Changes in Rice Grain Quality of Indica and Japonica Type Varieties Released in China from 2000 to 2014.
ABSTRACT: China is the first country to use heterosis successfully for commercial rice production. This study compared the main quality characteristics (head rice rate, chalky rice rate, chalkiness degree, gel consistency, amylose content, and length-to-width ratio) of 635 rice varieties (not including upland and glutinous rice) released from 2000 to 2014 to establish the quality status and offer suggestions for future rice breeding for grain quality in China. In the past 15 years, grain quality in japonica rice and indica hybrid rice has improved. In japonica rice, inbred varieties have increased head rice rates and decreased chalkiness degree over time, while hybrid rice varieties have decreased chalky rice rates and chalkiness degree. In indica hybrid rice, the chalkiness degree and amylose contents have decreased and gel consistency has increased. Improvements in grain quality in indica inbred rice have been limited, with some increases in head rice rate and decreases in chalky rice rate and amylose content. From 2010 to 2014, the percentage of indica varieties meeting the Grade III national standard of rice quality for different quality traits was low, especially for chalky rice rate and chalkiness degree. Japonica varieties have more superior grain quality than indica rice in terms of higher head rice rates and gel consistency, lower chalky rice rates and chalkiness degree, and lower amylose contents, which may explain why the Chinese prefer japonica rice. The japonica rice varieties, both hybrid and inbred, had similar grain qualities, but this varied in indica rice with the hybrid varieties having higher grain quality than inbred varieties due to significantly better head rice rates and lower chalkiness degree. For better quality rice in future, the chalky rice rate and chalkiness degree should be improved in japonica rice along with most of the quality traits in indica rice.
Project description:Proline is one of the precursors of the biosynthesis of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2-AP) which is the key and characteristic volatile component of fragrant rice aroma. In order to study the effects of exogenous proline on 2-AP biosynthesis and other grain quality attributes in fragrant rice, two indica fragrant rice cultivars, "Meixiangzhan-2" and "Xiangyaxiangzhan", and one japonica fragrant rice, "Yunjingyou", were used in present study. At initial heading stage, proline solutions at 0 (CK), 0.10 (Pro1), 0.20 (Pro2) and 0.50 (Pro3) g L-1 were applied as foliar spray solution to fragrant rice plants. Compared with CK, Pro1, Pro2 and Pro3 treatments significantly increased the grain 2-AP content. The significant up-regulation effects due to proline treatments were observed in the contents of proline, ?1-pyrrolidine-5-carboxylic acid (P5C) and ?1-pyrroline which involved in 2-AP formation. Exogenous proline application also significantly decreased the grain ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content. Furthermore, proline treatments enhanced the activity of proline dehydrogenase (ProDH) as well as transcript level of gene PRODH. On the other hand, the transcript level of gene BADH2 and activity of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) decreased under proline treatments. Proline treatments (Pro2 and Pro3) also increased the grain protein content by 3.57-6.51%. Moreover, 32.03-34.25% lower chalky rice rate and 30.80-48.88% lower chalkiness were recorded in proline treatments (Pro2 and Pro3) for both Meixiangzhan and Xiangyaxiangzhan whilst for Yunjingyou, foliar application of proline had no significant effect on chalky rice rate and chalkiness. There was no remarkable difference observed in grain milled quality (brown rice rate, milled rice rate and head rice rate) and amylose content between CK and proline treatments. In conclusion, exogenous proline enhanced the 2-AP biosynthesis and promoted some grain quality characters of fragrant rice.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The general combining ability (GCA) of parents in hybrid rice affects not only heterotic level of grain yield and other important agronomic traits, but also performance of grain quality traits of F2 bulk population which is the commodity consumed by humans. In order to make GCA improvement for quality traits in parents of hybrid rice by molecular marker assisted selection feasible, genome-wide GCA loci for quality traits in parents were detected through association analysis between the effects of GCA and constructed single nucleotide polymorphism linkage disequilibrium blocks (SNPLDBs), by using unhusked rice grains harvested from F1 plants of 48 crosses of Indica rice and 78 crosses of Japonica rice. GCA-SNPLDBs association analysis. RESULTS:Among the 8 CMS and 6 restorer lines of indica rice subspecies, CMS lines Zhenpin A, Zhenshan97 A, and 257A, and restorers Kanghui98, Minghui63 and Yanhui559 were recognized as good general combiners based on their GCA effect values for the 9 quality traits (brown rice rate, milled rice rate, head rice rate, percentage of chalky grains, chalky area size, chalkiness degree, gelatinization temperature, gel consistency and amylose content). Among the 13 CMS and 6 restorer lines of japonica rice subspecies, CMS 863A, 6427A and Xu 2A, and restorers C418, Ninghui8hao and Yunhui4hao showed elite GCA effect values for the 9 traits. GCA-SNPLDB association analysis revealed 39 significant SNPLDB loci associated with the GCA of the 9 quality-related traits, and the numbers of SNPLDB loci located on chromosome 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 9, 11 and 12 were 1, 4, 3, 9, 6, 5, 5, 4 and 2, respectively. Number of superior GCA alleles for the 9 traits among the 33 parents ranged from 1 to 26. CONCLUSIONS:Thirty-nine significant SNPLDBs loci were identified associated with the GCA of 9 quality-related traits, and the superior SNPLDB alleles could be used to improve the GCA of parents for the traits in the future by molecular marker assisted selection. The genetic basis of trait GCA in parents is different from that of trait itself.
