Selectivity of Cobalt Corrole for CO vs. O2 and N2 in Indoor Pollution.
ABSTRACT: Coal combustion causes indoor pollution of CO. In this work, DFT calculations on cobalt corrole (Co(Cor)) with three most common indoor gas molecules (N2, O2 and CO) were performed. The Mulliken spin densities show that the ground states of Co(N2)(Cor), Co(CO)(Cor) and Co(OC)(Cor) have an anti-ferromagnetic coupling fashion of the electrons on the Co 3d z2 orbital and the ? orbital of the corrole ring. However, Co(O2)(Cor) has a triplet ground state. With the spin contamination corrections, the Co(N2)(Cor) binding energy was obtained at -50.6?kcal?mol-1 (B3LYP-D3). While CO can interact with Co(Cor) in two different ways, and their binding energies were -22.8 and -10.9?kcal?mol-1 (B3LYP-D3) for Co(CO)(Cor) and Co(OC)(Cor), respectively. The natural bond orbital charges on the axial ligands (NO, CO, OC) are increased upon the chemical bond formation. These are the cause of the shorten metal-ligand bond and the increase of the wavenumber of the metal-ligand bond vibrational transitions. While the charges for O2 are decreased, leading to bond elongation as well as the decrease of the wavenumber upon complexation. Overall, O2 was found to be hardly coordinated with Co(Cor). This study provides a detailed molecular understanding of interactions between a gas sensor and gaseous indoor air-pollutants.
Project description:The synthesis and catalytic reactivity of a class of water-tolerant cationic phosphorus-based Lewis acids is reported. Corrole-based phosphorus(v) cations of the type [ArP(cor)][B(C6F5)4] (Ar = C6H5, 3,5-(CF3)2C6H3; cor = 5,10,15-(C6H5)3corrolato3-, 5,10,15-(C6F5)3corrolato3-) were synthesized and characterized by NMR and X-ray diffraction. The visible electronic absorption spectra of these cationic phosphacorroles depend strongly on the coordination environment at phosphorus, and their Lewis acidities are quantified by spectrophotometric titrations. DFT analyses establish that the character of the P-acceptor orbital comprises P-N antibonding interactions in the basal plane of the phosphacorrole. Consequently, the cationic phosphacorroles display unprecedented stability to water and alcohols while remaining highly active and robust Lewis acid catalysts for carbonyl hydrosilylation, Csp3 -H bond functionalization, and carbohydrate deoxygenation reactions.
Project description:The first synthesis of anion capped cerium corrole complexes is reported. Unusual clustering of the lanthanide corrole units has been found and the degree of aggregation can be controlled by the choice of the capping ligand. A polymeric structure 1a, with the general formula [Cor-Ce(THF)-Cp-Na]n (Cor = 5,15-bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)-10-(4 methoxyphenyl)-corrole, THF = tetrahydrofuran), is formed using sodium cyclopentadienide (NaCp) and a dimeric structure 2a, with the general formula [Cor-Ce-Tp]2, is formed when potassium tris(pyrazolyl)borate (KTp) is used. Encapsulation of the counter-cation leads to the isolation of the monomeric structures 1b and 2b, with the general formulas [AM(2.2.2-cryptand)][Cor-Cp-X] (AM = Na or K, X = Cp or Tp). The structural and spectroscopic properties of the complexes have been investigated.
Project description:A series of free-base and metalated isocorroles represented as (TT-n-iso-Cor)H(2) and (TT-n-iso-Cor)M(II), where n = 5 or 10 and M = Ni or Cu, were synthesized and characterized by electrochemistry and spectroelectrochemistry in CH(2)Cl(2) containing 0.1 M tetra-n-butylammonium perchlorate. The metalation of the free-base macrocycles with Co(II), Mn(III), or Zn(II) was also attempted but was unsuccessful. Six isocorroles were isolated and shown to undergo two stepwise oxidations to give pi-cation radicals and dications in CH(2)Cl(2), with the most stable products being obtained in the case of the 10-substituted derivatives. The same isocorroles could also be reduced by one or two electrons, but the initial one-electron addition products are unstable and undergo a rapid chemical reaction giving a reduced corrole or corrole-like product, which could be reoxidized to the corresponding (TTCor)M at a controlled positive potential. This series of reactions effectively illustrates an isocorrole to corrole conversion upon reduction and reoxidation and was monitored by both electrochemistry and thin-layer spectroelectrochemistry.
