Effect of methionine-35 oxidation on the aggregation of amyloid-? peptide.
ABSTRACT: Aggregation of A? peptides into amyloid plaques is considered to trigger the Alzheimer's disease (AD), however the mechanism behind the AD onset has remained elusive. It is assumed that the insoluble A? aggregates enhance oxidative stress (OS) by generating free radicals with the assistance of bound copper ions. The aim of our study was to establish the role of Met35 residue in the oxidation and peptide aggregation processes. Met35 can be readily oxidized by H2O2. The fibrillization of A? with Met35 oxidized to sulfoxide was three times slower compared to that of the regular peptide. The fibrils of regular and oxidized peptides looked similar under transmission electron microscopy. The relatively small inhibitory effect of methionine oxidation on the fibrillization suggests that the possible variation in the Met oxidation state should not affect the in vivo plaque formation. The peptide oxidation pattern was more complex when copper ions were present: addition of one oxygen atom was still the fastest process, however, it was accompanied by multiple unspecific modifications of peptide residues. Addition of copper ions to the A? with oxidized Met35 in the presence of H2O2, resulted a similar pattern of nonspecific modifications, suggesting that the one-electron oxidation processes in the peptide molecule do not depend on the oxidation state of Met35 residue. Thus, it can be concluded that Met35 residue is not a part of the radical generating mechanism of A?-Cu(II) complex.
Project description:Copper ion-catalyzed oxidation of yeast SOD1 (ySOD1) was examined to determine early oxidative modifications, including oxidation of a crucial disulfide bond, and the structural and functional repercussions of these events. The study used distinct oxidative conditions: Cu2+/H2O2, Cu2+/H2O2/AscH- and Cu2+/H2O2/glucose. Capillary electrophoresis experiments and quantification of protein carbonyls indicate that ySOD1 is highly susceptible to oxidative modification and that changes can be detected within 0.1?min of the initiation of the reaction. Oxidation-induced structural perturbations, characterized by circular dichroism, revealed the formation of partially-unfolded ySOD1 species in a dose-dependent manner. Consistent with these structural changes, pyrogallol assay indicates a partial loss of enzymatic activity. ESI-MS analyses showed seven distinct oxidized ySOD1 species under mild oxidation within 0.1?min. LC/MS analysis after proteolytic digestion demonstrated that the copper-coordinating active site histidine residues, His47 and His49, were converted into 2-oxo-histidine. Furthermore, the Cu and Zn bridging residue, His64 is converted into aspartate/asparagine. Importantly, the disulfide-bond Cys58-Cys147 which is critical for the structural and functional integrity of ySOD1 was detected as being oxidized at Cys147. We propose, based on LC/MS analyses, that disulfide-bond oxidation occurs without disulfide bond cleavage. Modifications were also detected at Met85 and five surface-exposed Lys residues. Based on these data we propose that the Cys58-Cys147 bond may act as a sacrificial target for oxidants and protect ySOD1 from oxidative inactivation arising from exposure to Cu2+/H2O2 and auto-inactivation during extended enzymatic turnover.
Project description:Using all-atom explicit solvent replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations with solute tempering, we study the effect of methionine oxidation on A?10-40 peptide binding to the zwitterionic DMPC bilayer. By comparing oxidized and reduced peptides, we identified changes in the binding mechanism caused by this modification. First, Met35 oxidation unravels C-terminal helix in the bound peptides. Second, oxidation destabilizes intrapeptide interactions and expands bound peptides. We explain these outcomes by the loss of amphiphilic character of the C-terminal helix due to oxidation. Third, oxidation "polarizes" A? binding to the DMPC bilayer by strengthening the interactions of the C-terminus with lipids while largely releasing the rest of the peptide from bilayer. Fourth, in contrast to the wild-type peptide, oxidized A? induces significantly smaller bilayer thinning and drop in lipid density within the binding footprint. These observations are the consequence of mixing oxidized peptide amino acids with lipids promoted by enhanced A? conformational fluctuations. Fifth, methionine oxidation reduces the affinity of A? binding to the DMPC bilayer by disrupting favorable intrapeptide interactions upon binding, which offset the gains from better hydration. Reduced binding affinity of the oxidized A? may represent the molecular basis for its reduced cytotoxicity.
