Extracellular vesicles as emerging targets in cancer: Recent development from bench to bedside.
ABSTRACT: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have emerged as important players of cancer initiation and progression through cell-cell communication. They have been recognized as critical mediators of extracellular communications, which promote transformation, growth invasion, and drug-resistance of cancer cells. Interestingly, the secretion and uptake of EVs are regulated in a more controlled manner than previously anticipated. EVs are classified into three groups, (i) exosomes, (ii) microvesicles (MVs), and (iii) apoptotic bodies (ABs), based on their sizes and origins, and novel technologies to isolate and distinguish these EVs are evolving. The biologically functional molecules harbored in these EVs, including nucleic acids, lipids, and proteins, have been shown to induce key signaling pathways in both tumor and tumor microenvironment (TME) cells for exacerbating tumor development. While tumor cell-derived EVs are capable of reprogramming stromal cells to generate a proper tumor cell niche, stromal-derived EVs profoundly affect the growth, resistance, and stem cell properties of tumor cells. This review summarizes and discusses these reciprocal communications through EVs in different types of cancers. Further understanding of the pathophysiological roles of different EVs in tumor progression is expected to lead to the discovery of novel biomarkers in liquid biopsy and development of tumor specific therapeutics. This review will also discuss the translational aspects of EVs and therapeutic opportunities of utilizing EVs in different cancer types.
Project description:Multiple types of extracellular vesicles (EVs), including microvesicles (MVs) and exosomes (EXOs), are released by all cells constituting part of the cellular EV secretome. The bioactive cargo of EVs can be shuffled between cells and consists of lipids, metabolites, proteins, and nucleic acids, including multiple RNA species from non-coding RNAs to messenger RNAs (mRNAs). In this study, we hypothesized that the mRNA cargo of EVs could differ based on the EV cellular origin and subpopulation analyzed.We isolated MVs and EXOs from PC-3 and LNCaP prostate cancer cells by differential centrifugation and compared them to EVs derived from the benign PNT2 prostate cells. The relative mRNA levels of 84 prostate cancer-related genes were investigated and validated using quantitative reverse transcription PCR arrays.Based on the mRNA abundance, MVs rather than EXOs were enriched in the analyzed transcripts, providing a snapshot of the tumor transcriptome. LNCaP MVs specifically contained significantly increased mRNA levels of NK3 Homeobox 1 (NKX3-1), transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2), and tumor protein 53 (TP53) genes, whereas PC-3 MVs carried increased mRNA levels of several genes including, caveolin-2 (CAV2), glutathione S-transferase pi 1 (GSTP1), pescadillo ribosomal biogenesis factor 1 (PES1), calmodulin regulated spectrin associated protein 1 (CAMSAP1), zinc-finger protein 185 (ZNF185), and others compared to PNT2 MVs. Additionally, ETS variant 1 (ETV1) and fatty acid synthase (FASN) mRNAs identified in LNCaP- and PC-3- derived MVs highly correlated with prostate cancer progression.Our study provides new understandings of the variability of the mRNA cargo of MVs and EXOs from different cell lines despite same cancer origin, which is essential to better understand the the proportion of the cell transcriptome that can be detected within EVs and to evaluate their role in disease diagnosis.
Project description:Intercellular communications between lung epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages play an essential role in host defense against acute lung injury. Hyperoxia-induced oxidative stress is an established model to mimic human lung injury. We show that after hyperoxia-associated oxidative stress, a large amount of extracellular vesicles (EVs) are detectable in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and culture medium of lung epithelial cells. Microvesicles (MVs), but not exosomes (Exos) or apoptotic bodies (Abs), are the main type of EVs found in the early stages after hyperoxia. Among all the MV compositions, small RNAs are altered the most significantly after hyperoxia-associated oxidative stress. We further confirmed that hyperoxia up-regulates the levels of certain specific miRNAs in the epithelial cell-derived MVs, such as the miR-320a and miR-221. Functionally, the hyperoxia-induced epithelial MVs promote macrophage activation in vitro and facilitate the recruitment of immunomodulatory cells in vivo detected in BALF. Using MV as a cargo, delivery of the specific miRNA-enriched epithelial MVs (miR-221 and/or miR-320a) also triggers macrophage-mediated pro-inflammatory effects. Collectively, epithelial cell-derived MVs promote macrophage-regulated lung inflammatory responses via MV-shuttling miRNAs.