Project description:The C4F7N (fluorinated nitrile) gas mixture has been recognized as the most potential substitute gas to SF6 used in gas-insulated equipment. In this paper, we explored the thermal stability and decomposition properties of the C4F7N-N2-O2 gas mixture. The influence mechanism of oxygen content and temperature on the byproduct generation was obtained and analyzed. It was found that thermal decomposition of the C4F7N-N2-O2 gas mixture mainly produces CO, C3F6, C3F8, CF3CN, (CN)2, and COF2. The addition of oxygen could accelerate the decomposition of C4F7N. The content of C3F6 and (CN)2 decreases, while the yield of CF4, CO, C3F8, and COF2 increases with the oxygen content. Thermal decomposition of the C4F7N-N2-O2 gas mixture at temperatures lower than 425 °C results from the interaction between C4F7N and the metal heating element, while the bond cleavage reactions occur at higher temperature. As for engineering application, the oxygen added in the 6%C4F7N-94%N2 gas mixture should not exceed 6% to avoid the negative effect of oxygen on the thermal stability of C4F7N.
Project description:Nitrosylcobalamin (NOCbl) is readily formed when Co(II)balamin reacts with nitric oxide (NO) gas. NOCbl has been implicated in the inhibition of various B12-dependent enzymes, as well as in the modulation of blood pressure and of the immunological response. Previous studies revealed that among the known biologically relevant cobalamin species, NOCbl possesses the longest bond between the Co ion and the axially bound 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole base, which was postulated to result from a strong trans influence exerted by the NO ligand. In this study, various spectroscopic (electronic absorption, circular dichroism, magnetic circular dichroism, and resonance Raman) and computational (density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT) techniques were used to generate experimentally validated electronic structure descriptions for the "base-on" and "base-off" forms of NOCbl. Further insights into the principal Co-ligand bonding interactions were obtained by carrying out natural bond orbital analyses. Collectively, our results indicate that the formally unoccupied Co 3dz(2) orbital engages in a highly covalent bonding interaction with the filled NO ?* orbital and that the Co-NO bond is strengthened further by sizable ?-backbonding interactions that are not present in any other Co(III)Cbl characterized to date. Because of the substantial NO(-) to Co(III) charge donation, NOCbl is best described as a hybrid of Co(III)-NO(-) and Co(II)-NO(•) resonance structures. In contrast, our analogous computational characterization of a related species, superoxocobalamin, reveals that in this case a Co(III)-O2(-) description is adequate due to the larger oxidizing power of O2 versus NO. The implications of our results with respect to the unusual structural features and thermochromism of NOCbl and the proposed inhibition mechanisms of B12-dependent enzymes by NOCbl are discussed.
Project description:In order to shed light on metal-dependent mechanisms for O-O bond cleavage, and its microscopic reverse, we compare herein the electronic and geometric structures of O2-derived binuclear Co(III)- and Mn(III)-peroxo compounds. Binuclear metal peroxo complexes are proposed to form as intermediates during Mn-promoted photosynthetic H2O oxidation, and a Co-containing artificial leaf inspired by nature's photosynthetic H2O oxidation catalyst. Crystallographic characterization of an extremely activated peroxo is made possible by working with substitution-inert, low-spin Co(III). Density functional theory (DFT) calculations show that the frontier orbitals of the Co(III)-peroxo compound differ noticeably from the analogous Mn(III)-peroxo compound. The highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) associated with the Co(III)-peroxo is more localized on the peroxo in an antibonding ?*(O-O) orbital, whereas the HOMO of the structurally analogous Mn(III)-peroxo is delocalized over both the metal d-orbitals and peroxo ?*(O-O) orbital. With low-spin d6 Co(III), filled t2g orbitals prevent ?-back-donation from the doubly occupied antibonding ?*(O-O) orbital onto the metal ion. This is not the case with high-spin d4 Mn(III), since these orbitals are half-filled. This weakens the peroxo O-O bond of the former relative to the latter.
