Role of B-Type Natriuretic Peptide and N-Terminal Prohormone BNP as Predictors of Cardiovascular Morbidity and Mortality in Patients With a Recent Coronary Event and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
ABSTRACT: Natriuretic peptides are recognized as important predictors of cardiovascular events in patients with heart failure, but less is known about their prognostic importance in patients with acute coronary syndrome. We sought to determine whether B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and N-terminal prohormone B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) could enhance risk prediction of a broad range of cardiovascular outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus.Patients with a recent acute coronary syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus were prospectively enrolled in the ELIXA trial (n=5525, follow-up time 26 months). Best risk models were constructed from relevant baseline variables with and without BNP/NT-proBNP. C statistics, Net Reclassification Index, and Integrated Discrimination Index were analyzed to estimate the value of adding BNP or NT-proBNP to best risk models. Overall, BNP and NT-proBNP were the most important predictors of all outcomes examined, irrespective of history of heart failure or any prior cardiovascular disease. BNP significantly improved C statistics when added to risk models for each outcome examined, the strongest increments being in death (0.77-0.82, P<0.001), cardiovascular death (0.77-0.83, P<0.001), and heart failure (0.84-0.87, P<0.001). BNP or NT-proBNP alone predicted death as well as all other variables combined (0.77 versus 0.77).In patients with a recent acute coronary syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus, BNP and NT-proBNP were powerful predictors of cardiovascular outcomes beyond heart failure and death, ie, were also predictive of MI and stroke. Natriuretic peptides added as much predictive information about death as all other conventional variables combined.URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01147250.
Project description:Background:The measurements of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) are useful for ruling out heart failure and as prognostic markers in not only heart failure populations but also general populations. It is not clear whether these two biomarkers are elevated in parallel or associated with demographic characteristics in large populations at risk of stage A heart failure. Here we investigated the relationship between BNP and NT-proBNP and extended the evaluation of this association to known demographic disparities in stage A heart failure. Methods:Of 4,310 ambulatory patients, we analyzed the cases of the 3,643 (mean age 65 ± 11 years, 46$ male, and 79$ on antihypertensive medication) patients whose serum BNP and NT-proBNP levels were both measured and who had a history of and/or risk factors for cardiovascular disease from the Japan Morning Surge-Home Blood Pressure (J-HOP) Study dataset. Results:The median (25th-75th percentiles) BNP and NT-proBNP values were 18.7 (9.3-38.5) pg/mL and 50.3 (25.5-97.4) pg/mL. There was a significant association between log-transformed BNP and log-transformed NT-proBNP (r = 818, p < 0.001). A multiple linear regression analysis showed that log-transformed NT-proBNP was significantly associated with log-transformed BNP (beta coefficient = 0.774, p < 0.001). When stratified by demographic characteristics, these associations remained (all p < 0.001). Conclusion:In a large Japanese population at risk of stage A heart failure, there was a significant association between BNP and NT-proBNP after adjustment and stratification by demographics.
Project description:Objective:To assess the diagnostic value of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) or N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) for contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) undergoing coronary angiography. Background:ACS remains a major cause of death worldwide. Patients with ACS undergoing coronary angiography are more likely to develop CI-AKI, which correlates highly with poor clinical outcomes. Early diagnosis of CI-AKI remains a challenge. Many recent studies have suggested that BNP or NT-proBNP may be a useful biomarker for the early diagnosis of CI-AKI. Methods:We searched databases (PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library) to identify eligible studies. Two authors independently screened the studies and extracted data. We used the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies 2 (QUADAS-2) criteria to assess the methodological quality of the included studies and STATA to perform all statistical analyses. Results:Nine studies including 2832 patients were identified. The pooled sensitivity of 0.73 (95% CI 0.65-0.79), specificity of 0.79 (95% CI 0.70-0.85), and area under the summary receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.81 (95% CI 0.77-0.84) suggested that BNP or NT-proBNP had a good diagnostic value for CI-AKI in patients with ACS undergoing coronary angiography. Conclusions:Our findings suggest that BNP or NT-proBNP may be an effective predictive marker for CI-AKI. However, additional high-quality studies are required to find the optimal cutoff value and the diagnostic value of BNP or NT-proBNP in combination with other biomarkers.