Project description:Extracellular vesicles (EVs) released from tumor cells are actively investigated, since molecules therein contained and likely transferred to neighboring cells, supplying them with oncogenic information/functions, may represent cancer biomarkers and/or druggable targets. Here, we characterized by a proteomic point of view two EV subtypes isolated by sequential centrifugal ultrafiltration technique from culture medium of glioblastoma (GBM)-derived stem-like cells (GSCs) obtained from surgical specimens of human GBM, the most aggressive and lethal primary brain tumor. Electron microscopy and western blot analysis distinguished them into microvesicles (MVs) and exosomes (Exos). Two-dimensional electrophoresis followed by MALDI TOF analysis allowed us to identify, besides a common pool, sets of proteins specific for each EV subtypes with peculiar differences in their molecular/biological functions. Such a diversity was confirmed by identification of some top proteins selected in MVs and Exos. They were mainly chaperone or metabolic enzymes in MVs, whereas, in Exos, molecules are involved in cell-matrix adhesion, cell migration/aggressiveness, and chemotherapy resistance. These proteins, identified by EVs from primary GSCs and not GBM cell lines, could be regarded as new possible prognostic markers/druggable targets of the human tumor, although data need to be confirmed in EVs isolated from a greater GSC number.
Project description:Emerging evidence suggests that extracellular vesicle (EV)-containing miRNAs mediate intercellular communications in response to noxious stimuli. It remains unclear how a cell selectively sorts the cellular miRNAs into EVs. We report that caveolin-1 (cav-1) is essential for sorting of selected miRNAs into microvesicles (MVs), a main type of EVs generated by outward budding of the plasma membrane. We found that cav-1 tyrosine 14 (Y14)-phosphorylation leads to interactions between cav-1 and hnRNPA2B1, an RNA-binding protein. The cav-1/hnRNPA2B1 complex subsequently traffics together into MVs. Oxidative stress induces O-GlcNAcylation of hnRNPA2B1, resulting in a robustly altered hnRNPA2B1-bound miRNA repertoire. Notably, cav-1 pY14 also promotes hnRNPA2B1 O-GlcNAcylation. Functionally, macrophages serve as the principal recipient of epithelial MVs in the lung. MV-containing cav-1/hnRNPA2B1 complex-bound miR-17/93 activate tissue macrophages. Collectively, cav-1 is the first identified membranous protein that directly guides RNA-binding protein into EVs. Our work delineates a novel mechanism by which oxidative stress compels epithelial cells to package and secrete specific miRNAs and elicits an innate immune response.
Project description:The tumor stroma acts as a barrier that limits the efficacy of systemically administered oncolytic viruses (OV). We previously demonstrated that stromal-selective, retargeted oncolytic measles viruses (MVs) delay in vivo tumor progression. To further characterize the contribution of stromal targeting to MV's overall in vivo efficacy in an experimental cancer model, a dual targeted oncolytic measles virus (MV-CD46-muPA) able to simultaneously infect murine stromal (via murine uPAR) and human cancer (via CD46) cells was developed. MV-CD46-muPA infected, replicated, and induced cytotoxicity in both murine and human cancer cells. Viral infection was successfully transferred from stromal to tumor cells in vitro, leading to tumor cell oncolysis. Systemic administration of MV-CD46-muPA led to improved antitumor effects in colon (HT-29) cancer xenografts compared to vehicle or CD46 only targeted MVs. These effects were associated with improved tumor viral deposition, increased apoptosis, and decreases in murine stromal endothelial cells and fibroblasts. MV-CD46-muPA modulated cell cycle, survival, proliferation, and metabolic pathways, as determined by functional proteomic analysis of treated tumors. The above findings further validate the concept that dual stromal and tumor cell viral targeting enhances the therapeutic effects of systemically administered OVs and support further preclinical and clinical development of stromal directed virotherapies.
