Forkhead box protein 3 demethylation is associated with tolerance induction in peanut-induced intestinal allergy.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Regulatory T (Treg) cells play an essential role in the maintenance of immune homeostasis in allergic diseases. OBJECTIVES:We sought to define the mechanisms underlying induction of tolerance to peanut protein and prevention of the development of peanut allergy. METHODS:High or low doses of peanut extract were administered to pups every day for 2 weeks before peanut sensitization and challenge. After challenge, symptoms, Treg cell numbers, and forkhead box protein 3 (Foxp3), TH2 and TH17 cytokine, and Tgf? expression in mesenteric lymph node (MLN) CD4+ T cells and jejunum were monitored. Treg cell suppressive activity and Foxp3 methylation in MLN CD4+ T cells were assayed. RESULTS:Feeding high but not low doses of peanut before sensitization induced tolerance, as demonstrated by prevention of diarrhea and peanut-specific IgE responses, increases in the percentage of CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ cells in MLNs, and Foxp3 mRNA and protein expression in CD4+ cells from MLNs or jejunum. Feeding high doses of peanut before sensitization decreased percentages of CD3+CD4+IL-13+ and CD3+CD4+IL-17+ cells in MLNs and decreased Il13 and Il17a and increased Tgf? mRNA expression in the jejunum; numbers of CD103+ dendritic cells in MLNs were significantly increased. Treg cell suppression was shown to be antigen specific. Foxp3 methylation was increased in peanut extract-sensitized and challenged mice, whereas in tolerized mice levels were significantly reduced. CONCLUSIONS:Feeding high doses of peanut to pups induced tolerance to peanut protein. Foxp3 demethylation was associated with tolerance induction, indicating that Treg cells play an important role in the regulation of peanut sensitivity and maintenance of immune homeostasis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Peanut allergy (PA) is potentially life-threatening and generally persists for life. Recent data suggest the skin might be an important route of initial sensitization to peanut, whereas early oral exposure to peanut is protective. In mice regulatory T (Treg) cells are central to the development of food tolerance, but their contribution to the pathogenesis of food allergy in human subjects is less clear. OBJECTIVE:We sought to quantify and phenotype CD4+ peanut-specific effector T (ps-Teff) cells and peanut-specific regulatory T (ps-Treg) cells in children with and without PA or PS. METHODS:ps-Teff and ps-Treg cells were identified from peripheral blood of children with PA, children with PS, and nonsensitized/nonallergic (NA) school-aged children and 1-year-old infants based on upregulation of CD154 or CD137, respectively, after stimulation with peanut extract. Expression of cytokines and homing receptors was evaluated by using flow cytometry. Methylation at the forkhead box protein 3 (FOXP3) locus was measured as a marker of Treg cell stability. RESULTS:Differential upregulation of CD154 and CD137 efficiently distinguished ps-Teff and ps-Treg cells. A greater percentage of ps-Teff cells from infants with PA and infants with PS expressed the skin-homing molecule cutaneous lymphocyte antigen, suggesting activation after exposure through the skin, compared with NA infants. Although ps-Teff cells in both school-aged and infant children with PA produced primarily TH2 cytokines, a TH1-skewed antipeanut response was seen only in NA school-aged children. The frequency, homing receptor expression, and stability of ps-Treg cells in infants and school-aged children were similar, regardless of allergic status. CONCLUSIONS:Exposure to peanut through the skin can prime the development of TH2 ps-Teff cells, which promote sensitization to peanut, despite the presence of normal numbers of ps-Treg cells.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Food allergy is an increasingly common health problem in Western populations. Epidemiological studies have suggested both positive and negative associations between food allergy and infection with the gastric bacterium Helicobacter pylori. OBJECTIVE:The objective of this work was to investigate whether experimental infection with H. pylori, or prophylactic treatment with H. pylori-derived immunomodulatory molecules, affects the onset and severity of food allergy, either positively or negatively. METHODS:We infected neonatal C57BL/6 or C3H mice with H. pylori or treated animals with H. pylori components (bacterial lysate or the immunomodulator VacA) and subsequently subjected them to four different protocols for food allergy induction, using either ovalbumin or peanut extract as allergens for sensitization and challenge. Readouts included anaphylaxis scoring, quantification of allergen-specific serum IgE and IgG1 and of the mast cell protease MCPT1, as well as splenic T-helper-2 cell-derived cytokine production. Mesenteric lymph node CD4+ FoxP3+ regulatory T cells were subjected to flow cytometric quantification and sorting followed by qRT-PCR, and to DNA methylation analyses of the Treg-specific demethylated region (TSDR) within the FOXP3 locus. RESULTS:Mice that had been infected with H. pylori or treated with H. pylori-derived immunomodulators showed reduced anaphylaxis upon allergen sensitization and challenge, irrespective of the allergen used. Most of the immunologic assays confirmed a protective effect of H. pylori. CD4+ FoxP3+ T cells were more abundant in protected mice and exhibited a stable Treg phenotype characterized by FOXP3 TSDR demethylation. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE:Helicobacter pylori confers protection against the anaphylaxis associated with ovalbumin and peanut allergy and affects the epigenome of T cells, thereby promoting stable Treg differentiation and functionality. Prophylactic treatment with H. pylori-derived immunomodulators appears to be a promising strategy for food allergy prevention.
