Ratiometric analysis of optical coherence tomography-measured in?vivo retinal layer thicknesses for the detection of early diabetic retinopathy.
ABSTRACT: Influence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and diabetic retinopathy (DR) on parafoveal retinal thicknesses and their ratios was evaluated. Six retinal layer boundaries were segmented from spectral-domain optical coherence tomography images using open-source software. Five study groups: (1) healthy control (HC) subjects, and subjects with (2) controlled DM, (3) uncontrolled DM, (4) controlled DR and (5) uncontrolled DR, were identified. The one-way analyses of variance (ANOVA) between adjacent study groups (i.?e. 1 with 2, 2 with 3, etc) indicated differences in retinal thicknesses and ratios. Overall retinal thickness, ganglion cell layer (GCL) thickness, inner plexiform layer (IPL) thickness, and their combination (GCL+ IPL), appeared to be significantly less in the uncontrolled DM group when compared to controlled DM and controlled DR groups. Although the combination of nerve fiber layer (NFL) and GCL, and IPL thicknesses were not different, their ratio, (NFL+GCL)/IPL, was found to be significantly higher in the controlled DM group compared to the HC group. Comparisons of the controlled DR group with the controlled DM group, and with the uncontrolled DR group, do not show any differences in the layer thicknesses, though several significant ratios were obtained. Ratiometric analysis may provide more sensitive parameters for detecting changes in DR. Picture: A representative segmented OCT image of the human retina is shown.
Project description:PURPOSE:Diabetic retinal neurodegeneration (DRN) has been demonstrated in eyes of patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), even in the absence of diabetic retinopathy (DR). However, no studies have looked at the rate of change in retinal layers and presence/development of DR over time per quadrant of the macula. In this longitudinal study, we aimed to clarify whether the rate of DRN is associated with the development/presence of DR within 4 different quadrants of the retina. METHODS:80 eyes of 40 patients with type 1 DM and no/minimal DR were included. At 4 visits over 6 years, SD-OCT and fundus images were acquired. Thickness of the Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer (RNFL), Ganglion Cell Layer (GCL) and Inner Plexiform Layer (IPL) was measured in a 1-6mm circle around the fovea overall and for each quadrant (superior, nasal, inferior, temporal). Fundus images were scored for the presence/absence of DR in these areas. Multilevel analyses were performed to determine the rate of change for each layer overall and per quadrant for eyes/quadrants without and with DR during the follow-up period. RESULTS:RNFL and GCL showed significant thinning over time, IPL significant thickening. These changes were more pronounced for GCL and IPL in eyes/quadrants with DR during the follow-up period. CONCLUSIONS:RNFL and GCL both showed thinning over time, which was more pronounced in eyes with DR for GCL. This holds true even in regional parts of the retina, as quadrant analyses showed similar results, showing that structural DRN is associated with DR per quadrant independently.
Project description:To evaluate the changes of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), ganglion cell layer (GCL), inner plexiform layer (IPL), and ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) thicknesses and compare structure-function relationships of 4 retinal layers using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in macular region of glaucoma patients.In cross-sectional study, a total of 85 eyes with pre-perimetric to advanced glaucoma and 26 normal controls were enrolled. The glaucomatous eyes were subdivided into three groups according to the severity of visual field defect: a preperimetric glaucoma group, an early glaucoma group, and a moderate to advanced glaucoma group. RNFL, GCL, IPL, and GCIPL thicknesses were measured at the level of the macula by the Spectralis (Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany) SD-OCT with automated segmentation software. For functional evaluation, corresponding mean sensitivity (MS) values were measured using 24-2 standard automated perimetry (SAP).RNFL, GCL, IPL, and GCIPL thicknesses were significantly different among 4 groups (P < .001). Macular structure losses were positively correlated with the MS values of the 24-2 SAP for RNFL, GCL, IPL, and GCIPL (R = 0.553, 0.636, 0.648 and 0.646, respectively, P < .001). In regression analysis, IPL and GCIPL thicknesses showed stronger association with the corresponding MS values of 24-2 SAP compared with RNFL and GCL thicknesses (R2 = 0.420, P < .001 for IPL; R2 = 0.417, P< .001 for GCIPL thickness).Segmented IPL thickness was significantly associated with the degree of glaucoma. Segmental analysis of the inner retinal layer including the IPL in macular region may provide valuable information for evaluating glaucoma.
