Intraoperative use of dexmedetomidine promotes postoperative sleep and recovery following radical mastectomy under general anesthesia.
ABSTRACT: Postoperative sleep disturbance and fatigue following radical mastectomy were high risks for prolonged convalescence in patients with breast cancer. The present study was designed to observe the effect of intraoperative use of dexmedetomidine on postoperative sleep, fatigue and recovery following radical mastectomy under general anesthesia. Forty-seven patients were randomized into two groups that were maintained with propofol/remifentanil/Ringer's solution (Control group), or propofol/remifentanil/Dexmedetomidine (DEX group) for surgery under general anesthesia. During the first night following surgery, patients receiving dexmedetomine spent more time sleeping when compared with those form the Control group. During the first week following operation, when compared with the Control group, patients from the DEX group had a higher score of global 40-item recovery questionnaire on day 3 following operation, and lower 9-question fatigue severity scores on day 3 and day 7 following operation. In conclusion, intraoperative use of dexmedetomidine is sufficient to improve postoperative sleep disorder, promote postoperative recovery. The adverse effect of dexmedetomidine on sleep disturbance might be contributed to its recovery-promoting effect.
Project description:Surgery-induced acute postoperative pain and stress response can lead to prolonged convalescence. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of intraoperative dexmedetomidine on postoperative analgesia and recovery following abdominal hysterectomy surgeries. Sixty-four patients scheduled for abdominal hysterectomy under general anesthesia were divided into two groups that were maintained using propofol/remifentanil/dexmedetomidine (PRD) or propofol/remifentanil/saline (PRS). During surgery, patients in the PRD group had a lower bispectral index (BIS) value, which indicated a deeper anesthetic state, and a higher sedation score immediately after extubation than patients in the PRS group. During the first 24 hours post-surgery, PRD patients consumed less morphine with patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) and had lower scores on a visual analogue scale (VAS) than their controls from the PRS group. The global 40-item quality of recovery questionnaire and 9-question fatigue severity score both showed higher recovery scores from day 3 after surgery in the PRD group. with the data are considered together, intraoperative administration of dexmedetomidine appeared to promote the analgesic properties of morphine-based PCA and to expedite recovery following surgery in patients undergoing abdominal hysterectomy.
Project description:During anaesthesia and surgery, in particular neurosurgery, preservation of cerebral perfusion and oxygenation (CPO) is essential for normal postoperative brain function. The isolated effects on CPO of either individual anaesthetic drugs or entire anaesthetic protocols are of importance in both clinical and research settings. Total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA) with propofol and remifentanil is widely used in human neuroanaesthesia. In addition, dexmedetomidine is receiving increasing attention as an anaesthetic adjuvant in neurosurgical, intensive care, and paediatric patients. Despite the extensive use of pigs as animal models in neuroscience and the increasing use of both propofol-remifentanil and dexmedetomidine, very little is known about their combined effect on CPO in pigs with uninjured brains. This study investigates the effect of dexmedetomidine on CPO in piglets with normal and lowered blood pressure during background anaesthesia with propofol-remifentanil TIVA. Sixteen healthy female Danish pigs (crossbreeds of Danish Landrace, Yorkshire and Duroc, 25-34 kg) were used. Three animals were subsequently excluded. The animals were randomly allocated into one of two groups with either normal blood pressure (NBP, n = 6) or with induced low blood pressure (LBP, n = 7). Both groups were subjected to the same experimental protocol. Intravenous propofol induction was performed without premedication. Anaesthesia was maintained with propofol-remifentanil TIVA, and later supplemented with continuous infusion of dexmedetomidine. Assessments of cerebral perfusion obtained by laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) were related to cerebral oxygenation measures (PbrO2) obtained by an intracerebral Clark-type Licox probe.Addition of dexmedetomidine resulted in a 32% reduction in median PbrO2 values for the LBP group (P = 0.03), but no significant changes in PbrO2 were observed for the NBP group. No significant changes in LSCI readings were observed in either group between any time points, despite a 28% decrease in the LBP group following dexmedetomidine administration. Caval block resulted in a significant (P = 0.02) reduction in median MAP from 68 mmHg (range 63-85) at PCB to 58 mmHg (range 53-63) in the LBP group, but no significant differences in either PbrO2 or LSCI were observed due to this intervention (P = 0.6 and P = 0.3 respectively).Addition of dexmedetomidine to propofol-remifentanil TIVA resulted in a significant decrease in cerebral oxygenation (PbrO2) measurements in piglets with lowered blood pressure. Cerebral perfusion (LSCI) did not decrease significantly in this group. In piglets with normal blood pressure, no significant changes in cerebral perfusion or oxygenation were seen in response to addition of dexmedetomidine to the background anaesthesia.