Project description:Foxp3(+)CD25(+)CD4(+) regulatory T cells (Treg) mediate immunological self-tolerance and suppress immune responses. A subset of dendritic cells (DCs) in the intestine is specialized to induce Treg in a TGF-beta- and retinoic acid-dependent manner to allow for oral tolerance. In this study we compare two major DC subsets from mouse spleen. We find that CD8(+) DEC-205/CD205(+) DCs, but not the major fraction of CD8(-) DC inhibitory receptor-2 (DCIR2)(+) DCs, induce functional Foxp3(+) Treg from Foxp3(-) precursors in the presence of low doses of Ag but without added TGF-beta. CD8(+)CD205(+) DCs preferentially express TGF-beta, and the induction of Treg by these DCs in vitro is blocked by neutralizing Ab to TGF-beta. In contrast, CD8(-)DCIR2(+) DCs better induce Foxp3(+) Treg when exogenous TGF-beta is supplied. In vivo, CD8(+)CD205(+) DCs likewise preferentially induce Treg from adoptively transferred, Ag-specific DO11.10 RAG(-/-) Foxp3(-)CD4(+) T cells, whereas the CD8(-)DCIR2(+) DCs better stimulate natural Foxp3(+) Treg. These results indicate that a subset of DCs in spleen, a systemic lymphoid organ, is specialized to differentiate peripheral Foxp3(+) Treg, in part through the endogenous formation of TGF-beta. Targeting of Ag to these DCs might be useful for inducing Ag-specific Foxp3(+) Treg for treatment of autoimmune diseases, transplant rejection, and allergy.
Project description:A reproducible method to inhibit allergic immune responses is accomplished with hi-dose Ag sensitization, via intraperitoneal (IP) injection. However, the role of CD4+ CD25+ FoxP3+ T regulatory cells (Treg) in this process is unknown, as is whether such modulation extends to ocular allergy. We therefore determined herein whether hi-dose sensitization modulates ocular allergy, and whether CD4+ CD25+ FoxP3+ Treg are involved. C57BL/6 mice were IP sensitized via low-dose (100 µg) versus hi-dose (1000 µg) ovalbumin (OVA), in aluminum hydroxide (1 mg) and pertussis-toxin (300 ng). Other mice received anti-CD25 Ab (PC61) to ablate Treg during sensitization. In another experiment, Treg from hi-dose sensitized mice were adoptively transferred into low-dose sensitized mice. Once daily OVA challenges were administered. Clinical signs, IgE, T cell cytokines, and eosinophils were assessed. Data revealed that hi-dose, but not low-dose, sensitization led to allergy modulation, indicated by decreased clinical signs, serum IgE levels, Th2 recall responses, and eosinophil recruitment. T cells from hi-dose sensitized mice showed a robust increase in TGF-b production, and Treg from these mice were able to efficiently suppress effector T cell proliferation in vitro. In addition, in vivo Treg ablation in hi-dose sensitized mice revoked allergy modulation. Lastly, Treg from hi-dose sensitized mice were able to adoptively transfer allergy modulation to their low-dose sensitized counterparts. Collectively, these findings indicate that modulation to hi-dose sensitization, which is extended to ocular allergy, occurs in a Treg-dependent manner. In addition, our data suggest that hi-dose sensitization may henceforth facilitate the further examination of CD4+ CD25+ FoxP3+ Treg in allergic disease.
