Capsule endoscopy in young patients with iron deficiency anaemia and negative bidirectional gastrointestinal endoscopy.
ABSTRACT: Recent data imply young patients (age ?50 years) undergoing small-bowel (SB) capsule endoscopy (CE) for iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) show higher diagnostic yield (DY) for sinister pathology. We aimed to investigate DY of CE in a large cohort of young IDA patients, and evaluate factors predicting significant SB pathology.This was a retrospective, multicentre study (2010-2015) in consecutive, young patients (?50 years) from 18 centres/12 countries, with negative bidirectional gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy undergoing SBCE for IDA. Exclusion criteria: previous/ongoing obscure-overt GI bleeding; age <19 or >50 years; comorbidities associated with IDA. Data retrieved: SBCE indications; prior investigations; medications; SBCE findings; final diagnosis. Clinical and laboratory data were analysed by multivariate logistic regression.Data on 389 young IDA patients were retrieved. In total, 169 (43.4%) were excluded due to incomplete clinical data; data from 220 (122F/98M; mean age 40.5?±?8.6 years) patients were analysed. Some 71 patients had at least one clinically significant SBCE finding (DY: 32.3%). They were divided into two groups: neoplastic pathology (10/220; 4.5%), and non-neoplastic but clinically significant pathology (61/220; 27.7%). The most common significant but non-neoplastic pathologies were angioectasias (22/61) and Crohn's disease (15/61). On multivariate analysis, weight loss and lower mean corpuscular volume(MCV) were associated with significant SB pathology (OR: 3.87; 95%CI: 1.3-11.3; p?=?0.01; and OR: 0.96; 95%CI: 0.92-0.99; p?=?0.03; respectively). Our model also demonstrates association between use of antiplatelets and significant SB pathology, although due to the small number of patients, definitive conclusions cannot be drawn.In IDA patients ?50 years with negative bidirectional GI endoscopy, overall DY of SBCE for clinically significant findings was 32.3%. Some 5% of our cohort was diagnosed with SB neoplasia; lower MCV or weight loss were associated with higher DY for SB pathology.
Project description:<b>Background/Aim:</b> Chewing gum throughout small bowel capsule endoscopy (SBCE) increases completion rates (CRs) but decreases small bowel transit time (SBTT) and diagnostic yield (DY). We determined the effects of chewing gum early during SBCE on gastric transit time (GTT), SBTT, CR, DY, and gastroscopy intervention. <b>Methods:</b> We prospectively enrolled patients (ages 16-80 years) undergoing SBCE between January and June 2019. Patients were randomized to a chewing gum group (103 patients) and a control group (102 patients). Patients in the former group chewed one piece of gum for ~15 min every 30 min during the first hour of SBCE. Two gastroenterologists blinded to the study group examined the data. <b>Results:</b> GTT was shorter in the chewing gum group (19.0 min, interquartile range: 17.0-52.0 min) than in the control group [42.5 min (23.25-60 min); <i>P</i> = 0.01]. SBTT was similar in the two groups [318.5 min (239.5-421.3 min) vs. 287.0 min (216.0-386.0 min); <i>P</i> = 0.08]. Gastroscopy rate was lower in the chewing gum group (15.53 vs. 32.35%, <i>P</i> = 0.005). CR (95.15 vs. 89.22%, <i>P</i> = 0.114) and DY (66.02 vs. 59.80%, <i>P</i> = 0.359) did not differ between the groups. The number of abnormal-lesion types detected per patient was higher in the chewing gum group [1.0 (0.0-2.0) vs. 2.0 (0.0-2.0); <i>P</i> = 0.049]. <b>Conclusions:</b> Chewing gum early during SBCE significantly reduced GTT and gastroscopy intervention, with no influence on SBTT (Trial number: NCT03815136).
