Graphene-Insulator-Semiconductor Junction for Hybrid Photodetection Modalities.
ABSTRACT: A sensitive optical detector is presented based on a deeply depleted graphene-insulator-semiconducting (D2GIS) junction, which offers the possibility of simultaneously leveraging the advantages of both charge integration and localized amplification. Direct read-out and built-in amplification are accomplished via photogating of a graphene field-effect transistor (GFET) by carriers generated within a deeply depleted low-doped silicon substrate. Analogous to a depleted metal-oxide-semiconducting junction, photo-generated charge collects in the potential well that forms at the semiconductor/insulator interface and induces charges of opposite polarity within the graphene film modifying its conductivity. This device enables simultaneous photo-induced charge integration with continuous "on detector" readout through use of graphene. The resulting devices exhibit responsivities as high as 2,500?A/W (25,000?S/W) for visible wavelengths and a dynamic range of 30?dB. As both the graphene and device principles are transferrable to arbitrary semiconductor absorbers, D2GIS devices offer a high-performance paradigm for imaging across the electromagnetic spectrum.
Project description:Graphene normally behaves as a semimetal because it lacks a bandgap, but when it is patterned into nanoribbons a bandgap can be introduced. By varying the width of these nanoribbons this band gap can be tuned from semiconducting to metallic. This property allows metallic and semiconducting regions within a single Graphene monolayer, which can be used in realising two-dimensional (2D) planar Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor field effect devices. Based on this concept, we present a new class of nano-scale planar devices named Graphene Self-Switching MISFEDs (Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor Field-Effect Diodes), in which Graphene is used as the metal and the semiconductor concurrently. The presented devices exhibit excellent current-voltage characteristics while occupying an ultra-small area with sub-10 nm dimensions and an ultimate thinness of a single atom. Quantum mechanical simulation results, based on the Extended Huckel method and Nonequilibrium Green's Function Formalism, show that a Graphene Self-Switching MISFED with a channel as short as 5 nm can achieve forward-to-reverse current rectification ratios exceeding 5000.
Project description:Graphene photo-detectors functionalized by colloidal quantum dots (cQDs) have been demonstrated to show effective photo-detection. Although the transfer of charge carriers or energy from the cQDs to graphene is not sufficiently understood, it is clear that the mechanism and efficiency of the transfer depends on the morphology of the interface between cQDs and graphene, which is determined by the shell of the cQDs in combination with its ligands. Here, we present a study of a graphene field-effect transistor (FET), which is functionalized by long-ligand CdSe/ZnS core/shell cQDs. Time-resolved photo-luminescence from the cQDs as a function of the applied gate voltage has been investigated in order to probe transfer dynamics in this system. Thereby, a clear modification of the photo-luminescence lifetime has been observed, indicating a change of the decay channels. Furthermore, we provide responsivities under a Förster-like energy transfer model as a function of the gate voltage in support of our findings. The model shows that by applying a back-gate voltage to the photo-detector, the absorption can be tuned with respect to the photo-luminescence of the cQDs. This leads to a tunable energy transfer rate across the interface of the photo-detector, which offers an opportunity to optimize the photo-detection.
Project description:Electrodepositing low loadings of metallic nanoparticle catalysts onto the surface of semiconducting photoelectrodes is a highly attractive approach for decreasing catalyst costs and minimizing optical losses. However, securely anchoring nanoparticles to the photoelectrode surface can be challenging-especially if the surface is covered by a thin insulating overlayer. Herein, we report on Si-based photocathodes for the hydrogen evolution reaction that overcome this problem through the use of a 2-10 nm thick layer of silicon oxide (SiOx) that is deposited on top of Pt nanoparticle catalysts that were first electrodeposited on a 1.5 nm SiO2|p-Si(100) absorber layer. Such insulator-metal-insulator-semiconductor (IMIS) photoelectrodes exhibit superior durability and charge transfer properties compared to metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) control samples that lacked the secondary SiOx overlayer. Systematic investigation of the influence of particle loading, SiOx layer thickness, and illumination intensity suggests that the SiOx layer possesses moderate conductivity, thereby reducing charge transfer resistance associated with high local tunneling current densities between the p-Si and Pt nanoparticles. Importantly, the IMIS architecture is proven to be a highly effective approach for stabilizing electrocatalytic nanoparticles deposited on insulating overlayers without adversely affecting mass transport of reactant and product species associated with the hydrogen evolution reaction.
Project description:Ferroelectric organic field-effect transistors (Fe-OFETs) have been attractive for a variety of non-volatile memory device applications. One of the critical issues of Fe-OFETs is the improvement of carrier mobility in semiconducting channels. In this article, we propose a novel interfacial buffering method that inserts an ultrathin poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) between ferroelectric polymer and organic semiconductor layers. A high field-effect mobility (?FET) up to 4.6 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) is obtained. Subsequently, the programming process in our Fe-OFETs is mainly dominated by the switching between two ferroelectric polarizations rather than by the mobility-determined charge accumulation at the channel. Thus, the "reading" and "programming" speeds are significantly improved. Investigations show that the polarization fluctuation at semiconductor/insulator interfaces, which affect the charge transport in conducting channels, can be suppressed effectively using our method.