Project description:Grain chalkiness is an important grain quality related to starch granules in the endosperm. A high percentage of grain chalkiness is a major problem because it diminishes grain quality in rice. Here, we report quantitative trait loci identification for grain chalkiness using high-throughput single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping of a chromosomal segment substitution line population in which each line carried one or a few introduced japonica cultivar Nipponbare segments in the genetic background of the indica cultivar ZS97. Ten quantitative trait loci regions were commonly identified for the percentage of grain chalkiness and the degree of endosperm chalkiness. The allelic effects at nine of these quantitative trait loci reduced grain chalkiness. Furthermore, a quantitative trait locus (qPGC8-2) on chromosome 8 was validated in a chromosomal segment substitution line-derived segregation population, and had a stable effect on chalkiness in a multiple-environment evaluation of the near-isogenic lines. Residing on the qPGC8-2 region, the isoamylase gene (ISA1) was preferentially expressed in the endosperm and revealed some nucleotide polymorphisms between two varieties, Nipponbare and ZS97. Transgenic lines with suppression of ISA1 by RNA interference produced grains with 20% more chalkiness than the control. The results support that the gene may underlie qPGC8-2 for grain chalkiness. The multiple-environment trials of the near-isogenic lines also show that combination of the favorable alleles such as the ISA1 gene for low chalkiness and the GS3 gene for long grains considerably improved grain quality of ZS97, which proves useful for grain quality improvement in rice breeding programs.
Project description:Influences of allelic variations in starch synthesis-related genes (SSRGs) on rice grain quality were examined. A total of 187 nonglutinous Korean rice varieties, consisting of 170 Japonica and 17 Tongil-type varieties, were grown in the field and in two greenhouse conditions. The percentages of head rice and chalky grains, amylose content, alkali digestion value, and rapid visco-analysis characteristics were evaluated in the three different environments. Among the 10 previously reported SSRG markers used in this study, seven were polymorphic, and four of those showed subspecies-specific allele distributions. Six out of the seven polymorphic SSRG markers were significantly associated with at least one grain quality trait (R (2) > 0.1) across the three different environments. However, the association level and significance were markedly lower when the analysis was repeated using only the 170 Japonica varieties. Similarly, the significant associations between SSRG allelic variations and changes in grain quality traits under increased temperature were largely attributable to the biased allele frequency between the two subpopulations. Our results suggest that within Korean Japonica varieties, these 10 major SSRG loci have been highly fixed during breeding history and variations in grain quality traits might be influenced by other genetic factors.
Project description:Rice is a pivotal cereal crop that provides the staple food for more than half of the world's population. Along with improvements in the standard of living, people not only pay attention to the grain yield but also to the grain quality. Chalkiness is one of the most important index of grain quality. In this study, qPCG1, a QTL for percentage of chalky grain, was mapped in an interval with a physical distance about 139 kb on chromosome 1 by residual heterozygous line (RHL) method. qPCG1 was incomplete dominant and the additive effect plays a major role and explained 6.8-21.9% of phenotypic variance within the heterogeneous region on chromosome 1. The effect of allele from Zhonghui9308 was decreasing the percentage of chalky grains (PCG). Microscope observation results indicated that there are great differences in the shape, structure and arrangement of starch granule between the chalky part and transparent part. Analysis of starch physicochemical properties showed that the total starch content, amylose content and chain length distribution of amylopectin changed while the protein contents were not apparently affected with the changed chalkiness. qPCG1 had little influence on main agronomic traits and it might be useful in rice breeding for it did not bring negative effect on grain yield while reducing the chalkiness.
