Inhibition of cell cycle progression by the hydroxytyrosol-cetuximab combination yields enhanced chemotherapeutic efficacy in colon cancer cells.
ABSTRACT: Hydroxytyrosol (HT), a polyphenol of olive oil, downregulates epidermal growth factor (EGFR) expression and inhibits cell proliferation in colon cancer (CC) cells, with mechanisms similar to that activated by the EGFR inhibitor, cetuximab. Here, we studied whether HT treatment would enhance the cetuximab inhibitory effects on cell growth in CC cells. HT-cetuximab combination showed greater efficacy in reducing cell growth in HT-29 and WiDr cells at concentrations 10 times lower than when used as single agents. This reduction was clearly linked to cell cycle blockade, occurring at G2/M phase. The cell cycle arrest in response to combination treatment is related to cyclins B, D1, and E, and cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 2, CDK4, and CDK6 down-regulation, and to the concomitant over-expression of CDK inhibitors p21 and p27. HT and cetuximab stimulated a caspase-independent cell death cascade, promotedtranslocation of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) from mitochondria to nucleus and activated the autophagy process. Notably, normal colon cells and keratinocytes were less susceptible to combo-induced cell death and EGFR downregulation. These results suggest a potential role of diet, containing olive oil, during cetuximab chemotherapy of colon tumor. HT may be a competent therapeutic agent in CC enhancing the effects of EGFR inhibitors.
Project description:The naturally occurring oncolytic herpes simplex virus canerpaturev (C-REV), formerly HF10, proved its therapeutic efficacy and safety in multiple clinical trials against melanoma, pancreatic, breast, and head and neck cancers. Meanwhile, patients with colorectal cancer, which has increased in prevalence in recent decades, continue to have poor prognosis and morbidity. Combination therapy has better response rates than monotherapy. Hence, we investigated the antitumor efficacy of cetuximab, a widely used anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) monoclonal antibody, and C-REV, either alone or in combination, <i>in vitro</i> and in an <i>in vivo</i> human colorectal xenograft model. In human colorectal cancer cell lines with different levels of EGFR expression (HT-29, WiDr, and CW2), C-REV exhibited cytotoxic effects in a time- and dose-dependent manner, irrespective of EGFR expression. Moreover, cetuximab had no effect on viral replication <i>in vitro</i>. Combining cetuximab and C-REV induced a synergistic antitumor effect in HT-29 tumor xenograft models by promoting the distribution of C-REV throughout the tumor and suppressing angiogenesis. Application of cetuximab prior to C-REV yielded better tumor regression than administration of the drug after the virus. Thus, cetuximab represents an ideal virus-associated agent for antitumor therapy, and combination therapy represents a promising antitumor strategy for human colorectal cancer.
Project description:The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic potential of a novel nickel(II) complex (NTC) against WiDr and HT-29 human colon cancer cells by determining the IC50 using the standard MTT assay. The NTC displayed a strong suppressive effect on colon cancer cells with an IC50 value of 6.07 ± 0.22 ?M and 6.26 ± 0.13 ?M against WiDr and HT-29 respectively, after 24 h of treatment. Substantial reduction in the mitochondrial membrane potential and increase in the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria directed the induction of the intrinsic apoptosis pathway by the NTC. Activation of this pathway was further evidenced by significant activation of caspase 3/7 and 9. The NTC was also shown to activate the extrinsic pathway of apoptosis via activation of caspase-8 which is linked to the suppression of NF-?B translocation to the nucleus. Cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase was confirmed by flow cytometry and up-regulation of glutathione reductase expression was quantified by qPCR. Results of the current work indicates that NTC possess a potent cancer cell abolishing activity by simultaneous induction of intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of apoptosis in colon cancer cell lines.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Overexpression or constitutive activation of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) is involved in growth of human cancers. We investigated effects of EGFR and HER-2 blockade in colon cancer cell lines using cetuximab and trastuzumab, with the aim of developing novel approaches to cancer therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS:We studied effects of treatment on cell growth, cell cycle distribution, induction of apoptosis, changes in EGFR and HER-2 mRNA-protein expression and EGFR and HER-2 gene copy number in Caco-2, HT-29 and HCT-116 cells. RESULTS:Treatment of cells resulted in no effect in one of the three cell lines and in inhibition of cell proliferation in a time- and dose-dependent manner in the other two, with modulation of EGFR and HER-2 mRNA and protein levels. Differences in sensitivity to cetuximab and trastuzumab were observed. Treatment induced specific changes in cell cycle distribution in both cell lines affected, while apoptosis was not increased. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis revealed abnormal copy number of two genes resulting from aneuploidy; this was not responsible for different sensitivity to combination between the two cell lines. CONCLUSIONS:Targeting EGFR and HER-2 simultaneously could have useful applications in colorectal cancer treatment. To improve pharmacological efficacy of cetuximab and trastuzumab combination, molecular mechanisms involved in their activity need to be elucidated.
