Strain analysis in CRT candidates using the novel segment length in cine (SLICE) post-processing technique on standard CMR cine images.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES:Although myocardial strain analysis is a potential tool to improve patient selection for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), there is currently no validated clinical approach to derive segmental strains. We evaluated the novel segment length in cine (SLICE) technique to derive segmental strains from standard cardiovascular MR (CMR) cine images in CRT candidates. METHODS:Twenty-seven patients with left bundle branch block underwent CMR examination including cine imaging and myocardial tagging (CMR-TAG). SLICE was performed by measuring segment length between anatomical landmarks throughout all phases on short-axis cines. This measure of frame-to-frame segment length change was compared to CMR-TAG circumferential strain measurements. Subsequently, conventional markers of CRT response were calculated. RESULTS:Segmental strains showed good to excellent agreement between SLICE and CMR-TAG (septum strain, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) 0.76; lateral wall strain, ICC 0.66). Conventional markers of CRT response also showed close agreement between both methods (ICC 0.61-0.78). Reproducibility of SLICE was excellent for intra-observer testing (all ICC ?0.76) and good for interobserver testing (all ICC ?0.61). CONCLUSIONS:The novel SLICE post-processing technique on standard CMR cine images offers both accurate and robust segmental strain measures compared to the 'gold standard' CMR-TAG technique, and has the advantage of being widely available. KEY POINTS:• Myocardial strain analysis could potentially improve patient selection for CRT. • Currently a well validated clinical approach to derive segmental strains is lacking. • The novel SLICE technique derives segmental strains from standard CMR cine images. • SLICE-derived strain markers of CRT response showed close agreement with CMR-TAG. • Future studies will focus on the prognostic value of SLICE in CRT candidates.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Segment length in cine (SLICE) strain analysis on standard cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) cine images was recently validated against gold standard myocardial tagging. The present study aims to explore predictive value of SLICE for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) response.<h4>Methods and results</h4>Fifty-seven patients with heart failure and left bundle branch block (LBBB) were prospectively enrolled in this multi-center study and underwent CMR examination before CRT implantation. Circumferential strains of the septal and lateral wall were measured by SLICE on short-axis cine images. In addition, timing and strain pattern parameters were assessed. After twelve months, CRT response was quantified by the echocardiographic change in left ventricular (LV) end-systolic volume (LVESV). In contrast to timing parameters, strain pattern parameters being systolic rebound stretch of the septum (SRS<sub>sep</sub>), systolic stretch index (SSI<sub>sep-lat</sub>), and internal stretch factor (ISF<sub>sep-lat</sub>) all correlated significantly with LVESV change (R - 0.56; R - 0.53; and R - 0.58, respectively). Of all strain parameters, end-systolic septal strain (ESS<sub>sep</sub>) showed strongest correlation with LVESV change (R - 0.63). Multivariable analysis showed ESS<sub>sep</sub> to be independently related to LVESV change together with age and QRS<sub>AREA</sub>.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The practicable SLICE strain technique may help the clinician to estimate potential benefit from CRT by analyzing standard CMR cine images without the need for commercial software. Of all strain parameters, end-systolic septal strain (ESS<sub>sep</sub>) demonstrates the strongest correlation with reverse remodeling after CRT. This parameter may be of special interest in patients with non-strict LBBB morphology for whom CRT benefit is doubted.