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Natriuretic peptides are substrates of neprilysin; hence, B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) concentrations rise with neprilysin inhibition. Thus, the clinical validity of measuring BNP in sacubitril/valsartan-treated patients has been questioned, and use of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptides (NT-proBNP) has been preferred and recommended.<h4>Objectives</h4>The purpose of this study was to determine the prognostic performance of BNP measurements before and during treatment with sacubitril/valsartan.<h4>Methods</h4>BNP and NT-proBNP were measured before and after 4 to 6 weeks, 8 to 10 weeks, and 9 months of treatment with sacubitril/valsartan in the PARADIGM-HF (Prospective Comparison of ARNI with ACEI to Determine Impact on Global Mortality and Morbidity in Heart Failure) trial. We assessed the association of levels of these natriuretic peptides with the subsequent risk of cardiovascular death or hospitalization for HF.<h4>Results</h4>Median BNP concentration (before treatment: 202 ng/l [Q1 to Q3: 126 to 335 ng/l]) increased to 235 ng/l (Q1 to Q3: 128 to 422 ng/l) after 8 to 10 weeks of treatment. BNP concentrations doubled in 141 (18%) patients and tripled in 49 (6%) patients during the first 8 to 10 weeks of sacubitril/valsartan. In contrast, such striking increases in NT-proBNP following the use of the neprilysin inhibitor were extremely rare. Treatment with sacubitril/valsartan caused a rightward shift in the distribution of BNP when compared with NT-proBNP, but both peptides retained their prognostic accuracy (C-statistics of 63% to 67% for BNP and C-statistics of 64% to 70% for NT-proBNP) with no difference between the 2 biomarkers. Increases in both BNP and NT-proBNP during 8 to 10 weeks of sacubitril/valsartan were associated with worse outcomes (p = 0.003 and p = 0.005, respectively).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Circulating levels of BNP may increase meaningfully early after initiation of sacubitril/valsartan. In comparison, NT-proBNP is not a substrate of neprilysin inhibition, and thus may lead to less clinical confusion when measured within 8 to 10 weeks of drug initiation. However, during treatment, either biomarker predicts the risk of major adverse outcomes in patients treated with angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitors. (Prospective Comparison of ARNI with ACEI to Determine Impact on Global Mortality and Morbidity in Heart Failure [PARADIGM-HF]; NCT01035255).
Project description:Background:B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and the N-terminal proBNP (NT-proBNP) exhibit different evolution in chronic heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction treated with Sacubitril/Valsartan; BNP increasing or remaining stable, while NT-proBNP decreases. However, how this difference translates upon acute decompensation is unknown. Case summary:Herein, we described in a 78-year-old woman with chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction treated with Sacubitril/Valsartan who had acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). BNP and NT-proBNP were markedly high during ADHF and showed parallel return to baseline level after clinical improvement. Discussion:BNP and NT-proBNP retained similar value for the diagnosis of ADHF in patient treated with Sacubitril/Valsartan. These findings strongly suggest that either BNP or NT-proBNP can be used indifferently in this context, while their relative use is debated in chronic heart failure.
Project description:Monitoring treatment efficacy and assessing outcome by serial measurements of natriuretic peptides in acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) patients may help to improve outcome.This was a prospective multi-center study of 171 consecutive patients (mean age 80 73-85 years) presenting to the emergency department with ADHF. Measurement of BNP and NT-proBNP was performed at presentation, 24 hours, 48 hours and at discharge. The primary endpoint was one-year all-cause mortality; secondary endpoints were 30-days all-cause mortality and one-year heart failure (HF) readmission.During one-year follow-up, a total of 60 (35%) patients died. BNP and NT-proBNP levels were higher in non-survivors at all time points (all P < 0.001). In survivors, treatment reduced BNP and NT-proBNP levels by more than 50% (P < 0.001), while in non-survivors treatment did not lower BNP and NT-proBNP levels. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) for the prediction of one-year mortality increased during the course of hospitalization for BNP (AUC presentation: 0.67; AUC 24 h: 0.77; AUC 48 h: 0.78; AUC discharge: 0.78) and NT-proBNP (AUC presentation: 0.67; AUC 24 h: 0.73; AUC 48 h: 0.75; AUC discharge: 0.77). In multivariate analysis, BNP at 24 h (1.02 [1.01-1.04], P = 0.003), 48 h (1.04 [1.02-1.06], P < 0.001) and discharge (1.02 [1.01-1.03], P < 0.001) independently predicted one-year mortality, while only pre-discharge NT-proBNP was predictive (1.07 [1.01-1.13], P = 0.016). Comparable results could be obtained for the secondary endpoint 30-days mortality but not for one-year HF readmissions.BNP and NT-proBNP reliably predict one-year mortality in patients with ADHF. Prognostic accuracy of both biomarker increases during the course of hospitalization. In survivors BNP levels decline more rapidly than NT-proBNP levels and thus seem to allow earlier assessment of treatment efficacy. Ability to predict one-year HF readmission was poor for BNP and NT-proBNP.ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00514384.