Project description:Vasopressors are frequently used to increase blood pressure in order to ensure sufficient cerebral perfusion and oxygenation (CPO) during hypotensive periods in anaesthetized patients. Efficacy depends both on the vasopressor and anaesthetic protocol used. Propofol-remifentanil total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA) is common in human anaesthesia, and dexmedetomidine is increasingly used as adjuvant to facilitate better haemodynamic stability and analgesia. Little is known of its interaction with vasopressors and subsequent effects on CPO. This study investigates the CPO response to infusions of norepinephrine and phenylephrine in piglets during propofol-remifentanil and propofol-remifentanil-dexmedetomidine anaesthesia. Sixteen healthy female piglets (25-34 kg) were randomly allocated into a two-arm parallel group design with either normal blood pressure (NBP) or induced low blood pressure (LBP). Anaesthesia was induced with propofol without premedication and maintained with propofol-remifentanil TIVA, and finally supplemented with continuous infusion of dexmedetomidine. Norepinephrine and phenylephrine were infused in consecutive intervention periods before and after addition of dexmedetomidine. Cerebral perfusion measured by laser speckle contrast imaging was related to cerebral oxygenation as measured by an intracerebral Licox probe (partial pressure of oxygen) and transcranial near infrared spectroscopy technology (NIRS) (cerebral oxygen saturation).During propofol-remifentanil anaesthesia, increases in blood pressure by norepinephrine and phenylephrine did not change cerebral perfusion significantly, but cerebral partial pressure of oxygen (Licox) increased following vasopressors in both groups and increases following norepinephrine were significant (NBP: P = 0.04, LBP: P = 0.02). In contrast, cerebral oxygen saturation (NIRS) fell significantly in NBP following phenylephrine (P = 0.003), and following both norepinephrine (P = 0.02) and phenylephrine (P = 0.002) in LBP. Blood pressure increase by both norepinephrine and phenylephrine during propofol-remifentanil-dexmedetomidine anaesthesia was not followed by significant changes in cerebral perfusion. Licox measures increased significantly following both vasopressors in both groups, whereas the decreases in NIRS measures were only significant in the NBP group.Cerebral partial pressure of oxygen measured by Licox increased significantly in concert with the vasopressor induced increases in blood pressure in healthy piglets with both normal and low blood pressure. Cerebral oxygenation assessed by intracerebral Licox and transcranial NIRS showed opposing results to vasopressor infusions.
Project description:Previous studies have reported that intraoperative dexmedetomidine has morphine-sparing effects in patient-controlled analgesia (PCA). The present study was designed to investigate the possible sex differences in the morphine-sparing effects of intraoperative dexmedetomidine following general anesthesia. A total of 223 patients scheduled for surgeries under general anesthesia were divided into female and male groups. Each group was then subdivided into 2 subgroups that were maintained using propofol/remifentanil/dexmedetomidine (PRD) or propofol/remifentanil/saline (PRS). During the first 24?hours postsurgery, both female and male PRD patients had lower scores on a visual analog scale (VAS) (fPRS vs fPRD, P?<?0.05 or P?<?0.01; mPRS mPRD, P?<?0.05, P?<?0.01, or P?<?0.001) and consumed less morphine than their controls from the PRS group (fPRS vs fPRD, P?=?0.0392; mPRS vs mPRD, P?=?0.0041). Interestingly, the female PRD patients had similar VAS scores (fPRD vs mPRD, P?>?0.05) and consumed comparable morphine compared to the male PRD patients (fPRD vs mPRD, P?=?0.4238). However, when normalized to body weight, they consumed much more morphine than male PRD patients (fPRD vs mPRD, P?<?0.001), and this effect was not seen in the PRS patients. Intraoperative administration of dexmedetomidine appeared to have a stronger morphine-sparing effect in controlling postoperative acute pain in male patients than in female patients.