Project description:To examine differences in individual retinal layer thicknesses measured by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) (Spectralis®) produced with age and according to sex.Cross-sectional, observational study.The study was conducted in 297 eyes of 297 healthy subjects aged 18 to 87 years. In one randomly selected eye of each participant the volume and mean thicknesses of the different macular layers were measured by SD-OCT using the instrument's macular segmentation software.Volume and mean thickness of macular retinal nerve fiber layer (mRNFL), ganglion cell layer (GCL), inner plexiform layer (IPL), inner nuclear layer (INL), outer plexiform layer (OPL), outer nuclear layer (ONL), retinal pigmentary epithelium (RPE) and photoreceptor layer (PR).Retinal thickness was reduced by 0.24 ?m for every one year of age. Age adjusted linear regression analysis revealed mean GCL, IPL, ONL and PR thickness reductions and a mean OPL thickness increase with age. Women had significantly lower mean GCL, IPL, INL, ONL and PR thicknesses and volumes and a significantly greater mRNFL volume than men.The thickness of most retinal layers varies both with age and according to sex. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine the rate of layer thinning produced with age.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>To compare intra-retinal layer thickness measurements between eyes with no or mild diabetic retinopathy (DR) and age-matched controls using Spectralis spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT).<h4>Methods</h4>Cross-sectional observational analysis study. High-resolution macular volume scans (30° * 25°) were obtained for 133 type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients with no DR, 42 T2DM patients with mild DR and 115 healthy controls. The mean thickness was measured in all 9 Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) sectors for 8 separate layers, inner retinal layer (IRL), outer retinal layer (ORL) and total retina (TR), after automated segmentation. The ETDRS grid consisted of three concentric circles of 1-, 3-, and 6-mm diameter. The superior, inferior, temporal, and nasal sectors of the 3- and 6-mm circles were respectively designated as S3, I3, T3, and N3 and S6, I6, T6, and N6. Linear regression analyses were conducted to evaluate the associations between the intra-retinal layer thicknesses, age, diabetes duration, fasting blood glucose and HbA1c.<h4>Results</h4>The mean age and duration of T2DM were 61.1 and 13.7 years, respectively. Although no significant differences in the average TR and ORL volumes were observed among the groups, significant differences were found in the volume and sectorial thicknesses of the inner plexiform layer (IPL), outer plexiform layer (OPL) and IRL among the groups. In particular, the thicknesses of the IPL (S3, T3, S6, I6 and T6 sectors) and the IRL (S6 sector) were decreased in the no-DR group compared with the controls (P < 0.05). The thickness of the OPL (S3, N3, S6 and N6 sectors) was thinner in the no-DR group than in mild DR (P < 0.05). The average IPL thickness was significantly negatively correlated with age and the duration of diabetes.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The assessment of the intra-retinal layer thickness showed a significant decrease in the IPL and IRL thicknesses in Chinese adults with T2DM, even in the absence of visible microvascular signs of DR.
Project description:We evaluated postoperative retinal thickness in pediatric and juvenile craniopharyngioma (CP) patients with chiasmal compression using optical coherence tomography (OCT) auto-segmentation. We included 18 eyes of 18 pediatric or juvenile patients with CP and 20 healthy controls. Each thickness of the macular retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), ganglion cell layer (GCL), inner plexiform layer (IPL), inner nuclear layer, outer plexiform layer, outer nuclear layer, and photoreceptor layer was compared between the CP patients and healthy controls. There was significant thinning in the macular RNFL (estimates [?m], superior, - 10.68; inferior, - 7.24; nasal, - 14.22), all quadrants of GCL (superior, - 16.53; inferior, - 14.37; nasal, - 24.34; temporal, - 9.91) and IPL (superior, - 11.45; inferior, - 9.76; nasal, - 15.25; temporal, - 4.97) in pediatric and juvenile CP patients postoperatively compared to healthy control eyes after adjusting for age and refractive errors. Thickness reduction in the average and nasal quadrant of RNFL, GCL, and IPL was associated with peripapillary RNFL thickness, and reduced nasal quadrant GCL and IPL thicknesses were associated with postoperative visual field defects. In pediatric and juvenile patients with CP, decreased inner retinal layer thickness following chiasmal compression was observed. The changes in retinal structures were closely related to peripapillary RNFL thinning and functional outcomes.