Project description:Therapeutic monoclonal antibodies against the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) act by inhibiting EGFR downstream signaling and by eliciting a natural killer (NK) cell-mediated antitumor response. The IgG1 mAb cetuximab has been used for treatment of RASwt metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients, showing limited efficacy. In the present study, we address the potential of adoptive NK cell therapy to overcome these limitations investigating two allogeneic NK cell products, i.e., allogeneic activated peripheral blood NK cells (A-PBNK) and umbilical cord blood stem cell-derived NK cells (UCB-NK). While cetuximab monotherapy was not effective against EGFR- RASwt, EGFR+ RASmut, and EGFR+ BRAFmut cells, A-PBNK were able to initiate lysis of EGFR+ colon cancer cells irrespective of RAS or BRAF status. Cytotoxic effects of A-PBNK (but not UCB-NK) were further potentiated significantly by coating EGFR+ colon cancer cells with cetuximab. Of note, a significantly higher cytotoxicity was induced by UCB-NK in EGFR-RASwt (42?±?8 versus 67?±?7%), EGFR+ RASmut (20?±?2 versus 37?±?6%), and EGFR+ BRAFmut (23?±?3 versus 43?±?7%) colon cancer cells compared to A-PBNK and equaled the cytotoxic efficacy of the combination of A-PBNK and cetuximab. The antitumor efficacy of UCB-NK cells against cetuximab-resistant human EGFR+ RASmut colon cancer cells was further confirmed in an in vivo preclinical mouse model where UCB-NK showed enhanced antitumor cytotoxicity against colon cancer independent of EGFR and RAS status. As UCB-NK have been proven safe in a recently conducted phase I clinical trial in acute myeloid leukemia, a fast translation into clinical proof of concept for mCRC could be considered.
Project description:The ability of Natural Killer (NK) cells to kill tumor targets has been extensively studied in various hematological malignancies. However, NK cell therapy directed against solid tumors is still in early development. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) targeted therapies using monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) such as cetuximab and panitumumab are widely used for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Still, the clinical efficacy of this treatment is hampered by mutations in RAS gene, allowing tumors to escape from anti-EGFR mAb therapy. It is well established that NK cells kill tumor cells by natural cytotoxicity and can in addition be activated upon binding of IgG1 mAbs through Fc receptors (CD16/Fc?RIIIa) on their surface, thereby mediating antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). In the current study, activated Peripheral Blood NK cells (PBNK) were combined with anti-EGFR mAbs to study their effect on the killing of EGFR+/- cancer cell lines, including those with RAS mutations. In vitro cytotoxicity experiments using colon cancer primary tumors and cell lines COLO320, Caco-2, SW620, SW480 and HT-29, demonstrated that PBNK cells are cytotoxic for a range of tumor cells, regardless of EGFR, RAS or BRAF status and at low E:T ratios. Cetuximab enhanced the cytotoxic activity of NK cells on EGFR+ tumor cells (either RASwt, RASmut or BRAFmut) in a CD16 dependent manner, whereas it could not increase the killing of EGFR- COLO320. Our study provides a rationale to strengthen NK cell immunotherapy through a combination with cetuximab for RAS and BRAF mutant mCRC patients.
Project description:Fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) is known to induce cancer cell proliferation, invasion, and antiapoptosis through activation of RAS/RAF/ERK and PI3K/AKT pathways, which are also known as major molecular bases of colon cancer carcinogenesis related with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling. However, the interaction between FGFR4 and EGFR signaling in regard to colon cancer progression is unclear. Here, we investigated a potential cross-talk between FGFR4 and EGFR, and the effect of anti-EGFR therapy in colon cancer treatment. To explore the biological roles of FGFR4 in cancer progression, RNA sequencing was carried out using FGFR4 transfected colon cell lines. Gene ontology data showed the upregulation of genes related to EGFR signaling, and we identified that FGFR4 overexpression secretes EGFR ligands such as amphiregulin (AREG) with consequent activation of EGFR and ErbB3. This result was also shown in in vivo study and the cooperative interaction between EGFR and FGFR4 promoted tumor growth. In addition, FGFR4 overexpression reduced cetuximab-induced cytotoxicity and the combination of FGFR4 inhibitor (BLU9931) and cetuximab showed profound antitumor effect compared to cetuximab alone. Clinically, we found the positive correlation between FGFR4 and AREG expression in tumor tissue, but not in normal tissue, from colon cancer patients and these expressions were significantly correlated with poor overall survival in patients treated with cetuximab. Therefore, our results provide the novel mechanism of FGFR4 in connection with EGFR activation and the combination of FGFR4 inhibitor and cetuximab could be a promising therapeutic option to achieve the optimal response to anti-EGFR therapy in colon cancer.