Project description:Higher levels of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) have been associated with a decreased risk of diabetes in adults, but whether BNP is related to insulin resistance in older adults has not been established.N-terminal of the pro hormone brain natriuretic peptide (NT-pro BNP) was measured among Cardiovascular Health Study participants at the 1989-1990, 1992-1993 and 1996-1997 examinations. We calculated measures of insulin resistance [homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI), Gutt index, Matsuda index] from fasting and 2-h concentrations of glucose and insulin among 3318 individuals with at least one measure of NT-proBNP and free of heart failure, coronary heart disease and chronic kidney disease, and not taking diabetes medication. We used generalized estimating equations to assess the cross-sectional association of NT-proBNP with measures of insulin resistance. Instrumental variable analysis with an allele score derived from nine genetic variants (single nucleotide polymorphisms) within or near the NPPA and NPPB loci was used to estimate an un-confounded association of NT-proBNP levels on insulin resistance.Lower NT-proBNP levels were associated with higher insulin resistance even after adjustment for BMI, waist circumference and other risk factors (P < 0.001 for all four indices). Although the genetic score was strongly related to measured NT-proBNP levels amongst European Americans (F statistic = 71.08), we observed no association of genetically determined NT-proBNP with insulin resistance (P = 0.38; P = 0.01 for comparison with the association of measured levels of NT-proBNP).In older adults, lower NT-proBNP is associated with higher insulin resistance, even after adjustment for traditional risk factors. Because related genetic variants were not associated with insulin resistance, the causal nature of this association will require future study.
Project description:Subclinical volume overload in the absence of diagnosed heart failure (HF) may be an underrecognized contributor to kidney function decline in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients. We evaluated associations of circulating N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), a marker of ventricular stretch, with change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR).We evaluated 535 patients with stable CAD and no history of HF, who were enrolled in the Heart and Soul Study and followed for 5 years. N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide was measured at baseline. We evaluated the associations of NT-proBNP with change in kidney function over 5 years: (a) annual percent change in eGFR, (b) rapid kidney function loss (> 3% per year for 5 years), and (c) incident eGFR < 60 mL/min per 1.73 m2. In multivariable models, we adjusted for demographics, comorbid conditions, echocardiographic parameters, medications, and baseline kidney function.Among 535 participants, median NT-proBNP was 130.6 (interquartile range 61.8-280.9) pg/mL, and median B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) was 32.5 (14.4-75.9) pg/mL. Individuals with NT-proBNP levels in the highest quartile (> 280.9 pg/mL) had a greater odds of rapid kidney function loss after full adjustment (odds ratio 2.95; 95% CI 1-8.65; P = .0492). Associations with incident eGFR < 60 mL/min per 1.73 m2 were also significant (adjusted odds ratio 4.23; 95% CI 1.05-16.98; P = .0422). Results were similar when analyzed using BNP as the predictor.N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide and BNP are strongly and independently associated with accelerated kidney function loss, even in the absence of clinical HF. These findings suggest that subclinical cardiovascular dysfunction may contribute to elevated kidney disease risk in persons with CAD.
Project description:Previous studies have reported that natriuretic peptides in the blood and pleural fluid (PF) are effective diagnostic markers for heart failure (HF). These natriuretic peptides include N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), and midregion pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (MR-proANP). This systematic review and meta-analysis evaluates the diagnostic accuracy of blood and PF natriuretic peptides for HF in patients with pleural effusion.PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched to identify articles published in English that investigated the diagnostic accuracy of BNP, NT-proBNP, and MR-proANP for HF. The last search was performed on 9 October 2014. The quality of the eligible studies was assessed using the revised Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies tool. The diagnostic performance characteristics (sensitivity, specificity, and other measures of accuracy) were pooled and examined using a bivariate model.In total, 14 studies were included in the meta-analysis, including 12 studies reporting the diagnostic accuracy of PF NT-proBNP and 4 studies evaluating blood NT-proBNP. The summary estimates of PF NT-proBNP for HF had a diagnostic sensitivity of 0.94 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.90-0.96), specificity of 0.91 (95% CI: 0.86-0.95), positive likelihood ratio of 10.9 (95% CI: 6.4-18.6), negative likelihood ratio of 0.07 (95% CI: 0.04-0.12), and diagnostic odds ratio of 157 (95% CI: 57-430). The overall sensitivity of blood NT-proBNP for diagnosis of HF was 0.92 (95% CI: 0.86-0.95), with a specificity of 0.88 (95% CI: 0.77-0.94), positive likelihood ratio of 7.8 (95% CI: 3.7-16.3), negative likelihood ratio of 0.10 (95% CI: 0.06-0.16), and diagnostic odds ratio of 81 (95% CI: 27-241). The diagnostic accuracy of PF MR-proANP and blood and PF BNP was not analyzed due to the small number of related studies.BNP, NT-proBNP, and MR-proANP, either in blood or PF, are effective tools for diagnosis of HF. Additional studies are needed to rigorously evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of PF and blood MR-proANP and BNP for the diagnosis of HF.