Project description:The immune system is comprised of several CD4(+) T regulatory (Treg) cell types, of which two, the Foxp3(+) Treg and T regulatory type 1 (Tr1) cells, have frequently been associated with transplant tolerance. However, whether and how these two Treg-cell types synergize to promote allograft tolerance remains unknown. We previously developed a mouse model of allogeneic transplantation in which a specific immunomodulatory treatment leads to transplant tolerance through both Foxp3(+) Treg and Tr1 cells. Here, we show that Foxp3(+) Treg cells exert their regulatory function within the allograft and initiate engraftment locally and in a non-antigen (Ag) specific manner. Whereas CD4(+) CD25(-) T cells, which contain Tr1 cells, act from the spleen and are key to the maintenance of long-term tolerance. Importantly, the role of Foxp3(+) Treg and Tr1 cells is not redundant once they are simultaneously expanded/induced in the same host. Moreover, our data show that long-term tolerance induced by Foxp3(+) Treg-cell transfer is sustained by splenic Tr1 cells and functionally moves from the allograft to the spleen.
Project description:Naturally occurring FOXP3(+) CD4(+) Treg have a crucial role in self-tolerance. The ability to generate similar populations against alloantigens offers the possibility of preventing transplant rejection without indefinite global immunosuppression. Exposure of mice to donor alloantigens combined with anti-CD4 antibody induces operational tolerance to cardiac allografts, and generates Treg that prevent skin and islet allograft rejection in adoptive transfer models. If protocols that generate Treg in vivo are to be developed in the clinical setting it will be important to know the origin of the Treg population and the mechanisms responsible for their generation. In this study, we demonstrate that graft-protective Treg arise in vivo both from naturally occurring FOXP3(+) CD4(+) Treg and from non-regulatory FOXP3(-) CD4(+) cells. Importantly, tolerance induction also inhibits CD4(+) effector cell priming and T cells from tolerant mice have impaired effector function in vitro. Thus, adaptive tolerance induction shapes the immune response to alloantigen by converting potential effector cells into graft-protective Treg and by expanding alloreactive naturally occurring Treg. In relation to clinical tolerance induction, the data indicate that while the generation of alloreactive Treg may be critical for long-term allograft survival without chronic immunosuppression, successful protocols will also require strategies that target potential effector cells.
Project description:Oral tolerance is a key feature of intestinal immunity, generating systemic tolerance to fed antigens. However, the molecular mechanism mediating oral tolerance remains unclear. In this study, we examined the role of the B7 family members of costimulatory molecules in the establishment of oral tolerance. Deficiencies of B7-H1 and B7-DC abrogated the oral tolerance, accompanied by enhanced antigen-specific CD4(+) T-cell response and IgG(1) production. Mesenteric lymph node (MLN) dendritic cells (DCs) displayed higher levels of B7-H1 and B7-DC than systemic DCs, whereas they showed similar levels of CD80, CD86, and B7-H2. MLN DCs enhanced the antigen-specific generation of CD4(+)Foxp3(+) inducible regulatory T cells (iT(regs)) from CD4(+)Foxp3(-) T cells rather than CD4(+) effector T cells (T(eff)) relative to systemic DCs, owing to the dominant expression of B7-H1 and B7-DC. Furthermore, the antigen-specific conversion of CD4(+)Foxp3(-) T cells into CD4(+)Foxp3(+) iT(regs) occurred in MLNs greater than in peripheral organs during oral tolerance under steady-state conditions, and such conversion required B7-H1 and B7-DC more than other B7 family members, whereas it was severely impaired under inflammatory conditions. In conclusion, our findings suggest that B7-H1 and B7-DC expressed on MLN DCs are essential for establishing oral tolerance through the de novo generation of antigen-specific CD4(+)Foxp3(+) iT(regs).
