A novel reversible logic gate and its systematic approach to implement cost-efficient arithmetic logic circuits using QCA.
ABSTRACT: Quantum-dot cellular automata, is an extremely small size and a powerless nanotechnology. It is the possible alternative to current CMOS technology. Reversible QCA logic is the most important issue at present time to reduce power losses. This paper presents a novel reversible logic gate called the F-Gate. It is simplest in design and a powerful technique to implement reversible logic. A systematic approach has been used to implement a novel single layer reversible Full-Adder, Full-Subtractor and a Full Adder-Subtractor using the F-Gate. The proposed Full Adder-Subtractor has achieved significant improvements in terms of overall circuit parameters among the most previously cost-efficient designs that exploit the inevitable nano-level issues to perform arithmetic computing. The proposed designs have been authenticated and simulated using QCADesigner tool ver. 2.0.3.
Project description:Photochromes are photoswitchable, bistable chromophores which, like transistors, can implement binary logic operations. When several photochromes are combined in one molecule, interactions between them such as energy and electron transfer allow design of simple Boolean logic gates and more complex logic devices with all-photonic inputs and outputs. Selective isomerization of individual photochromes can be achieved using light of different wavelengths, and logic outputs can employ absorption and emission properties at different wavelengths, thus allowing a single molecular species to perform several different functions, even simultaneously. Here, we report a molecule consisting of three linked photochromes that can be configured as AND, XOR, INH, half-adder, half-subtractor, multiplexer, demultiplexer, encoder, decoder, keypad lock, and logically reversible transfer gate logic devices, all with a common initial state. The system demonstrates the advantages of light-responsive molecules as multifunctional, reconfigurable nanoscale logic devices that represent an approach to true molecular information processing units.
Project description:Diverse advanced logic circuits are fabricated to implement arithmetic functions based on a simple and single molecular beacon platform, including half adder, half subtractor, full adder, full subtractor, and a digital comparator. Dual fluorescence outputs are generated in parallel and a constant threshold value is set to build all the logic circuits. The developed enzyme-free DNA system provides a novel prototype for the design of high-level molecular logic circuits on a biomolecular platform.
Project description:In vivo logic gates have proven difficult to combine into larger devices. Our cell-based logic system, ParAlleL, decomposes a large circuit into a collection of small subcircuits working in parallel, each subcircuit responding to a different combination of inputs. A final global output is then generated by a combination of the responses. Using ParAlleL, for the first time a completely functional 3-bit full adder and full subtractor were generated using Escherichia coli cells, as well as a calculator-style display that shows a numeric result, from 0 to 7, when the proper 3 bit binary inputs are introduced into the system. ParAlleL demonstrates the use of a parallel approach for the design of cell-based logic gates that facilitates the generation and analysis of complex processes, without the need for complex genetic engineering.
Project description:Memristive switches are able to act as both storage and computing elements, which make them an excellent candidate for beyond-CMOS computing. In this paper, multi-input memristive switch logic is proposed, which enables the function X OR (Y NOR Z) to be performed in a single-step with three memristive switches. This ORNOR logic gate increases the capabilities of memristive switches, improving the overall system efficiency of a memristive switch-based computing architecture. Additionally, a computing system architecture and clocking scheme are proposed to further utilize memristive switching for computation. The system architecture is based on a design where multiple computational function blocks are interconnected and controlled by a master clock that synchronizes system data processing and transfer. The clocking steps to perform a full adder with the ORNOR gate are presented along with simulation results using a physics-based model. The full adder function block is integrated into the system architecture to realize a 64-bit full adder, which is also demonstrated through simulation.
Project description:The integration of multiple DNA logic gates on a universal platform to implement advance logic functions is a critical challenge for DNA computing. Herein, a straightforward and powerful strategy in which a guanine-rich DNA sequence lighting up a silver nanocluster and fluorophore was developed to construct a library of logic gates on a simple DNA-templated silver nanoclusters (DNA-AgNCs) platform. This library included basic logic gates, YES, AND, OR, INHIBIT, and XOR, which were further integrated into complex logic circuits to implement diverse advanced arithmetic/non-arithmetic functions including half-adder, half-subtractor, multiplexer, and demultiplexer. Under UV irradiation, all the logic functions could be instantly visualized, confirming an excellent repeatability. The logic operations were entirely based on DNA hybridization in an enzyme-free and label-free condition, avoiding waste accumulation and reducing cost consumption. Interestingly, a DNA-AgNCs-based multiplexer was, for the first time, used as an intelligent biosensor to identify pathogenic genes, E. coli and S. aureus genes, with a high sensitivity. The investigation provides a prototype for the wireless integration of multiple devices on even the simplest single-strand DNA platform to perform diverse complex functions in a straightforward and cost-effective way.
Project description:Multi-valued logic gates, which can handle quaternary numbers as inputs, are developed by exploiting the ballistic transport properties of quantum point contacts in series. The principle of a logic gate that finds the minimum of two quaternary number inputs is demonstrated. The device is scalable to allow multiple inputs, which makes it possible to find the minimum of multiple inputs in a single gate operation. Also, the principle of a half-adder for quaternary number inputs is demonstrated. First, an adder that adds up two quaternary numbers and outputs the sum of inputs is demonstrated. Second, a device to express the sum of the adder into two quaternary digits [Carry (first digit) and Sum (second digit)] is demonstrated. All the logic gates presented in this paper can in principle be extended to allow decimal number inputs with high quality QPCs.
Project description:It has been shown that it is possible to transform a well-stirred chemical medium into a logic gate simply by varying the chemistry's external conditions (feed rates, lighting conditions, etc.). We extend this work, showing that the same method can be generalized to spatially extended systems. We vary the external conditions of a well-known chemical medium (a cubic autocatalytic reaction-diffusion model), so that different regions of the simulated chemistry are operating under particular conditions at particular times. In so doing, we are able to transform the initially uniform chemistry, not just into a single logic gate, but into a functionally integrated network of diverse logic gates that operate as a basic computational circuit known as a full-adder.
Project description:Reversible computing has been studied since Rolf Landauer advanced the argument that has come to be known as Landauer's principle. This principle states that there is no minimum energy dissipation for logic operations in reversible computing, because it is not accompanied by reductions in information entropy. However, until now, no practical reversible logic gates have been demonstrated. One of the problems is that reversible logic gates must be built by using extremely energy-efficient logic devices. Another difficulty is that reversible logic gates must be both logically and physically reversible. Here we propose the first practical reversible logic gate using adiabatic superconducting devices and experimentally demonstrate the logical and physical reversibility of the gate. Additionally, we estimate the energy dissipation of the gate, and discuss the minimum energy dissipation required for reversible logic operations. It is expected that the results of this study will enable reversible computing to move from the theoretical stage into practical usage.
Project description:This paper presents an energy dissipation dataset of different reversible logic gates in quantum-dot cellular automata. The proposed circuits have been designed and verified using QCADesigner simulator. Besides, the energy dissipation has been calculated under three different tunneling energy level at temperature T=2 K. For estimating the energy dissipation of proposed gates; QCAPro tool has been employed.
Project description:Quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) is a developing nanotechnology, which seems to be a good candidate to replace the conventional complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology. In this article, we present the dataset of average output polarization (AOP) for basic reversible logic gates presented in Ali Newaz et al. (2016) . QCADesigner 2.0.3 has been employed to analysis the AOP of reversible gates at different temperature levels in Kelvin (K) unit.