Project description:Background and Aims:Diagnostic yield of Small Bowel Capsule Endoscopy (SBCE) for the assessment of small bowel (SB) lesions is higher than radiologic imaging techniques. However, magnetic resonance enterography (MRE) data are scarce and inconclusive. Colon Capsule Endoscopy (CCE) is a new capsule modality. The primary aim of our study was to compare MRE and capsule endoscopy (CE) for the assessment of Crohn's disease (CD). The secondary objectives were to compare the diagnostic accuracy of both CE modalities and changes in Montreal classification after each examination. Methods:We included 47 patients with established (n = 32) or suspected CD (n = 15). MRE was performed first to rule out strictures. In patients with a suspected stricture by MRE, an Agile Patency Capsule was performed. SB disease activity was measured by MaRIA score (MRE) and Lewis Index (CE). Results:SB lesions were found in 36 of47 patients with CE and in 21 of47 patients with MRE (76.6% vs 44.7%, P = 0.001). Jejunal inflammation was detected by CE in 31.9% of patients and by MRE in 6.4% of patients (15/47 vs 3/47; P = 0.03); lesions in ileum were detected in 57.4% of patients by CE, and in 21.3% of patients by MRE (27/ 47 vs 10/ 47; P = 0.04). Finally, in terminal ileum, CE showed lesions in 68.1% (32/47) of patients, whereas MRE detected lesions in 38.3% (18/ 47 patients), (P = 0.001). The original Montreal classification was changed in 53.1% of patients (25/ 47) based on CE findings and in 12.7% of patients (6/47) based on MRE findings (P < 0.05). Conclusions:In our cohort CE was significantly superior to MRE for detecting SB lesions, mainly superficial and proximal lesions. CE is useful for a appropriate patients' classification according to Montreal classification.
Project description:<b>Background/aims: </b>Capsule endoscopy (CE) is recommended as the primary method for the evaluation of unexplained anemia. This study aimed to assess the diagnostic yield of CE in patients with unexplained iron deficiency anemia (IDA) without overt bleeding, and to evaluate their long-term outcomes and related clinical factors.<br><br><b>Methods: </b>Data of patients who underwent CE for the evaluation of IDA were reviewed from a CE registry in Korea. Additional clinical data were collected by the involved investigators of each hospital through a review of medical records.<br><br><b>Results: </b>Among a total of 144 patients, the diagnostic yield of CE was 34%. Gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding was found in 6.3% (n=9) of the patients (occult bleeding in four patients and overt bleeding in five patients) during a mean follow-up of 17.8 months. Patients with a positive fecal occult blood test (FOBT) result at the initial diagnosis had a higher rate of GI bleeding after CE (p=0.004). In addition, a positive FOBT result was the only independent predictive factor for GI bleeding (hazard ratio, 5.30; 95% confidence interval, 1.41-19.85; p=0.013).<br><br><b>Conclusion: </b>Positive FOBT is a predictive factor for GI bleeding during follow-up after CE in patients with unexplained IDA without overt bleeding. Thus, patients with positive FOBT need to be more closely followed up.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Capsule endoscopy can be used to identify the early stage of small bowel Crohn's disease (CD). We evaluated significant small bowel capsule endoscopy (SBCE) findings that can lead to early diagnosis of CD.<h4>Methods</h4>We retrospectively accumulated clinical and SBCE data of 108 patients (63 with and 45 without CD). Types of small bowel mucosal injuries, including erosion, ulceration, and cobblestone appearance, and the alignment of diminutive lesions were compared between patients with and without CD. Inter- and intra-observer agreement in the determination of lesions was assessed in 25 pairs of SBCE from the two groups.<h4>Results</h4>Under SBCE, cobblestone appearance (33% vs. 2%, p?<?0.0001), longitudinal ulcers (78% vs. 20%, p?<?0.0001), and irregular ulcers (84% vs. 60%, p?<?0.01) were more frequently found in patients with CD. Linear erosion (90% vs. 38%, p?<?0.0001) and irregular erosion (89% vs. 64%, p?<?0.005) were also more frequent in patients with CD. Furthermore, circumferential (75% vs. 9%, p?