Project description:Myocardial strain is a well-validated parameter for evaluating myocardial contraction. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance myocardial feature tracking (CMR-FT) is a novel method for the quantitative measurements of myocardial strain from routine cine acquisitions. In this study, we investigated the influence of temporal resolution on tracking accuracy of CMR-FT and the intraobserver, interobserver, and interstudy reproducibilities for biventricular strain analysis in mice from self-gated CMR at 11.7?T. 12 constitutive nexilin knockout (Nexn-KO) mice, heterozygous (Het, <i>N</i> = 6) and wild-type (WT, <i>N</i> = 6), were measured with a well-established self-gating sequence twice within two weeks. CMR-FT measures of biventricular global and segmental strain parameters were derived. Interstudy, intraobserver, and interobserver reproducibilities were investigated. For the assessment of the impact of the temporal resolution for the outcome in CMR-FT, highly oversampled semi-4 chamber and midventricular short-axis data were acquired and reconstructed with 10 to 80 phases per cardiac cycle. A generally reduced biventricular myocardial strain was observed in Nexn-KO Het mice. Excellent intraobserver and interobserver reproducibility was achieved in all global strains (ICC range from 0.76 to 0.99), where global right ventricle circumferential strain (RCS<sub>SAX</sub>) showed an only good interobserver reproducibility (ICC 0.65, 0.11-0.89). For interstudy reproducibility, left ventricle longitudinal strain (LLS<sub>LAX</sub>) was the most reproducible measure of strain (ICC 0.90, 0.71-0.97). The left ventricle radial strain (LRS<sub>SAX</sub>) (ICC 0.50, 0.10-0.83) showed fair reproducibility and RCS<sub>SAX</sub> (ICC 0.36, 0.14-0.74) showed only poor reproducibility. In general, compared with global strains, the segmental strains showed relatively lower reproducibility. A minimal temporal resolution of 20 phases per cardiac cycle appeared sufficient for CMR-FT strain analysis. The analysis of myocardial strain from high-resolution self-gated cine images by CMR-FT provides a highly reproducible method for assessing myocardial contraction in small rodent animals. Especially, global LV longitudinal and circumferential strain revealed excellent reproducibility of intra- and interobserver and interstudy measurements.
Project description:Parameters using myocardial strain analysis may predict response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). As the agreement between currently available strain imaging modalities is unknown, three different modalities were compared. Twenty-seven CRT-candidates, prospectively included in the MARC study, underwent cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging and echocardiographic examination. Left ventricular (LV) circumferential strain was analysed with CMR tagging (CMR-TAG), CMR feature tracking (CMR-FT), and speckle tracking echocardiography (STE). Basic strain values and parameters of dyssynchrony and discoordination obtained with CMR-FT and STE were compared to CMR-TAG. Agreement of CMR-FT and CMR-TAG was overall fair, while agreement between STE and CMR-TAG was often poor. For both comparisons, agreement on discoordination parameters was highest, followed by dyssynchrony and basic strain parameters. For discoordination parameters, agreement on systolic stretch index was highest, with fair intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) (CMR-FT: 0.58, STE: 0.55). ICC of septal systolic rebound stretch (SRSsept) was poor (CMR-FT: 0.41, STE: 0.30). Internal stretch factor of septal and lateral wall (ISFsep-lat) showed fair ICC values (CMR-FT: 0.53, STE: 0.46), while the ICC of the total LV (ISFLV) was fair for CMR-FT (0.55) and poor for STE (ICC: 0.32). The CURE index had a fair ICC for both comparisons (CMR-FT: 0.49, STE 0.41). Although comparison of STE to CMR-TAG was limited by methodological differences, agreement between CMR-FT and CMR-TAG was overall higher compared to STE and CMR-TAG. CMR-FT is a potential clinical alternative for CMR-TAG and STE, especially in the detection of discoordination in CRT-candidates.