Project description:We report the chemical synthesis and characterization of the stable 5,15-bis(pentafluorophenyl)-10-(trimethylsilylethynyl)corrole which serves as a precursor for the subsequent in situ sila-Sonogashira-cross-coupling reaction and metalation with copper(II) acetate. Under ambient conditions and a common catalyst system the reaction with 1-iodopyrene occurred within five hours. Due to the direct conjugation of the 18?-electronic system of the corrole macrocycle over the alkynyl group to the pyrene moiety the optical transitions in the Soret (B-) band Q-band region are significantly altered. The copper corrole exhibited complex hyperfine and superhyperfine structure in the EPR spectrum. The assignment of the EPR spectrum reveals the existence of an axial [CuII-cor?+] species.
Project description:Corrole is a tetrapyrrolic macrocycle that has one carbon atom less than a porphyrin. The ring contraction reduces the symmetry from D(4h) to C(2v), changes the electronic structure of the heterocycle, and leads to a smaller central cavity with three protons rather than the two of a porphyrin. The differences between ferric corroles and porphyrins lead to a number of differences in reactivity including increased axial ligand lability and a tendency to form 5-coordinate complexes. The electronic structure origin of these differences has been difficult to study experimentally as the dominant porphyrin/corrole pi --> pi* transitions obscure the electronic transitions of the metal. Recently, we have developed a methodology that allows for the interpretation of the multiplet structure of Fe L-edges in terms of differential orbital covalency (i.e., the differences in mixing of the metal d orbitals with the ligand valence orbitals) using a valence bond configuration interaction model. Herein, we apply this methodology, combined with a ligand field analysis of the Fe K pre-edge to a low-spin ferric corrole, and compare it to a low-spin ferric porphyrin. The experimental results combined with DFT calculations show that the contracted corrole is both a stronger sigma donor and a very anisotropic pi donor. These differences decrease the bonding interactions with axial ligands and contribute to the increased axial ligand lability and reactivity of ferric corroles relative to ferric porphyrins.
Project description:Activation of dioxygen (O2) in enzymatic and biomimetic reactions has been intensively investigated over the past several decades. More recently, O-O bond formation, which is the reverse of the O2-activation reaction, has been the focus of current research. Herein, we report the O2-activation and O-O bond formation reactions by manganese corrole complexes. In the O2-activation reaction, Mn(V)-oxo and Mn(IV)-peroxo intermediates were formed when Mn(III) corroles were exposed to O2 in the presence of base (e.g., OH-) and hydrogen atom (H atom) donor (e.g., THF or cyclic olefins); the O2-activation reaction did not occur in the absence of base and H atom donor. Moreover, formation of the Mn(V)-oxo and Mn(IV)-peroxo species was dependent on the amounts of base present in the reaction solution. The role of the base was proposed to lower the oxidation potential of the Mn(III) corroles, thereby facilitating the binding of O2 and forming a Mn(IV)-superoxo species. The putative Mn(IV)-superoxo species was then converted to the corresponding Mn(IV)-hydroperoxo species by abstracting a H atom from H atom donor, followed by the O-O bond cleavage of the putative Mn(IV)-hydroperoxo species to form a Mn(V)-oxo species. We have also shown that addition of hydroxide ion to the Mn(V)-oxo species afforded the Mn(IV)-peroxo species via O-O bond formation and the resulting Mn(IV)-peroxo species reverted to the Mn(V)-oxo species upon addition of proton, indicating that the O-O bond formation and cleavage reactions between the Mn(V)-oxo and Mn(IV)-peroxo complexes are reversible. The present study reports the first example of using the same manganese complex in both O2-activation and O-O bond formation reactions.
Project description:This work establishes the ability of valence-to-core X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) to serve as a direct probe of N2 bond activation. A systematic series of iron-N2 complexes has been experimentally investigated and the energy of a valence-to-core XES peak was correlated with N-N bond length and stretching frequency. Computations demonstrate that, in a simple one-electron picture, this peak arises from the N2 2s2s ?* orbital, which becomes less antibonding as the N-N bond is weakened and broken. Changes as small as 0.02 Å in the N-N bond length may be distinguished using this approach. The results thus establish valence-to-core XES as an effective probe of small molecule activation, which should have broad applicability in transition-metal mediated catalysis.