<?0.0001) and longitudinal (56% vs. 7%, p?<?0.0001) alignment of diminutive lesions, mainly observed in the 1st tertile of the small bowel, was more frequent in patients with CD. Good intra-observer agreement was found for ulcers, cobblestone appearance, and lesion alignment. However, inter-observer agreement of SBCE findings differed among observers.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Circumferential or longitudinal alignment of diminutive lesions, especially in the upper small bowel, may be a diagnostic clue for CD under SBCE, while inter-observer variations should be cautiously considered when using SBCE.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Video capsule endoscopy (VCE) is a noninvasive imaging modality that can identify mucosal lesions not detected with traditional endoscopy or abdominal sonography. In people, VCE is used in diagnostic and management protocols of various gastrointestinal (GI) disorders, particularly in GI bleeding of obscure origin or unexplained iron deficiency anemia (IDA). OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the utility of VCE in the identification of mucosal lesions in dogs with evidence of GI hemorrhage. ANIMALS:Sixteen client-owned dogs that underwent VCE. METHODS:Retrospective case-control study. Medical records were reviewed to include dogs with microcytosis, low normal mean corpuscular volume, or clinical GI bleeding that received VCE. RESULTS:Median age of dogs was 8.7 years (range, 8 months to 15 years) with a median weight of 21.7 kg (range, 6.9-62.5 kg). Abdominal ultrasound (16), abdominal radiography (4), and abdominal CT (1) did not identify a cause for GI blood loss. Gastric mucosal lesions were identified by VCE in 15 of 16 dogs and small intestinal lesions in 12 of 14 dogs, with 2 capsules remaining in the stomach. Endoscopy was performed in 2 dogs before VCE; 1 dog had additional small intestinal lesions identified through the use of VCE. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE:Video capsule endoscopy is a minimally invasive diagnostic tool that can identify GI lesions in dogs presenting with microcytosis with or without GI hemorrhage when ultrasonography is inconclusive; however, the majority of lesions identified would have been apparent with conventional endoscopy.
Project description:The indication for endoscopy to investigate anemia of causes other than iron deficiency is not clear. Increasing numbers of endoscopic procedures for anemia raises concerns about costs to the health system, waiting times, and patient safety. The primary aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic yield of endoscopy in patients referred to undergo investigation for anemia. Secondary aims were to identify additional factors enabling the risk stratification of those likely to benefit from endoscopic investigation, and to undertake a cost analysis of performing endoscopy in this group of patients.We performed a retrospective review of endoscopy referrals for the investigation of anemia over a 12-month period at a single center. The patients were divided into three groups: those who had true iron deficiency anemia (IDA), tissue iron deficiency without anemia (TIDWA), or anemia of other cause (AOC). Outcome measures included finding a lesion responsible for the anemia and a significant change of management as a result of endoscopy. A costing analysis was performed with an activity-based costing method.We identified 283 patients who underwent endoscopy to investigate anemia. A likely cause of anemia was found in 31 of 150 patients with IDA (21 %) and 0 patients in the other categories (P < 0.001). A change of management was observed in 35 patients with IDA (23 %), 1 of 14 patients with TIDWA (7.14 %), and 8 of 119 patients with AOC (6.7 %) (P < 0.001). The cost of a single colonoscopy or gastroscopy was approximated to be $ 2209.Endoscopic investigation for non-IDA comes at a significant cost to our institution, equating to a minimum of $ 293 797 per annum in extra costs, and does not result in a change of management in the majority of patients. No additional factors could be established to identify patients who might be more likely to benefit from endoscopic investigation. The endoscopic investigation of non-IDA should be minimized.