Project description:We hypothesized that the addition of dexmedetomidine in a clinically relevant dose to propofol-remifentanil anesthesia regimen does not exert an adverse effect on motor-evoked potentials (MEP) and somatosensory-evoked potentials (SSEP) in adult patients undergoing thoracic spinal cord tumor resection.Seventy-one adult patients were randomized into three groups. Propofol group (n = 25): propofol-remifentanil regimenand the dosage was adjusted to maintain the bispectral index (BIS) between 40 and 50. DP adjusted group (n = 23): Dexmedetomidine (0.5 μg/kg loading dose infused over 10 min followed by a constant infusion of 0.5 μg/kg/h) was added to the propofol-remifentanil regimen and propofol was adjusted to maintain BIS between 40 and 50. DP unadjusted group (n = 23): Dexmedetomidine (administer as DP adjusted group) was added to the propofol-remifentanil regimen and propofol was not adjusted. All patients received MEP, SSEP and BIS monitoring.There were no significant changes in the amplitude and latency of MEP and SSEP among different groups (P > 0.05). The estimated propofol plasma concentration in DP adjusted group (2.7 ± 0.3 μg/ml) was significantly lower than in propofol group (3.1 ± 0.2 μg/ml) and DP unadjusted group (3.1 ± 0.2 μg/ml) (P = 0.000). BIS in DP unadjusted group (35 ± 5) was significantly lower than in propofol group (44 ± 3) (P = 0.000).The addition of dexmedetomidine to propofol-remifentanil regimen does not exert an adverse effect on MEP and SSEP monitoring in adult patients undergoing thoracic spinal cord tumor resection.The study was registered with the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry on January 31st, 2014. The reference number was ChiCTR-TRC-14004229.
Project description:Intraoperative dexmedetomidine (DEX) with or without loading dose both promote morphine-sparing effect in patient-controlled analgesia on postoperative acute pain. However, the contribution of the loading dose to this effect is largely unknown, especially in long-lasting surgeries. The present study was designed to investigate the role of a loading dose of DEX in this morphine-sparing effect in multiple-fracture patients following general anesthesia.Eighty-six patients scheduled multiple-fracture surgeries under general anesthesia were allocated into 3 groups which were maintained with propofol/remifentanil/Ringer solution (PRR), propofol/remifentanil/DEX with (PRDw), or without (PRDo) DEX loading dose before induction, respectively. Time to first morphine request and 24-hour morphine consumption was monitored. Pain intensity was evaluated with visual analog scale.During the first 24 hours following surgery, patients in the PRDw/o group showed increased time to first request of postoperative morphine and decreased total morphine consumption as compared with PRR patients. There was no significant difference with respect to these parameters between patients from the PRDw and PRDo groups. More patients from the PRDw groups experienced intraoperative bradycardia when compared to those from the PRR or PRDo group.This randomized controlled trial indicates that the morphine-sparing effect of intraoperative DEX was not affected by a loading dose in long-time surgeries.
Project description:To compare the efficacy and safety of sedation protocols for endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) between dexmedetomidine-remifentanil and propofol-remifentanil.Fifty-nine patients scheduled for ESD were randomly allocated into a dexmedetomidine-remifentanil (DR) group or a propofol-remifentanil (PR) group. To control patient anxiety, dexmedetomidine or propofol was infused to maintain a score of 4-5 on the Modified Observer's Assessment of Alertness/Sedation scale. Remifentanil was infused continuously at a rate of 6 ?g/kg per hour in both groups. The ease of advancing the scope into the throat, gastric motility grading, and satisfaction of the endoscopist and patient were assessed. Hemodynamic variables and hypoxemic events were compared to evaluate patient safety.Demographic data were comparable between the groups. The hemodynamic variables and pulse oximetry values were stable during the procedure in both groups despite a lower heart rate in the DR group. No oxygen desaturation events occurred in either group. Although advancing the scope into the throat was easier in the PR group ("very easy" 24.1% vs 56.7%, P = 0.010), gastric motility was more suppressed in the DR group ("no + mild" 96.6% vs 73.3%, P = 0.013). The endoscopists felt that the procedure was more favorable in the DR group ("very good + good" 100% vs 86.7%, P = 0.042), whereas patient satisfaction scores were comparable between the groups. En bloc resection was performed 100% of the time in both groups, and the complete resection rate was 94.4% in the DR group and 100% in the PR group (P = 0.477).The efficacy and safety of dexmedetomidine and remifentanil were comparable to propofol and remifentanil during ESD. However, the endoscopists favored dexmedetomidine perhaps due to lower gastric motility.