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Develop an accelerated cine displacement encoding with stimulated echoes (DENSE) cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) sequence to enable clinically feasible myocardial strain evaluation in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). MATERIALS AND METHODS:A spiral cine DENSE sequence was modified by limiting the field of view in two dimensions using in-plane slice-selective pulses in the stimulated echo. This reduced breath hold duration from 20RR to 14RR intervals. Following phantom and pilot studies, the feasibility of the sequence to assess peak radial, circumferential, and longitudinal strain was tested in control subjects (n?=?18) and then applied in DCM patients (n?=?29). RESULTS:DENSE acquisition was possible in all participants. Elements of the data were not analysable in 1 control (6%) and 4 DCM r(14%) subjects due to off-resonance or susceptibility artefacts and low signal-to-noise ratio. Peak radial, circumferential, short-axis contour strain and longitudinal strain was reduced in DCM patients (p?<?0.001 vs. controls) and strain measurements correlated with left ventricular ejection fraction (with circumferential strain r?=?-?0.79, p?<?0.0001; with vertical long-axis strain r?=?-?0.76, p?<?0.0001). All strain measurements had good inter-observer agreement (ICC?>?0.80), except peak radial strain. DISCUSSION:We demonstrate the feasibility of CMR strain assessment in healthy controls and DCM patients using an accelerated cine DENSE technique. This may facilitate integration of strain assessment into routine CMR studies.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Left ventricular segmental wall motion analysis is important for clinical decision making in cardiac diseases. Strain analysis with myocardial tissue tagging is the non-invasive gold standard for quantitative assessment, however, it is time-consuming. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance myocardial feature-tracking (CMR-FT) can rapidly perform strain analysis, because it can be employed with standard CMR cine-imaging. The aim is to validate segmental peak systolic circumferential strain (peak SCS) and time to peak systolic circumferential strain (T2P-SCS) analysed by CMR-FT against tissue tagging, and determine its intra and inter-observer variability.<h4>Methods</h4>Patients in whom both cine CMR and tissue tagging has been performed were selected. CMR-FT analysis was done using endocardial (CMR-FTendo) and mid-wall contours (CMR-FTmid). The Intra Class Correlation Coefficient (ICC) and Pearson correlation were calculated.<h4>Results</h4>10 healthy volunteers, 10 left bundle branch block (LBBB) and 10 hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients were selected. With CMR-FT all 480 segments were analyzable and with tissue tagging 464 segments.Significant differences in mean peak SCS values of the total study group were present between CMR-FTendo and tissue tagging (-23.8 ± 9.9% vs -13.4 ± 3.3%, p<0.001). Differences were smaller between CMR-FTmid and tissue tagging (-16.4 ± 6.1% vs -13.4 ± 3.3%, p=0.001). The ICC of the mean peak SCS of the total study group between CMR-FTendo and tissue tagging was low (0.19 (95%-CI-0.10-0.49), p=0.02). Comparable results were seen between CMR-FTmid and tissue tagging. In LBBB patients, mean T2P-SCS values measured with CMR-FTendo and CMR-FTmid were 418 ± 66 ms, 454 ± 60 ms, which were longer than with tissue tagging, 376 ± 55 ms, both p<0.05. ICC of the mean T2P-SCS between CMR-FTendo and tissue tagging was 0.64 (95%-CI-0.36-0.81), p<0.001, this was better in the healthy volunteers and LBBB group, whereas the ICC between CMR-FTmid and tissue tagging was lower.The intra and inter-observer agreement of segmental peak SCS with CMR-FTmid was lower compared with tissue tagging; similar results were seen for segmental T2P-SCS.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The intra and inter-observer agreement of segmental peak SCS and T2P-SCS is substantially lower with CMR-FTmid compared with tissue tagging. Therefore, current segmental CMR-FTmid techniques are not yet applicable for clinical and research purposes.