Project description:Microvesicles (MVs) are shed from cell membranes of several cell types and have an important function in cell-to-cell communication. Exponentially growing lung cancer cells secrete large quantities of MVs and we were interested in their role in tumor progression. We observed that both human and murine lung cancer cell lines secrete more MVs in response to non-apoptotic doses of hypoxia and irradiation. These tumor-derived (t)MVs activate and chemoattract stroma fibroblasts and endothelial cells. Furthermore, they induce expression of several pro-angiopoietic factors in stromal cells such as IL-8, VEGF, LIF, OSM, IL-11 and MMP-9. We also noticed that conditioned media harvested from stroma cells stimulated by tMVs enhanced the metastatic potential of both human and murine lung cancer cells in vivo. Thus, we postulated that tMVs are underappreciated constituents of the tumor microenvironment and play a pivotal role in tumor progression, metastasis and angiogenesis.
Project description:Solid tumours comprise, not only malignant cells but also a variety of stromal cells and extracellular matrix proteins. These components interact via an array of signalling pathways to create an adaptable network that may act to promote or suppress cancer progression. To date, the majority of anti-tumour chemotherapeutic agents have principally sought to target the cancer cell. Consequently, resistance develops because of clonal evolution, as a result of selection pressure during tumour expansion. The concept of activating or inhibiting other cell types within the tumour microenvironment is relatively novel and has the advantage of targeting cells which are genetically stable and less likely to develop resistance. This review outlines key players in the stromal tumour microenvironment and discusses potential targeting strategies that may offer therapeutic benefit.
Project description:The mir-34 family was originally cloned and characterized in 2007 as a p53 target gene. Almost immediately it became clear that its major role is as a master regulator of tumor suppression. Indeed, when overexpressed, it directly and indirectly represses several oncogenes, resulting in an increase of cancer cell death (including cancer stem cells), and in an inhibition of metastasis. Moreover, its expression is deregulated in several human cancers. In 2013, a miR-34 mimic has become the first microRNA to reach phase 1 clinical trials. Here we review the miR-34 family and their role in tumor biology, and discuss the potential therapeutic applications of miR-34a mimic.
Project description:Targeted therapy and immunotherapy in combination is considered the ideal strategy for treating metastatic cancer, as it can eliminate the primary tumors and induce host immunity to control distant metastases. Phototherapy, a promising targeted therapy, eradicates primary tumors using an appropriate dosage of focal light irradiation, while initiating antitumor immune responses through induced immunogenic tumor cell death. Recently, phototherapy has been employed to improve the efficacy of immunotherapies such as chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy and immune checkpoint inhibitors. Phototherapy and immunoadjuvant therapy have been used in combination clinically, wherein the induced immunogenic cell death and enhanced antigen presentation synergy, inducing a systemic antitumor immune response to control residual tumor cells at the treatment site and distant metastases. This review summarizes studies on photo-immunotherapy, the combination of phototherapy and immunotherapy, especially focusing on the development and progress of this unique combination from a benchtop project to a promising clinical therapy for metastatic cancer.
Project description:Extracellular vesicles (EVs), specifically exosomes and microvesicles (MVs), are presumed to play key roles in cell-cell communication via transfer of biomolecules between cells. The biogenesis of these two types of EVs differs as they originate from either the endosomal (exosomes) or plasma (MVs) membranes. To elucidate the primary means through which EVs mediate intercellular communication, we characterized their ability to encapsulate and deliver different types of macromolecules from transiently transfected cells. Both EV types encapsulated reporter proteins and mRNA but only MVs transferred the reporter function to recipient cells. De novo reporter protein expression in recipient cells resulted only from plasmid DNA (pDNA) after delivery via MVs. Reporter mRNA was delivered to recipient cells by both EV types, but was rapidly degraded without being translated. MVs also mediated delivery of functional pDNA encoding Cre recombinase in vivo to tissues in transgenic Cre-lox reporter mice. Within the parameters of this study, MVs delivered functional pDNA, but not RNA, whereas exosomes from the same source did not deliver functional nucleic acids. These results have significant implications for understanding the role of EVs in cellular communication and for development of EVs as delivery tools. Moreover, studies using EVs from transiently transfected cells may be confounded by a predominance of pDNA transfer.