Project description:PURPOSE: To specify thickness values of various retinal layers on macular spectral domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SDOCT) scans in patients with autosomal dominant optic atrophy (ADOA) compared to healthy controls. METHODS: SDOCT volume scans of 7 patients with ADOA (OPA-1 mutation) and 14 healthy controls were quantitatively analyzed using manual grading software. Mean thickness values for the ETDRS grid subfields 5-8 were calculated for the spaces neurosensory retina, retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), ganglion cell layer (GCL), a combined space of inner plexiform layer/outer plexiform layer/inner nuclear layer (IPL+INL+OPL), and a combined space of outer nuclear layer/photoreceptor layers (ONL+PL). RESULTS: ADOA patients showed statistically significant lower retinal thickness values than controls (P < 0.01). RNFL (P < 0.001) and GCL thicknesses (P < 0.001) were significantly lower in ADOA patients. There was no difference in IPL+INL+OPL and in ONL+PL thickness. CONCLUSION: Manual subanalysis of macular SDOCT volume scans allowed detailed subanalysis of various retinal layers. Not only RNFL but also GCL thicknesses are reduced in the macular area of ADOA patients whereas subjacent layers are not involved. Together with clinical findings, macular SDOCT helps to identify patients with suspicion for hereditary optic neuropathy before genetic analysis confirms the diagnosis.
Project description:To perform a preliminary evaluation of the applicability of automatic spectral domain optical coherence tomography (ASD-OCT) for glaucoma mass screening in a population-based setting.Information using ASD-OCT (thicknesses of the macular retinal nerve fiber layer [mRNFL], disc retinal nerve fiber layer [dRNFL], ganglion cell layer [GCL] + inner plexiform layer [IPL]; GCL+, and ganglion cell complex [GCL + IPL + RNFL; GCL++]) was obtained from 245 eyes of 123 glaucomatous subjects and 1,454 eyes of 727 normal subjects. For all four measurements, each grid was scored as follows: 2= within 95% of the normal database; 1= within 5%; and 0= within 1%. The sums of each grid (mRNFLs, dRNFLs, GCL+s, and GCL++s) were used as indicators. The effectiveness was estimated by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC-ROC). The appropriate algorithm was then applied to 10,145 eyes of 5,088 subjects from the general population (mean age: 50.1±10.3 years).AUC-ROC of mRNFLs, dRNFLs, GCL+s, and GCL++s was 0.927 (95% confidence interval [CI] =0.903-0.950), 0.919 (95% CI =0.899-0.940), 0.972 (95% CI =0.958-0.986), and 0.972 (95% CI =0.957-0.986), respectively. The discriminant analysis demonstrated that the canonical correlation coefficients of mRNFLs, dRNFLs, GCL+s, and dGCL++s were 0.07, 0.255, 0.661, and 0.207, respectively. AUC-ROC of the discriminant value was 0.971 (95% CI =0.956-0.986). The sensitivity/specificity using GCL+s (cutoff =160) was 81.6%/99.9%. This algorithm was applied to the general population, and 1,658 eyes (16.3%) were found to be positive for glaucoma.In the case-control setting, ASD-OCT showed a relatively high performance, and the thickness of the GCL + IPL was the best predictor. However, further prospective studies are needed, in which the results of this study are compared to the general population, because the false-positive rate of glaucoma seems to be high.
