encapsulation efficacy (34-67%) and DTX concentration, and favorable stability. Passive loaded counterparts liposomes showed three times lower encapsulation efficacy compared to the remote loaded liposomes. The drug release of remote loaded liposomes in plasma 50% was significantly more controlled and less in comparison with their passive loaded counterparts (p?<?0.0001). The IC50 values of formulations were determined on MCF-7, 4T1, TUBO, NIH/3T3 cell lines. The biodistribution of iodinated docetaxel as free or liposomal form exhibited significantly greater accumulation of DTX-liposomes in tumors than that of free docetaxel due to the EPR effect. In vivo experiment with BALB/c mice bearing 4T1 or TUBO breast carcinoma tumors also showed that DTX-liposomes could significantly delay tumor growth and prolonged the survival time in comparison with control and Taxotere groups at the similar dose of 8?mg/kg. F1 and F2 formulations were stable and showed good anti-tumor activity and merit further investigation.
Project description:The taxanes (paclitaxel and docetaxel) represent an important class of antineoplastic agents that interfere with microtubule function leading to altered mitosis and cellular death. Paclitaxel (Taxol(®)) was originally extracted from a yew tree (Taxus spp., Taxaceae) a small slow-growing evergreen, coniferous tree. Due to the initial scarcity of paclitaxel, docetaxel (Taxotere(®)) a semisynthetic analog of paclitaxel produced from the needles of European yew tree, Taxus baccata was developed. Docetaxel differs from paclitaxel in two positions in its chemical structure and this small alteration makes it more water soluble. Today, paclitaxel and docetaxel are widely prescribed antineoplastic agents for a broad range of malignancies including lung cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer, Kaposi's sarcoma, squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, gastric cancer, esophageal cancer, bladder cancer, and other carcinomas. Although very active clinically, paclitaxel and docetaxel have several clinical problems including poor drug solubility, serious dose-limiting toxicities such as myelosuppression, peripheral sensory neuropathy, allergic reactions, and eventual development of drug resistance. A number of these side effects have been associated with the solvents used for dilution of these antineoplastic agents: Cremophor EL for paclitaxel and polysorbate 80 for docetaxel. In addition, reports have linked these solvents to the alterations in paclitaxel and docetaxel pharmacokinetic profiles. In this review, we provide preclinical and clinical data on several novel taxanes formulations and analogs which are currently US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved or in clinical development in various solid tumor malignancies. Of the new taxanes nab-paclitaxel and cabazitaxel have enjoyed clinical success and are FDA-approved; while many of the other compounds described in this review are unlikely to be further developed for clinical use in daily practice. Furthermore, the successful clinical emergence of novel nontaxane microtubule-targeting chemotherapy agents such as epothilones and eribulin is liable to further restrict the development of novel taxanes.
Project description:Chemotherapy has been widely used in breast cancer patients to reduce tumor size. However, most anticancer agents cannot differentiate between cancerous and normal cells, resulting in severe systemic toxicity. In addition, acquired drug resistance during the chemotherapy treatment further decreases treatment efficacy. With the proper treatment strategy, nanodrug carriers, such as liposomes/immunoliposomes, may be able to reduce undesired side effects of chemotherapy, to overcome the acquired multidrug resistance, and to further improve the treatment efficacy. In this study, a novel combinational targeted drug delivery system was developed by encapsulating antiangiogenesis drug bevacizumab into liposomes and encapsulating chemotherapy drug doxorubicin (DOX) into immunoliposomes where the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) antibody was used as a targeting ligand. This novel combinational system was tested in vitro using a HER2 positive and multidrug resistant breast cancer cell line (BT-474/MDR), and in vivo using a xenograft mouse tumor model. In vitro cell culture experiments show that immunoliposome delivery led to a high cell nucleus accumulation of DOX, whereas free DOX was observed mostly near the cell membrane and in cytoplasm due to the action of P-gp. Combining liposomal bevacizumab with immunoliposomal DOX achieved the best tumor growth inhibition and the lowest toxicity. Tumor size decreased steadily within a 60-day observation period indicating a potential synergistic effect between DOX and bevacizumab through the targeted delivery. Our findings clearly indicate that tumor growth was significantly delayed in the combinational liposomal drug delivery group. This novel combinational therapy has great potential for the treatment of patients with HER2/MDR double positive breast cancer.
Project description:Gemcitabine has limited clinical benefits in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. The solvent-based traditional taxanes docetaxel and paclitaxel have not shown clinical results superior to gemcitabine. Nab-paclitaxel, a water-soluble albumin-bound paclitaxel, may carry superior distribution properties into the tumor microenvironment and has shown efficacy in multiple tumor types. We evaluated nab-paclitaxel effects compared with gemcitabine or docetaxel. For pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cells AsPC-1, BxPC-3, MIA PaCa-2 and Panc-1, gemcitabine IC50 ranged from 494nM to 23.9 ?M; docetaxel IC50 range was from 5 to 34nM; nab-paclitaxel IC50 range was from 243nM to 4.9 ?M. Addition of IC25 dose of docetaxel or nab-paclitaxel decreased gemcitabine IC50. Net tumor growth inhibition after gemcitabine, docetaxel or nab-paclitaxel was 67, 31 and 72%, which corresponded with intratumoral proliferative and apoptotic indices. Tumor stromal density was decreased by nab-paclitaxel and to a lesser extent by docetaxel as measured through reduction in ?-smooth muscle actin, S100A4 and collagen 1 expression. Animal survival was prolonged after nab-paclitaxel treatment (41 days, P < 0.002) compared with gemcitabine (32 days, P = 0.005), docetaxel (32 days, P = 0.005) and controls (20 days). Survival in nab-paclitaxel/gemcitabine and docetaxel/gemcitabine sequential treatment groups was not superior to nab-paclitaxel alone. Low-dose combination of gemcitabine with nab-paclitaxel or docetaxel was more effective compared with controls or gemcitabine alone but not superior to regular dose nab-paclitaxel alone. Combination treatment of gemcitabine+nab-paclitaxel or gemcitabine+docetaxel increased gemcitabine concentration in plasma and tumor. The superior antitumor activity of nab-paclitaxel provides a strong rationale for considering nab-paclitaxel as first-line monotherapy in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.