Project description:AIMS:B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and N-terminal proBNP (NT-proBNP) predict cardiovascular endpoints in patients and all-cause death in the general population. This was assigned to their association with clinical cardiac remodelling defined as changes in size, shape and function of the heart. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether NT-proBNP and BNP were associated with cardiovascular and overall death independent of clinical cardiac remodelling measured by echocardiography as left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), diastolic dysfunction and left ventricular ejection fraction (EF). METHODS AND RESULTS:In a general population-based cohort study from Germany (KORA-S3) with subjects' baseline age ranging from 25 to 74 years, cardiac morphology and function were assessed as left ventricular mass (LVM), diastolic dysfunction and EF by echocardiography and circulating NT-proBNP and BNP were measured at baseline. In 1,223 subjects with mortality follow-up information, we examined the association of baseline NT-proBNP and BNP with cardiovascular mortality (number of deaths = 52, median follow-up time = 12.9years) using Cox regression without and with adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors, LVM, diastolic dysfunction and EF. The risk of cardiovascular mortality increased with higher NT-proBNP levels measured at baseline (hazard ratio HR = 1.67 per unit increment in logNT-proBNP, p = 2.78*10-4, adjusted for age and sex). This increased risk persisted after adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors, LVM, diastolic dysfunction and EF (HR = 1.73; p = 0.047). When excluding subjects with relevant LVH (LVM to body surface area > 149g/m2 in men / 122g/m2 in women), the NT-proBNP association with mortality was still significant (n = 1,138; number of deaths = 35; HR = 1.48; p = 0.04). We found similar results for BNP. CONCLUSION:Our data confirms NT-proBNP and BNP as predictor of cardiovascular mortality in a large general population-based study with long-term follow-up. Our study extends previously published population-based studies to younger and potentially healthier individuals without relevant LVH, diastolic dysfunction or LVD.
Project description:Guidelines for primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases focus on prediction of coronary heart disease and stroke. We assessed whether or not measurement of N-terminal-pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) concentration could enable a more integrated approach than at present by predicting heart failure and enhancing coronary heart disease and stroke risk assessment.In this individual-participant-data meta-analysis, we generated and harmonised individual-participant data from relevant prospective studies via both de-novo NT-proBNP concentration measurement of stored samples and collection of data from studies identified through a systematic search of the literature (PubMed, Scientific Citation Index Expanded, and Embase) for articles published up to Sept 4, 2014, using search terms related to natriuretic peptide family members and the primary outcomes, with no language restrictions. We calculated risk ratios and measures of risk discrimination and reclassification across predicted 10 year risk categories (ie, <5%, 5% to <7·5%, and ?7·5%), adding assessment of NT-proBNP concentration to that of conventional risk factors (ie, age, sex, smoking status, systolic blood pressure, history of diabetes, and total and HDL cholesterol concentrations). Primary outcomes were the combination of coronary heart disease and stroke, and the combination of coronary heart disease, stroke, and heart failure.We recorded 5500 coronary heart disease, 4002 stroke, and 2212 heart failure outcomes among 95?617 participants without a history of cardiovascular disease in 40 prospective studies. Risk ratios (for a comparison of the top third vs bottom third of NT-proBNP concentrations, adjusted for conventional risk factors) were 1·76 (95% CI 1·56-1·98) for the combination of coronary heart disease and stroke and 2·00 (1·77-2·26) for the combination of coronary heart disease, stroke, and heart failure. Addition of information about NT-proBNP concentration to a model containing conventional risk factors was associated with a C-index increase of 0·012 (0·010-0·014) and a net reclassification improvement of 0·027 (0·019-0·036) for the combination of coronary heart disease and stroke and a C-index increase of 0·019 (0·016-0·022) and a net reclassification improvement of 0·028 (0·019-0·038) for the combination of coronary heart disease, stroke, and heart failure.In people without baseline cardiovascular disease, NT-proBNP concentration assessment strongly predicted first-onset heart failure and augmented coronary heart disease and stroke prediction, suggesting that NT-proBNP concentration assessment could be used to integrate heart failure into cardiovascular disease primary prevention.British Heart Foundation, Austrian Science Fund, UK Medical Research Council, National Institute for Health Research, European Research Council, and European Commission Framework Programme 7.