Project description:PURPOSE:To assess the differences in texture descriptors and optical properties of retinal tissue layers in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and to evaluate their usefulness in the detection of neurodegenerative changes using optical coherence tomography (OCT) image segmentation. PATIENTS AND METHODS:38 patients with MS were examined using Stratus OCT. The raw macular OCT data were exported and processed using OCTRIMA software. The enrolled eyes were divided into two groups, based on the presence of optic neuritis (ON) in the history (MSON+ group, n = 36 and MSON- group, n = 31). Data of 29 eyes of 24 healthy subjects (H) were used as controls. A total of seven intraretinal layers were segmented and thickness as well as optical parameters such as contrast, fractal dimension, layer index and total reflectance were measured. Mixed-model ANOVA analysis was used for statistical comparisons. RESULTS:Significant thinning of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), ganglion cell/inner plexiform layer complex (GCL+IPL) and ganglion cell complex (GCC, RNFL+GCL+IPL) was observed between study groups in all comparisons. Significant difference was found in contrast in the RNFL, GCL+IPL, GCC, inner nuclear layer (INL) and outer plexiform layer when comparing MSON+ to the other groups. Higher fractal dimension values were observed in GCL+IPL and INL layers when comparing H vs. MSON+ groups. A significant difference was found in layer index in the RNFL, GCL+IPL and GCC layers in all comparisons. A significant difference was observed in total reflectance in the RNFL, GCL+IPL and GCC layers between the three examination groups. CONCLUSION:Texture and optical properties of the retinal tissue undergo pronounced changes in MS even without optic neuritis. Our results may help to further improve the diagnostic efficacy of OCT in MS and neurodegeneration.
Project description:Purpose:To test whether ganglion cell layer (GCL) and inner plexiform layer (IPL) topography is altered in albinism. Methods:Optical coherence tomography scans were analyzed in 30 participants with albinism and 25 control participants. Horizontal and vertical line scans were acquired at the fovea, then strip registered and averaged. The Duke Optical Coherence Tomography Retinal Analysis Program was used to automatically segment the combined GCL and IPL and total retinal thickness, followed by program-assisted manual segmentation of the boundary between the GCL and IPL. Layer thickness and area under the curve (AUC) were calculated within 2.5 mm of the fovea. Nasal-temporal and superior-inferior asymmetry were calculated as an AUC ratio in each quadrant. Results:GCL and IPL topography varied between participants. The summed AUC in all quadrants was similar between groups for both the GCL (P = 0.84) and IPL (P = 0.08). Both groups showed nasal-temporal asymmetry in the GCL, but only participants with albinism had nasal-temporal asymmetry in the IPL. Nasal-temporal asymmetry was greater in albinism for both the GCL (P < 0.0001) and the IPL (P = 0.0006). The GCL usually comprised a greater percentage of the combined GCL and IPL in controls than in albinism. Conclusions:The GCL and IPL have greater structural variability than previously reported. GCL and IPL topography are significantly altered in albinism, which suggests differences in the spatial distribution of retinal ganglion cells. This finding provides insight into foveal development and structure-function relationships in foveal hypoplasia.
Project description:Retinitis pigmentosa(RP) is a hereditary retinal disease that causes photoreceptor, outer retinal, degeneration. Although the pathogenesis is still unclear, there have been numerous reports regarding inner retinal changes in RP eyes. The aim of this study is to retrospectively evaluate the changes in the thicknesses of different retinal layers of RP eyes, and its association with aqueous flare, which is used for measuring the intensity of intraocular inflammation. A total of 125 eyes of 64 patients with RP and 13 normal eyes were studied. The thicknesses of total neural retina,nerve fiber layer(NFL),ganglion cell layer(GCL),inner plexiform layer(IPL),inner nuclear layer(INL),outer layers and foveal thickness were measured in the optical coherence tomographic images. Aqueous flare was measured with a laser flare-cell meter. The associations between those parameters, visual acuity and visual field were determined in RP eyes using multivariate analysis. The results of this study showed the significant thickening of NFL, GCL and INL, the significant thinning of outer layers and the association of them with increased aqueous flare, whereas NFL and INL thickening associated with outer retinal thinning. These results can suggest the involvement of intraocular inflammation in the pathogenesis of inner retinal thickening as a secondary change following outer retinal degeneration.