Project description:The targeting of activated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) with therapeutic anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) such as cetuximab and panitumumab has been used as an effective strategy in the treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, its clinical efficacy occurs only in a limited number of patients. Here, we performed whole-transcriptome analysis in xenograft mouse tumors induced by <i>KRAS</i><sup>G12D</sup> mutation-bearing LS174T CRC cells following treatment with either cetuximab or PBS. Through integrated analyses of differential gene expression with TCGA and CCLE public database, we identified TNS4, overexpressed in CRC patients and <i>KRAS</i> mutation-harboring CRC cell lines, significantly downregulated by cetuximab. While ablation of TNS4 expression via shRNA results in significant growth inhibition of LS174T, DLD1, WiDr, and DiFi CRC cell lines, conversely, its ectopic expression increases the oncogenic growth of these cells. Furthermore, TNS4 expression is transcriptionally regulated by MAP kinase signaling pathway. Consistent with this finding, selumetinib, a MEK1/2 inhibitor, suppressed oncogenic activity of CRC cells, and this effect is more profound in combination with cetuximab. Altogether, we propose that TNS4 plays a crucial role in CRC tumorigenesis, and that suppression of TNS4 would be an effective therapeutic strategy in treating a subset of cetuximab-refractory CRC patients including <i>KRAS</i> activating mutations.
Project description:It is increasingly appreciated that 3D cultures are more predictive of in vivo therapeutic efficacy than 2D cultures. Using in vitro 3D type I collagen cultures of human colorectal cancer (CRC) cell line HCA-7 derivatives CC, SC, and CC-CR, we previously identified that activation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) MET and RON contributed to resistance to the EGF receptor (EGFR)-directed therapeutic antibody cetuximab. The de novo mode of cetuximab resistance in SC cells could be overcome by crizotinib, a multi-RTK inhibitor that also targets MET and RON. We now show that crizotinib also overcomes acquired cetuximab resistance in CC-CR cells. Phospho-RTK array analysis showed increased phosphorylation of several RTKs, including MET and RON, in SC and CC-CR cells compared to cetuximab-sensitive CC counterparts. Furthermore, other multi-RTK inhibitors cabozantinib and BMS-777607 helped overcome cetuximab resistance, as measured by 3D colony growth and activation state of key signaling molecules. Conversely, addition of RTK ligands HGF and NRG1 induced cetuximab resistance in CC cells, which could be blocked by addition of crizotinib. We further determined the mechanism of the cooperative effect of cetuximab and crizotinib by FACS analysis and observed increased cell cycle arrest in G1 phase in cetuximab-resistant CRC 3D cultures. Finally, we show that crizotinib overcomes cetuximab resistance in vivo in SC nude mice xenografts. Thus, our work shows that multi-RTK inhibition strategy is a potent, broadly applicable strategy to overcome resistance to EGFR-targeted therapeutics in CRC and highlights the relevance of 3D cultures in these studies. Statement of implication: Using in vitro 3D CRC cultures and in vivo CRC xenografts, we show that parallel inhibition of multiple RTKs with small molecule inhibitors overcomes de novo and acquired resistance to EGFR-directed therapies in CRC.
Project description:Cholangiocarcinoma (CC) is a malignant neoplasm of the bile ducts or the gallbladder. Targeting of growth factor receptors showed therapeutic potential in palliative settings for many solid tumors. The aim of this study was to determine the expression of seven growth factor receptors in CC cell lines and to assess the effect of blocking the EGFR receptor in vitro.Expression of EGFR (epithelial growth factor receptor), HGFR (hepatocyte growth factor receptor) IGF1R (insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor), IGF2R (insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor) and VEGFR1-3 (vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1-3) were examined in four human CC cell lines (EGI-1, HuH28, OZ and TFK-1). The effect of the anti-EGFR-antibody cetuximab on cell growth and apoptosis was studied and cell lines were examined for KRAS mutations.EGFR, HGFR and IGFR1 were present in all four cell lines tested. IGFR2 expression was confirmed in EGI-1 and TFK-1. No growth-inhibitory effect was found in EGI-1 cells after incubation with cetuximab. Cetuximab dose-dependently inhibited growth in TFK-1. Increased apoptosis was only seen in TFK-1 cells at the highest cetuximab dose tested (1 mg/ml), with no dose-response-relationship at lower concentrations. In EGI-1 a heterozygous KRAS mutation was found in codon 12 (c.35G>A; p.G12D). HuH28, OZ and TFK-1 lacked KRAS mutation.CC cell lines express a pattern of different growth receptors in vitro. Growth factor inhibitor treatment could be affected from the KRAS genotype in CC. The expression of EGFR itself does not allow prognoses on growth inhibition by cetuximab.
Project description:Gene Expression Profiling of HT-29 and Caco-2 colon cancer cell lines untreated compared with EGF, Cetuximab, Gefitinib,EGF plus Cetuximab and EGF plus gefitinib treatments. Keywords: Gene Expression Profiling Overall design: Five experimental conditions: NTvsEGF, NTvsCetuximab, NTvsGefitinib, NTvsEGFplusGefitinib, NTvsEGFplusCetuximab, for two human colon cancer cell lines (HT-29 and Caco-2).