Project description:AIMS:A multitude of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) techniques are used for myocardial strain assessment; however, studies comparing them are limited. We sought to compare global longitudinal (GLS), circumferential (GCS), segmental longitudinal (SLS), and segmental circumferential (SCS) strain values, as well as reproducibility between CMR feature tracking (FT), tagging (TAG), and fast-strain-encoded (fast-SENC) CMR techniques. METHODS AND RESULTS:Eighteen subjects (11 healthy volunteers and seven patients with heart failure) underwent two CMR scans (1.5T, Philips) with identical parameters. Global and segmental strain values were measured using FT (Medis), TAG (Medviso), and fast-SENC (Myocardial Solutions). Friedman's test, linear regression, Pearson's correlation coefficient, and Bland-Altman analyses were used to assess differences and correlation in measured GLS and GCS between the techniques. Two-way mixed intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC), coefficient of variance (COV), and Bland-Altman analysis were used for reproducibility assessment. All techniques correlated closely for GLS (Pearson's r: 0.86-0.92) and GCS (Pearson's r: 0.85-0.94). Intra-observer and inter-observer reproducibility was excellent in all techniques for both GLS (ICC 0.92-0.99, CoV 2.6-10.1%) and GCS (ICC 0.89-0.99, CoV 4.3-10.1%). Inter-study reproducibility was similar for all techniques for GLS (ICC 0.91-0.96, CoV 9.1-10.8%) and GCS (ICC 0.95-0.97, CoV 7.6-10.4%). Combined segmental intra-observer reproducibility was good in all techniques for SLS (ICC 0.914-0.953, CoV 12.35-24.73%) and SCS (ICC 0.885-0.978, CoV 10.76-19.66%). Combined inter-study SLS reproducibility was the worst in FT (ICC 0.329, CoV 42.99%), while fast-SENC performed the best (ICC 0.844, CoV 21.92%). TAG had the best reproducibility for combined inter-study SCS (ICC 0.902, CoV 19.08%), while FT performed the worst (ICC 0.766, CoV 32.35%). Bland-Altman analysis revealed considerable inter-technique biases for GLS (FT vs. fast-SENC 3.71%; FT vs. TAG 8.35%; and TAG vs. fast-SENC 4.54%) and GCS (FT vs. fast-SENC 2.15%; FT vs. TAG 6.92%; and TAG vs. fast-SENC 2.15%). Limits of agreement for GLS ranged from ±3.1 (TAG vs. fast-SENC) to ±4.85 (FT vs. TAG) for GLS and ±2.98 (TAG vs. fast-SENC) to ±5.85 (FT vs. TAG) for GCS. CONCLUSIONS:We found significant differences in measured GLS and GCS between FT, TAG, and fast-SENC. Global strain reproducibility was excellent for all techniques. Acquisition-based techniques had better reproducibility than FT for segmental strain.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Strain analysis with speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE) is considered superior to ejection fraction for ventricular function assessment in different clinical scenarios. Feature tracking (FT) permits cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) strain analysis in routinely acquired cine images. This study evaluated the feasibility of CMR-FT and its agreement with STE in patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).<h4>Methods</h4>An echocardiogram and CMR were performed in 128 patients who underwent primary percutaneous revascularisation after a STEMI. Adequate strain analysis was obtained by both techniques in 98 patients and peak systolic longitudinal strain (LS) was assessed with STE and CMR-FT.<h4>Results</h4>Of 1568 myocardial segments, 97.2% were correctly tracked with STE and 97.7% with CMR-FT. For global LS, STE showed a mean of -14.8?±?3.3% and CMR-FT -13.7?±?3.0%, with good agreement between modalities [intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) 0.826; bias -1.09%; limits of agreement (LOA)?±?4.2%]. On the other hand, segmental LS agreement was only moderate, with an ICC of 0.678 (bias -1.14%; LOA?±?11.76%) and the ICC ranged from 0.538 at the basal antero-lateral segment to 0.815 at the apical lateral segment. Finally, both STE and CMR-FT showed excellent intra- and inter-observer reproducibility (ICC?>?0.9).<h4>Conclusions</h4>CMR-FT provides LS with similar feasibility to STE and both techniques showed good agreement for global LS, although agreement at segmental level was only moderate. CMR-FT showed excellent reproducibility, strengthening its robustness and potential for both research and clinical applications.