Project description:Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) involves the abnormal posttranslational modifications and fibrillization of copper, zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1) and TDP-43. However, how SOD1-catalyzed reaction product hydrogen peroxide affects amyloid formation of SOD1 and TDP-43 remains elusory. 90% of ALS cases are sporadic and the remaining cases are familial ALS. In this paper, we demonstrate that H2O2 at pathological concentrations triggers the fibrillization of wild-type SOD1 both in vitro and in SH-SY5Y cells. Using an anti-dimedone antibody that detects sulfenic acid modification of proteins, we found that Cys-111 in wild-type SOD1 is oxidized to C-SOH by pathological concentration of H2O2, followed by the formation of sulfenic acid modified SOD1 oligomers. Furthermore, we show that such SOD1 oligomers propagate in a prion-like manner, and not only drive wild-type SOD1 to form fibrils in the cytoplasm but also induce cytoplasm mislocalization and the subsequent fibrillization of wild-type TDP-43, thereby inducing apoptosis of living cells. Thus, we propose that H2O2 at pathological concentrations triggers the fibrillization of wild-type SOD1 and subsequently induces SOD1 toxicity and TDP-43 toxicity in neuronal cells via sulfenic acid modification of Cys-111 in SOD1. Our Western blot and ELISA data demonstrate that sulfenic acid modified wild-type SOD1 level in cerebrospinal fluid of 15 sporadic ALS patients is significantly increased compared with 6 age-matched control patients. These findings can explain how H2O2 at pathologic concentrations regulates the misfolding and toxicity of SOD1 and TDP-43 associated with ALS, and suggest that sulfenic acid modification of wild-type SOD1 should play pivotal roles in the pathogenesis of sporadic ALS.
Project description:Oxidation of a highly conserved cysteine (Cys) residue located in the kinase activation loop of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases (MAPKK) inactivates mammalian MKK6. This residue is conserved in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe MAPKK Wis1, which belongs to the H2O2-responsive MAPK Sty1 pathway. Here, we show that H2O2 reversibly inactivates Wis1 through this residue (C458) in vitro We found that C458 is oxidized in vivo and that serine replacement of this residue significantly enhances Wis1 activation upon addition of H2O2 The allosteric MAPKK inhibitor INR119, which binds in a pocket next to the activation loop and C458, prevented the inhibition of Wis1 by H2O2 in vitro and significantly increased Wis1 activation by low levels of H2O2 in vivo We propose that oxidation of C458 inhibits Wis1 and that INR119 cancels out this inhibitory effect by binding close to this residue. Kinase inhibition through the oxidation of a conserved Cys residue in MKK6 (C196) is thus conserved in the S. pombe MAPKK Wis1.
Project description:A strategy to sequence lysine-containing cyclic peptides by MSn is presented. Doubly protonated cyclic peptides ions are transformed into gold (I) cationized peptide ions via cation switching ion/ion reaction. Gold(I) cationization facilitates the oxidation of neutral lysine residues in the gas phase, weakening the adjacent amide bond. Upon activation, facile cleavage N-terminal to the oxidized lysine residue provides a site-specific ring opening pathway that converts cyclic peptides into acyclic analogs. The ensuing ion contains a cyclic imine as the new N-terminus and an oxazolone, or structural equivalent, as the new C-terminus. Product ions are formed from subsequent fragmentation events of the linearized peptide ion. Such an approach simplifies MS/MS data interpretation as a series of fragment ions with common N- and C-termini are generated. Results are presented for two cyclic peptides, sunflower trypsin inhibitor and the model cyclic peptide, ?-Loop. The power of this strategy lies in the ability to generate the oxidized peptide, which is easily identified via the loss of HAuNH3 from [M?+?Au]+. While some competitive processes are observed, the site of ring opening can be pinpointed to the lysine residue upon MS4 enabling the unambiguous sequencing of cyclic peptides.
Project description:Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are key molecules regulating various cellular processes. However, what the cellular targets of ROS are and how their functions are regulated is unclear. This study explored the cellular proteomic changes in response to oxidative stress using H2O2 in dose- and recovery time-dependent ways. We found discernible changes in 76 proteins appearing as 103 spots on 2D-PAGE. Of these, Prxs, DJ-1, UCH-L3 and Rla0 are readily oxidized in response to mild H2O2 stress, and then degraded and active proteins are newly synthesized during recovery. In studies designed to understand the degradation process, multiple cellular modifications of redox-sensitive proteins were identified by peptide sequencing with nanoUPLC-ESI-q-TOF tandem mass spectrometry and the oxidative structural changes of Prx2 explored employing hydrogen/deuterium exchange-mass spectrometry (HDX-MS). We found that hydrogen/deuterium exchange rate increased in C-terminal region of oxidized Prx2, suggesting the exposure of this region to solvent under oxidation. We also found that Lys191 residue in this exposed C-terminal region of oxidized Prx2 is polyubiquitinated and the ubiquitinated Prx2 is readily degraded in proteasome and autophagy. These findings suggest that oxidation-induced ubiquitination and degradation can be a quality control mechanism of oxidized redox-sensitive proteins including Prxs and DJ-1.