Project description:A new objective for the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) is to develop long-term partnerships with African countries. For this, an International Affairs Working Group (IAWG) was formed. In conjunction with the World Endoscopy Organization (WEO), ESGE conducted a survey of gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy in Africa. Survey results showed that many African countries have few GI endoscopy centers with adequate resources. Barriers to the development of endoscopy services include a shortage of endoscopists who have undergone advanced endoscopy training, and a lack of equipment and basic infrastructure. Diseases related to infectious etiology are more prevalent than neoplastic diseases in Africa. Any development of endoscopy services needs to consider the local prevalence of diseases for which GI endoscopy is required, as well as the availability of resources. The IAWG will initiate a cascade approach to identify and adapt ESGE guidelines for local use. The guidelines will consider the level of resources available for each intervention, as well as cost, infrastructure, and training, and will be approved by consensus of local experts who are representative of different African areas. Suitable centers in African countries will be identified, and in future will be developed into WEO/ESGE training centers, to provide local training in both basic and advanced endoscopy according to the needs of the area.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is common in patients with gastrointestinal (GI) disorders and can adversely affect quality of life. Oral iron is poorly tolerated in many patients with GI disorders. Ferumoxytol is approved for the intravenous treatment of IDA in patients with chronic kidney disease. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ferumoxytol in patients with IDA and concomitant GI disorders. PATIENTS AND METHODS:This analysis included 231 patients with IDA and GI disorders from a Phase III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial evaluating ferumoxytol (510 mg ×2) versus placebo in patients who had failed or were intolerant of oral iron therapy. The primary study end point was the proportion of patients achieving a ?20 g/L increase in hemoglobin (Hgb) from baseline to Week 5. Other end points included mean change in Hgb, proportion of patients achieving Hgb ?120 g/L, mean change in transferrin saturation, and patient-reported outcomes (PROs). RESULTS:Significantly more patients with IDA receiving ferumoxytol achieved a ?20 g/L increase in Hgb versus placebo (82.1% vs 1.7%, respectively; P<0.001). Mean increase in Hgb (28.0 g/L vs -1.0 g/L, respectively; P<0.001) significantly favored ferumoxytol treatment. Ferumoxytol-treated patients demonstrated significantly greater improvements than placebo-treated patients relative to their very poor baseline PRO scores posttreatment, including improvements in the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue questionnaire and various domains of the 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey. Ferumoxytol-treated patients had a low rate of adverse events. CONCLUSION:In this study, ferumoxytol was shown to be an efficacious and generally well-tolerated treatment option for patients with IDA and underlying GI disorders who were unable to use or had a history of unsatisfactory oral iron therapy.
Project description:The most concerning complication of video capsule endoscopy (VCE) is capsule retention (CR) in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract although clinical outcome and management of patients with CR are still uncertain in a large single center material.The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate incidence, causes, risk factors, management and clinical outcomes of CR in a large single center between 2001 and 2011.2401 consecutive small-bowel (SB) VCEs were performed. CR was detected in 25 cases (1%). CR in patients with suspected and known Crohn's disease (CD) undergoing VCE occurred in 14/1370 (1%) including known CD 9/390 (2.3%) and suspected CD 5/980 (0.5%). CR in patients with obscure GI bleeding was observed in 11/816 (1.3%) cases. The SB was the most common site of CR with 17 cases followed by the esophagus (4 cases), colon (2 cases), and stomach (2 cases). Emergency endoscopic intervention (3 cases) and surgery (2 cases) was needed in 5 cases of CR. Elective capsule removal was performed by surgery in 6 cases and endoscopically in 8 cases. Three retained capsules dislodged after steroid treatment and another 3 cases of CR resolved without any intervention.This large clinical material demonstrates that CR is a rare complication with a favorable clinical outcome. Most patients with CR can be electively managed with non-surgical intervention.
Project description:BACKGROUND & STUDY AIMS:Corona virus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic has markedly impacted routine medical services including gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy. We aim to report the real-life performance in high volume GI endoscopy units during the pandemic. PATIENTS AND METHODS:A web-based survey covering all aspects of daily performance in GI endoscopy units was sent to endoscopy units worldwide. Responses were collected and data were analyzed to reveal the effect of COVID-19 pandemic on endoscopy practice. RESULTS:Participants from 48 countries (n = 163) responded to the survey with response rate of 67.35%. The majority (85%) decreased procedure volume by over 50%, and four endoscopy units (2.45%) completely stopped. The top three indications for procedures included upper GI bleeding (89.6%), lower GI bleeding (65.6%) and cholangitis (62.6%). The majority (93.9%) triaged patients for COVID-19 prior to procedure. N95 masks were used in (57.1%), isolation gowns in (74.2%) and head covers in (78.5%). Most centers (65%) did not extend use of N95 masks, however 50.9% of centers reused N95 masks. Almost all (91.4%) centers used standard endoscopic decontamination and most (69%) had no negative pressure rooms. Forty-two centers (25.8%) reported positive cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection among patients and 50 (30.7%) centers reported positive cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection among their healthcare workers. CONCLUSIONS:Most GI endoscopy centers had a significant reduction in their volume and most procedures performed were urgent. Most centers used the recommended personal protective equipment (PPE) by GI societies however there is still a possibility of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 infection in GI endoscopy units.