Project description:BACKGROUND:It is becoming clear that ozone affects not only grain yield but also grain quality in rice. However, the biochemical mechanisms responsible for ozone-induced changes in appearance quality or components are poorly understood. We analyzed appearance quality and starch composition in the rice cultivars "Koshihikari" (japonica) and "Kasalath" (indica) grown under elevated ozone conditions. RESULTS:Elevated ozone significantly increased the proportion of immature (mainly chalky) kernels in "Koshihikari" but not in "Kasalath". Scanning electron microscopy of transverse sections of kernels showed that endosperm starch granules of "Koshihikari" ripened under elevated ozone were loosely packed with large spaces and contained irregular rounded granules. Amylose content was increased in "Koshihikari" kernels with ozone exposure, but was unchanged in "Kasalath" kernels. Distribution analysis of amylopectin chain length showed that ozone induces a decrease of long-side chains and alterations of short side-chains in "Koshihikari" kernels. Furthermore, Starch Synthase (SS) IIIa transcript levels in "Koshihikari" caryopses were decreased by elevated ozone. CONCLUSIONS:The japonica cultivar "Koshihikari" showed significant deterioration in appearance quality of kernels caused by abnormal starch accumulation due to exposure to ozone. The alteration patterns of amylose and amylopectin in ozone-exposed rice kernels are similar to those in rice kernels harvested from SSIIIa-deficient mutants. These findings suggest that the increase of chalky kernels in ozone-treated "Koshihikari" is partly attributable to the repressed expression of SSIIIa involved in amylopectin side-chain elongation with ozone exposure. Elevated ozone reduced appearance quality in "Koshihikari" although it did not impair starch properties contributing to the eating quality of cooked rice.
Project description:Basmati is considered a unique varietal group of rice (Oryza sativa L.) because of its aroma and superior grain quality. Previous genetic analyses of rice showed that most of the Basmati varieties are classified into the aromatic group. Despite various efforts, genomic relationship of Basmati rice with other varietal groups and genomic variation in Basmati rice are yet to be understood. In the present study, we resequenced the whole genome of three traditional Basmati varieties at a coverage of more than 25X using Illumina HiSeq2500 and mapped the obtained sequences to the reference genome sequences of Nipponbare (japonica rice), Kasalath (aus rice), and Zhenshan 97 (indica rice). Comparison of these sequences revealed common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genic regions of three Basmati varieties. Analysis of these SNPs revealed that Basmati varieties showed fewer sequence variations compared with the aus group than with the japonica and indica groups. Gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis indicated that SNPs were present in genes with various biological, molecular, and cellular functions. Additionally, functional annotation of the Basmati mutated gene cluster shared by Nipponbare, Kasalath, and Zhenshan 97 was found to be associated with the metabolic process involved in the cellular aromatic compound, suggesting that aroma is an important specific genomic feature of Basmati varieties. Furthermore, 30 traditional Basmati varieties were classified into three different groups, aromatic (22 varieties), aus (four varieties), and indica (four varieties), based on genome-wide SNPs. All 22 aromatic Basmati varieties harbored the fragrant-inducing Badh2 allele. We also performed comparative analysis of 13 key agronomic and grain quality traits of Basmati rice and other rice varieties. Three traits including length-to-width ratio of grain (L/W ratio), panicle length (PL), and amylose content (AC) showed significant (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01) differences between the aromatic and indica/aus groups. Comparative analysis of genome structure, based on genome sequence variation and GO analysis, revealed that the Basmati genome was derived mostly from the aus and japonica groups. Overall, whole-genome sequence data and genetic diversity information obtained in this study will serve as an important resource for molecular breeding and genetic analysis of Basmati varieties.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Amylose content (AC) is a critical factor for the quality of rice. It is determined by the biosynthesis gene Waxy (Wx) and a variety of quantitative trait loci (QTLs). Although many QTLs have been reported to affect rice AC, few of them have been investigated under varying growth conditions, especially various temperatures, which are known to greatly influence the AC. RESULTS:We analyzed the AC at different temperatures and planting seasons in a set of chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs) which were derived from a cross between the indica variety 9311 and the japonica variety Nipponbare carrying the same Wxb allele. A joint analysis detected a single locus, qSAC3, with a high logarithm of odds (LOD) score in four different conditions. The qSAC3 from indica 9311 (qSAC3ind) substantially increased the AC in japonica Nipponbare under all tested growth conditions. Furthermore, introducing the qSAC3ind into the soft rice variety Nangeng9108 with Wxmq, a mutant allele of Wxb, also moderately increased its AC and improved its appearance quality significantly by reducing the chalkiness of the polished rice. CONCLUSIONS:Our results indicate that the qSAC3ind could increase the AC of japonica rice in different environments as well as in the background of different Wx alleles and that qSAC3 is a valuable locus for fine-tuning the rice AC and ameliorating the dull endosperm in rice varieties with the Wxmq allele.