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Vitrectomy under general anesthesia is considered as a candidate for ambulatory surgery. An anesthetic method with high quality of postoperative recovery should be selected for successful ambulatory surgery. We thus compared quality of postoperative recovery on the day of vitrectomy using the Quality of Recovery (QoR)-40 questionnaire between propofol total intravenous anesthesia (propofol group) and desflurane inhalation anesthesia (desflurane group) as the 2 representative anesthetic methods. METHODS:Eighty-four patients (20-80 years old) undergoing elective vitrectomy under general anesthesia were randomized into 2 groups. The propofol group received propofol and remifentanil using effect-site target-controlled infusion (TCI), and the desflurane group received desflurane inhalation and remifentanil using effect-site TCI. We assessed quality of recovery at 6?hours after surgery through interviews using the QoR-40 questionnaire. We also collected data related to recovery and complications during emergence and recovery period. RESULTS:The median of QoR-40 score on the day of surgery was significantly higher in the propofol group than that in the desflurane group (181.0 vs 169.5, respectively; P?=?.033). In particular, propofol group had significantly higher scores for physical comfort and physical independence dimensions. The amount of remifentanil administered was significantly higher, and the emergence time was significantly longer in propofol group. However, there were no significant differences in other complications between the 2 groups. CONCLUSIONS:Propofol total intravenous anesthesia provided significantly better quality of recovery on the day of surgery than desflurane inhalation anesthesia.
Project description:Preoperative anxiety is known to be related with the postoperative outcomes, although it remains unclear whether pharmacologic anxiolysis preoperatively leads to better postanesthesia recovery. Hence, the purpose of this study was to assess whether midazolam premedication would result in improved Quality of Recovery-40 survey scores, as a postoperative recovery parameter, in female patients undergoing mastectomy.This randomized double-blind study was performed at Severance Hospital, Yonsei University Health System, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Eighty-two females undergoing breast cancer surgery with propofol-remifentanil anesthesia were enrolled and randomized to receive midazolam 0.02?mg?kg (group M) or saline (group C). Anesthesia was conducted with total intravenous anesthesia using propofol and remifentanil. On postoperative day 1, the Quality of Recovery-40 survey scores were surveyed.The global Quality of Recovery-40 survey scores on postoperative day 1 did not significantly differ between groups M and C (183 vs 181, P?=?0.568). However, the induction time was significantly shorter in group M (3.2 vs 4.5?min, P?<?0.001), as was the total intraoperative propofol consumption (705 vs 1004?mg; P?=?0.022).Midazolam premedication does not seem to improve the postoperative quality of recovery, though group M showed faster induction and less propofol consumption.
Project description:Intraoperative dexmedetomidine may decrease postoperative emergence agitation in elderly patients due to its sedative effect. In this study, we evaluated the effect of adjuvant dexmedetomidine on smooth emergence from anaesthesia after orthopaedic surgery in elderly patients.A total 115 patients (ASA I-II, aged over 65 years) were randomly allocated into four groups. Anaesthesia was maintained with either sevoflurane or total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA) comprising propofol and remifentanil. Patients were also administered either dexmedetomidine (0.4 μg kg(-1) hr(-1); SD and TD) intraoperatively or normal saline (SN or TN) as a control. The bispectral index (BIS) score was maintained from 40-60 intraoperatively. All anaesthetics and dexmedetomidine were discontinued at surgical conclusion, and the recovery times (durations to a BIS = 60, 70, and 80; eye opening; and extubation) were measured. The mean arterial pressure, heart rate, Ricker's agitation-sedation scale (RSAS), visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain, and incidences of emergence agitation and postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) were measured in the recovery room.Dexmedetomidine significantly decreased the RSAS score in the SD and TD groups, and a calm state postoperatively occurred more frequently in these groups than in the control groups. The heart rate and incidence of emergence agitation were lower in the dexmedetomidine groups. Recovery time was higher in the SD group than in the SN group, and no significant differences occurred between the TN and TD groups. The VAS score was lower in the SD group than in the SN group, and the PONV did not differ regardless of the use of dexmedetomidine.Dexmedetomidine may be an effective intraoperative adjuvant for a reducing emergence agitation and smooth emergence from anaesthesia after orthopaedic surgery in elderly patients.Current Controlled Trials NCT01851005 .