Project description:We report a derivative spectroscopic method for determining insulator-to-semiconductor transition during sol-gel metal-oxide semiconductor formation. When an as-spun sol-gel precursor film is photochemically activated and changes to semiconducting state, the light absorption characteristics of the metal-oxide film is considerable changed particularly in the ultraviolet region. As a result, a peak is generated in the first-order derivatives of light absorption (A') vs. wavelength (λ) plots, and by tracing the peak center shift and peak intensity, transition from insulating-to-semiconducting state of the film can be monitored. The peak generation and peak center shift are described based on photon-energy-dependent absorption coefficient of metal-oxide films. We discuss detailed analysis method for metal-oxide semiconductor films and its application in thin-film transistor fabrication. We believe this derivative spectroscopy based determination can be beneficial for a non-destructive and a rapid monitoring of the insulator-to-semiconductor transition in sol-gel oxide semiconductor formation.
Project description:The influence of graphene and retinoic acid (RA) - a ?-conjugated organic semiconductor - interface on their hybrid system is investigated. The physical properties of the interface are assessed via scanning probe microscopy, optical spectroscopy (photoluminescence and Raman) and ab initio calculations. The graphene/RA interaction induces the formation of a well-organized ?-conjugated self-assembled monolayer (SAM) at the interface. Such structural organization leads to the high optical emission efficiency of the RA SAM, even at room temperature. Additionally, photo-assisted electrical force microscopy, photo-assisted scanning Kelvin probe microscopy and Raman spectroscopy indicate a RA-induced graphene doping and photo-charge generation. Finally, the optical excitation of the RA monolayer generates surface potential changes on the hybrid system. In summary, interface-induced organized structures atop 2D materials may have an important impact on both design and operation of ?-conjugated nanomaterial-based hybrid systems.
Project description:Intrinsic mobility of electrons at the interfaces between crystalline organic semiconductors and insulating dielectric polymer films was rapidly evaluated in an ambient atmosphere by TRMC@Interfaces, a noncontact and nondestructive method based on dielectric loss spectroscopy of microwaves. By just preparing simple metal-insulator-semiconductor devices, local-scale motions of charge carriers injected into the interface by pulses of gate bias voltage were monitored through reflected microwave changes, resulting in the evaluation of local-scale charge carrier mobilities together with the value of trap density at the interface. The evaluated high electron mobilities of 12 cm2 V-1 s-1 for N,N'-bis(cyclohexyl)naphthalene-1,4,5,8-bis(dicarboximide) (DCy-NDI) and 15 cm2 V-1 s-1 for N,N'-dioctylperylene-1,4,5,8-bis(dicarboximide) (DC 8 -PDI) are the benchmarks for organic semiconducting materials that are comparable with the highest ones reported from the field-effect transistor devices. The present TRMC@Interfaces was found to serve as a rapid screening technique to examine the intrinsic performance of organic semiconducting materials as well as a useful tool enabling the precise discussion on the relationship among their local-scale charge carrier mobility, thin-film morphology, and packing structure.
Project description:Heterostructure devices consisting of graphene and colloidal quantum dots (QDs) have been remarkably successful as photodetectors and have opened the door to technological applications based on the combination of these low-dimensional materials. This work explores the photodetection properties of a heterostructure consisting of a graphene field effect transistor covered by a film of silica-encapsulated colloidal QDs. Defects at the surface of the silica shell trap optically excited charge carriers, which simultaneously enables photodetection via two mechanisms: photogating, resulting in a net p-doping of the device, and Coulombic scattering of charge carriers in the graphene, producing an overall decrease in the current magnitude.
Project description:In a MIS (Metal/Insulator/Semiconductor) structure consisting of two terminals, a systematic analysis of the electrical charge transport mechanism through an insulator is essential for advanced electronic application devices such as next-generation memories based on resistance differences. Herein, we have verified the charge transfer phenomenon in MIOS (Metal/Insulator/Oxide Semiconductor) diodes through a defect engineering of the insulator. By selectively generating the oxygen vacancies in the insulator (Al2O3), the MIOS diode rectification of the P++-Si anode/Al2O3/IGZO cathode reached 107 at 1.8 V and considerably suppressed the leakage current. Studying the current-voltage characteristics of MIOS diodes shows that the charge carrier transport mechanism can vary depending on the defect density as well as the difference between the CBM (conduction band minimum) of the semiconductor and the oxygen vacancy energy level of the insulator.
Project description:Phase transitions of electron-hole pairs on semiconductor/conductor interfaces determine fundamental properties of optoelectronics. To investigate interfacial dynamical transitions of charged quasiparticles, however, remains a grand challenge. By employing ultrafast mid-infrared microspectroscopic probes to detect excitonic internal quantum transitions and two-dimensional atomic device fabrications, we are able to directly monitor the interplay between free carriers and insulating interlayer excitons between two atomic layers. Our observations reveal unexpected ultrafast formation of tightly bound interlayer excitons between conducting graphene and semiconducting MoSe2. The result suggests carriers in the doped graphene are no longer massless, and an effective mass as small as one percent of free electron mass is sufficient to confine carriers within a 2D hetero space with energy 10 times larger than the room-temperature thermal energy. The interlayer excitons arise within 1?ps. Their formation effectively blocks charge recombination and improves charge separation efficiency for more than one order of magnitude.