Project description:Zinc deficiency is a major public health problem in vulnerable populations of Latin America and the Caribbean. Biofortification of rice (Oryza sativa L.) with zinc has the potential to alleviate zinc deficiencies. However, as plant breeding processes can alter grain culinary quality and favorable sensory attributes, grain quality and consumer acceptability need to be assessed prior to releasing a variety to the public. A grain quality characterization and a sensory acceptability analysis were carried out with two varieties of zinc biofortified rice and a local control both in Bolivia and Colombia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical parameters that are significant in consumer acceptance and to determine the acceptability of zinc biofortified rice by consumers. Results of physicochemical parameters were analyzed using ANOVA. The sensory acceptability was evaluated in 243 adults utilizing a 7-point hedonic scale and a Wilcoxon's signed rank test was used to determine the overall acceptability of the varieties. Biofortified rice variety T2-11 and MAC-18 -control 1- were equally accepted by consumers in Bolivia with no significant differences (p<0.05). The grain quality analysis reported that both presented long and slender rice grains (L>7.5 mm and L/B>3), an intermediate to high amylose content (>25%) and a similar level of chalkiness. In Colombia, the biofortified variety 035 presented a higher score in overall acceptance in comparison to biofortified variety 021 and the local variety CICA4 -control 2-. However, no significant differences were observed (p<0.05). Conversely to the other two varieties, the biofortified variety 035 presented the largest size grain (L/B = 2.97), a lower chalkiness and an amylose content above 25%. This study shows that the grain quality properties of rice have an influence on acceptability and that zinc biofortified rice varieties are accepted by consumers.
Project description:Background Eating and cooking qualities (ECQs) of rice (Oryza sativa L.) determine consumer acceptance and the economic value of rice varieties. The starch physicochemical properties, i.e. amylose content, gel consistency, gelatinization temperature and pasting viscosity are important indices for evaluating rice ECQs. Genetic factors are required for development of rice varieties with excellent ECQs and association mapping is one of the promising approaches for discovering such associated genetic factors. Results A genome-wide association mapping was performed on a set of 253 non-glutinous rice accessions consisting of 83 indica and 170 japonica cultivated rice varieties through phenotyping for 11 ECQ traits in two consecutive years and genotyping with 210 polymorphic SSR and candidate-gene markers. These markers amplified 747 alleles with an average of 3.57 alleles per locus. The structure, phylogenetic relationship, and principal component analysis indicated a strong population differentiation between indica and japonica accessions and association mapping was thus undertaken within indica and japonica subpopulations. All traits showed a large phenotypic variation and highly significant phenotypic correlations were present between most of traits. A total of 33 and 30 loci were located for 11 ECQs in indica and japonica subpopulations respectively. Most of associated loci were overlapped with starch synthesis-related genes (SSRGs), and the Wx locus gathered 14 associated loci with the largest effects on amylose content, gel consistency and pasting viscosities. Eight subpopulation specific markers, RM588, Wx-(CT)n, SSI and SBE1 for indica subpopulation and RM550, Wxmp, SSIIa and SBE4 for japonica subpopulation, were identified, suggesting alleles of SSRGs showed the subspecific tendency. Nevertheless, allelic variation in SSIIa showed no tendency towards subspecies. One associated maker RM550 detected in japonica subpopulation for amylose content and pasting viscosity was verified a potential novel and stably expressed locus and could be selected for further fine mapping. Conclusion This study illustrated the potential for dissecting genetic factors of complex traits in domesticated rice subspecies and provided highly associated markers to facilitate marker-assisted selection for breeding high-quality indica or japonica rice varieties.