Project description:Four new triphenylamine ligands with different substituents in the para position and their corresponding copper(II) complexes are reported. This study includes their structural, spectroscopic, magnetic, and electrochemical properties. The complexes possess a dinuclear copper(II) paddle-wheel core, a building unit that is also common in metal-organic frameworks. Electrochemical measurements demonstrate that the triphenylamine ligands and the corresponding complexes are susceptible to oxidation, resulting in the formation of stable radical cations. The square-wave voltammograms observed for the complexes are similar to those of the ligands, except for a slight shift in potential. Square-wave voltammetry data show that, in the complexes, these oxidations can be described as individual one-electron processes centered on the coordinated ligands. Spectroelectrochemistry reveals that, during the oxidation of the complexes, no difference can be detected for the spectra of successively oxidized species. For the absorption bands of the oxidized species of the ligands and complexes, only a slight shift is observed. ESR spectra for the chemically oxidized complexes indicate ligand-centered radicals. The copper ions of the paddle-wheel core are strongly antiferromagnetic coupled. DFT calculations for the fully oxidized complexes indicate a very weak ferromagnetic coupling between the copper ions and the ligand radicals, whereas a very weak antiferromagnetic coupling is found among the ligand radicals.
Project description:Cellular proteins are constantly damaged by reactive oxygen species generated by cellular respiration. Because of its metal-chelating property, the histidine residue is easily oxidized in the presence of Cu/Fe ions and H2O2 via metal-catalyzed oxidation, usually converted to 2-oxohistidine. We hypothesized that cells may have evolved antioxidant defenses against the generation of 2-oxohistidine residues on proteins, and therefore there would be cellular proteins which specifically interact with this oxidized side chain. Using two chemically synthesized peptide probes containing 2-oxohistidine, high-throughput interactome screening was conducted using the E. coli K12 proteome microarray containing >4200 proteins. Ten interacting proteins were identified, and successfully validated using a third peptide probe, fluorescence polarization assays, as well as binding constant measurements. We discovered that 9 out of 10 identified proteins seemed to be involved in redox-related cellular functions. We also built the functional interaction network to reveal their interacting proteins. The network showed that our interacting proteins were enriched in oxido-reduction processes, ion binding, and carbon metabolism. A consensus motif was identified among these 10 bacterial interacting proteins based on bioinformatic analysis, which also appeared to be present on human S100A1 protein. Besides, we found that the consensus binding motif among our identified proteins, including bacteria and human, were located within ?-helices and faced the outside of proteins. The combination of chemically engineered peptide probes with proteome microarrays proves to be an efficient discovery platform for protein interactomes of unusual post-translational modifications, and sensitive enough to detect even the insertion of a single oxygen atom in this case.
Project description:Erythrocytes exposed to ascorbic acid in the presence of aminotriazole undergo a dose- and time-dependent inactivation of endogenous catalase which is proportional to environmental hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentrations. The production of H2O2 seems to be dependent upon the availability of transition metal chelatable by o-phenanthroline (OPT), although the kinetics of catalase inactivation and H2O2 production by externally added copper ions in the presence of OPT is complex. Furthermore, although glucose is also able to undergo a transition-metal-catalysed oxidation yielding H2O2, the production of H2O2 by glucose seems to be a minor process by comparison with ascorbic acid oxidation. Indeed, on the basis of these data, transition-metal-catalysed ascorbic acid oxidation is likely to be a more important source of oxidative stress in the diabetic state than hyperglycaemia.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), partly caused by the mutations and aggregation of human copper, zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1), is a fatal degenerative disease of motor neurons. Because SOD1 is a major copper-binding protein present at relatively high concentration in motor neurons and copper can be a harmful pro-oxidant, we want to know whether aberrant copper biochemistry could underlie ALS pathogenesis. In this study, we have investigated and compared the effects of cupric ions on the aggregation of ALS-associated SOD1 mutant A4V and oxidized wild-type SOD1.<h4>Methodology/principal findings</h4>As revealed by 90° light scattering, dynamic light scattering, SDS-PAGE, and atomic force microscopy, free cupric ions in solution not only induce the oxidation of either apo A4V or Zn2-A4V and trigger the oligomerization and aggregation of oxidized A4V under copper-mediated oxidative conditions, but also trigger the aggregation of non-oxidized form of such a pathogenic mutant. As evidenced by mass spectrometry and SDS-PAGE, Cys-111 is a primary target for oxidative modification of pathological human SOD1 mutant A4V by either excess Cu(2+) or hydrogen peroxide. The results from isothermal titration calorimetry show that A4V possesses two sets of independent binding sites for Cu(2+): a moderate-affinity site (10(6) M(-1)) and a high-affinity site (10(8) M(-1)). Furthermore, Cu(2+) binds to wild-type SOD1 oxidized by hydrogen peroxide in a way similar to A4V, triggering the aggregation of such an oxidized form.<h4>Conclusions/significance</h4>We demonstrate that excess cupric ions induce the oxidation and trigger the aggregation of A4V SOD1, and suggest that Cu(2+) plays a key role in the mechanism of aggregation of both A4V and oxidized wild-type SOD1. A plausible model for how pathological SOD1 mutants aggregate in ALS-affected motor neurons with the disruption of copper homeostasis has been provided.