Project description:Induction of tolerance is a key mechanism to maintain or to restore immunological homeostasis. Here we show that Foxp3<sup>+</sup> regulatory T (Treg) cells use Dickkopf-1 (DKK-1) to regulate T-cell-mediated tolerance in the T-cell-mediated autoimmune colitis model. Treg cells from DKK-1 hypomorphic doubleridge mice failed to control CD4<sup>+</sup> T-cell proliferation, resulting in CD4 T-cell-mediated autoimmune colitis. Thymus-derived Treg cells showed a robust expression of DKK-1 but not in naive or effector CD4 T cells. DKK-1 expression in Foxp3<sup>+</sup> Treg cells was further increased upon T-cell receptor stimulation in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, Foxp3<sup>+</sup> Treg cells expressed DKK-1 in the cell membrane and the functional inhibition of DKK-1 using DKK-1 monoclonal antibody abrogated the suppressor function of Foxp3<sup>+</sup> Treg cells. DKK-1 expression was dependent on de novo protein synthesis and regulated by the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway but not by the canonical Wnt pathway. Taken together, our results highlight membrane-bound DKK-1 as a novel Treg-derived mediator to maintain immunological tolerance in T-cell-mediated autoimmune colitis.
Project description:Adaptive immunity critically contributes to control acute infection with enteropathogenic Yersinia pseudotuberculosis; however, the role of CD4+ T cell subsets in establishing infection and allowing pathogen persistence remains elusive. Here, we assessed the modulatory capacity of Y. pseudotuberculosis on CD4+ T cell differentiation. Using in vivo assays, we report that infection with Y. pseudotuberculosis resulted in enhanced priming of IL-17-producing T cells (Th17 cells), whereas induction of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) was severely disrupted in gut-draining mesenteric lymph nodes (mLNs), in line with altered frequencies of tolerogenic and proinflammatory dendritic cell (DC) subsets within mLNs. Additionally, by using a DC-free in vitro system, we could demonstrate that Y. pseudotuberculosis can directly modulate T cell receptor (TCR) downstream signaling within naïve CD4+ T cells and Tregs via injection of effector molecules through the type III secretion system, thereby affecting their functional properties. Importantly, modulation of naïve CD4+ T cells by Y. pseudotuberculosis resulted in an enhanced Th17 differentiation and decreased induction of Foxp3+ Tregs in vitro. These findings shed light to the adjustment of the Th17-Treg axis in response to acute Y. pseudotuberculosis infection and highlight the direct modulation of CD4+ T cell subsets by altering their TCR downstream signaling.
Project description:Peripheral mechanisms preventing autoimmunity and maintaining tolerance to commensal microbiota involve CD4(+) Foxp3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells generated in the thymus or extrathymically by induction of naive CD4(+) Foxp3(-) T cells. Previous studies suggested that the T-cell receptor repertoires of thymic Treg cells and induced Treg cells are biased towards self and non-self antigens, respectively, but their relative contribution in controlling immunopathology, such as colitis and other untoward inflammatory responses triggered by different types of antigens, remains unresolved. The intestine, and especially the colon, is a particularly suitable organ to study this question, given the variety of self-, microbiota- and food-derived antigens to which Treg cells and other T-cell populations are exposed. Intestinal environments can enhance conversion to a regulatory lineage and favour tolerogenic presentation of antigens to naive CD4(+) T cells, suggesting that intestinal homeostasis depends on microbiota-specific induced Treg cells. Here, to identify the origin and antigen-specificity of intestinal Treg cells, we performed single-cell and high-throughput sequencing of the T-cell receptor repertoires of CD4(+) Foxp3(+) and CD4(+) Foxp3(-) T cells, and analysed their reactivity against specific commensal species. We show that thymus-derived Treg cells constitute most Treg cells in all lymphoid and intestinal organs, including the colon, where their repertoire is heavily influenced by the composition of the microbiota. Our results suggest that thymic Treg cells, and not induced Treg cells, dominantly mediate tolerance to antigens produced by intestinal commensals.