Project description:AIMS:Heart failure (HF) is frequent in patients with acute ischaemic stroke (AIS) and associated with higher morbidity and mortality. Assessment of cardiac function in AIS patients using cardiovascular MRI (CMR) may help to detect HF. We report the rate of systolic and diastolic dysfunction in a cohort of patients with AIS using CMR and compare cine real-time (CRT) sequences with the reference of segmented cine steady-state free precession sequences. METHODS AND RESULTS:Patients with AIS without known atrial fibrillation were prospectively enrolled in the HEart and BRain Interfaces in Acute Ischemic Stroke (HEBRAS) study (NCT02142413) and underwent CMR at 3 Tesla within 7 days after AIS. Validity of CRT sequences was determined in 50 patients. A total of 229 patients were included in the analysis (mean age 66 years; 35% women; HF 2%). Evaluation of cardiac function was successful in 172 (75%) patients. Median time from stroke onset to CMR was 82 h (interquartile range 56-111) and 54 h (interquartile range 31-78) from cerebral MRI to CMR. Systolic dysfunction was observed in 43 (25%) and diastolic dysfunction in 102 (59%) patients. Diagnostic yield was similar using CRT or segmented cine imaging (no significant difference in left ventricular ejection fraction, myocardial mass, time to peak filling rate, and peak filling rate ratio E/A). Intraobserver and interobserver agreement was high (? = 0.78-1.0 for all modalities). CONCLUSIONS:Cardiovascular MRI at 3 Tesla is an appropriate method for the evaluation of cardiac function in a selected cohort of patients with AIS. Systolic and diastolic dysfunction is frequent in these patients. CRT imaging allows reliable assessment of systolic and diastolic function.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The mechanics of the right ventricle (RV) are not well understood as studies of the RV have been limited. This is, in part, due to the RV's thin wall, asymmetric geometry and irregular motion. However, the RV plays an important role in cardiovascular function. This study aims to describe the complex mechanics of the healthy RV using three dimensional (3D) cine displacement encoding with stimulated echoes (DENSE) cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR).<h4>Methods</h4>Whole heart 3D cine DENSE data were acquired from five healthy volunteers. Tailored post-processing algorithms for RV mid-wall tissue tracking and strain estimation are presented. A method for sub-dividing the RV into four regions according to anatomical land marks is proposed, and the temporal evolution of strain was assessed in these regions.<h4>Results</h4>The 3D cine DENSE tissue tracking methods successfully capture the motion and deformation of the RV at a high spatial resolution in all volunteers. The regional Lagrangian peak surface strain and time to peak values correspond with previous studies using myocardial tagging, DENSE and strain encoded CMR. The inflow region consistently displays lower peak strains than the apical and outflow regions, and the time to peak strains suggest RV mechanical activation in the following order: inflow, outflow, mid, then apex.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Model-free techniques have been developed to study the myocardial mechanics of the RV at a high spatial resolution using 3D cine DENSE CMR. The consistency of the regional RV strain patterns across healthy subjects is encouraging and the techniques may have clinical utility in assessing disrupted RV mechanics in the diseased heart.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>Aortic distensibility (AD) represents a well-established parameter of aortic stiffness. It remains unclear, however, whether AD can be obtained with high reproducibility in standard 4-chamber cine CMR images of the descending aorta. This study investigated the intra- and inter-observer agreement of AD based on different angles of the aorta and provided a sample size calculation of AD for future trials.<h4>Methods</h4>Thirty-one patients underwent CMR. Angulation of the descending aorta was performed to obtain strictly transversal and orthogonal cross-sectional aortic areas. AD was obtained both area and diameter based.<h4>Results</h4>For area-based values, inter-observer agreement was highest for 4-chamber AD (ICC 0.97; 95% CI 0.93-99), followed by orthogonal AD (ICC 0.96; 95% CI 0.91-98) and transversal AD (ICC 0.93; 95% CI 0.80-97). For diameter-based values, agreement was also highest for 4-chamber AD (ICC 0.97; 95% CI 0.94-99), followed by orthogonal AD (ICC 0.96; 95% CI 0.92-98) and transversal AD (ICC 0.91; 95% CI 0.77-96). Bland-Altman plots confirmed a small variation among observers. Sample size calculation showed a sample size of 12 patients to detect a change in 4-chamber AD of 1 × 10<sup>-3</sup> mmHg<sup>-1</sup> with either the area or diameter approach.<h4>Conclusion</h4>AD measurements are highly reproducible and allow an accurate and rapid assessment of arterial compliance from standard 4-chamber cine CMR.