Skeletal Muscle Fat and Its Association With Physical Function in Rheumatoid Arthritis.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:To characterize skeletal muscle fat (SMF), intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT), and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) in individuals with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and assess the associations between these fat depots and physical function and physical activity. METHODS:In a cross-sectional analysis from an RA cohort, SMF, IMAT, and SAT were measured using computed tomography imaging of the midthigh cross-sectional region. Physical function was measured using the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) and a battery of performance-based tests that included quadriceps muscle strength, gait speed, repeated chair-stands, stair ascent, and single-leg stance. Physical activity was assessed using an activity monitor. Associations between SMF, IMAT, and SAT and physical function and activity were assessed by multiple linear regression models adjusted for potential confounders such as age, sex, body mass index (BMI), muscle area, and muscle strength. RESULTS:Sixty subjects with RA (82% female, mean ± SD age 59 ± 10 years, mean ± SD BMI 31.79 ± 7.16 kg/m2 ) were included. In the adjusted models, lower SMF was associated with greater gait speed, single-leg stance, quadriceps strength, and physical activity, and less disability (R2 ? range 0.06-0.25; P < 0.05), whereas IMAT was not associated with physical function or physical activity and SAT was negatively associated with disability (HAQ) (R2 ? = 0.13; P < 0.05) and weakly but positively associated with muscle strength (R2 ? = 0.023; P < 0.05). CONCLUSION:Fat infiltration within the muscle seems to independently contribute to low physical function and physical activity, contrary to IMAT or SAT accumulation. Longitudinal studies are necessary to confirm the impact of SMF on disability and health promotion in persons with RA.
Project description:Accumulating evidence suggests that both dietary restriction and exercise (DR + E) should be incorporated in weight loss interventions to treat obese, older adults. However, more information is needed on the effects to lower extremity tissue composition-an important consideration for preserving mobility in older adults.Twenty-seven sedentary women (body mass index: 36.3±5.4kg/m(2); age: 63.6±5.6 yrs) were randomly assigned to 6 months of DR + E or a health education control group. Thigh and calf muscle, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), and intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) size were determined using magnetic resonance imaging. Physical function was measured using a long-distance corridor walk and knee extension strength.Compared with control, DR + E significantly reduced body mass (-6.6±3.7kg vs control: -0.05±3.5kg; p < .01). Thigh and calf muscle volumes responded similarly between groups. Within the DR + E group, adipose tissue was reduced more in the thigh than in the calf (p < .04). Knee extension strength was unaltered by DR + E, but a trend toward increased walking speed was observed in the DR + E group (p = .09). Post hoc analyses showed that reductions in SAT and IMAT within the calf, but not the thigh, were associated with faster walking speed achieved with DR + E (SAT: r = -0.62; p = .01; IMAT: r = -0.62; p = .01).DR + E preserved lower extremity muscle size and function and reduced regional lower extremity adipose tissue. Although the magnitude of reduction in adipose tissue was greater in the thigh than the calf region, post hoc analyses demonstrated that reductions in calf SAT and IMAT were associated with positive adaptations in physical function.
Project description:PURPOSE:We examined whether sedentary lifestyle habits and physical activity level are associated with abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT), and liver attenuation, independently of one another and potential confounders. METHODS:This study analyzed 3010 African American and Caucasian men and women, 42-59 yr old, from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study, who completed multiple-slice abdominal computed tomography in 2010-2011. Participants reported average hours per day sitting (television, computing, paperwork, music, telephone, and car). Physical activity was assessed with the CARDIA physical activity history. VAT, SAT, IMAT, and liver attenuation were estimated from computed tomography. Multivariable general linear regression models regressed means of fat depots on total sedentary time, task-specific sedentary time, and total physical activity. RESULTS:Television viewing was positively, and physical activity inversely, associated with fat depots. For each 1 SD increment in television viewing (1.5 h·d), VAT, SAT, and IMAT were greater by 3.5, 3.4, and 3.9 cm, respectively (P < 0.03 for all). For each 1 SD increment in physical activity (275 exercise units), VAT, SAT, and IMAT were lower by 7.6, 6.7, and 8.1 cm, respectively, and liver attenuation was greater (indicating more liver fat) by 0.5 Hounsfield units (P < 0.01 for all). Total sedentary time was associated with VAT, IMAT, and liver attenuation in White men only after controlling for physical activity, SAT, and other potential confounders (P ? 0.01 for all). No other task-specific sedentary behaviors were associated with fat depots. CONCLUSIONS:Sedentary behaviors, particularly television viewing, and physical activity levels have distinct, independent associations with fat deposition.
Project description:Intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) is associated with metabolic abnormalities similar to those associated with visceral adipose tissue (VAT). Increased IMAT has been found in obese human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women. We hypothesized that IMAT, like VAT, would be similar or increased in HIV-infected persons compared with healthy controls, despite decreases in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) found in HIV infection. In the second FRAM (Study of Fat Redistribution and Metabolic Change in HIV infection) exam, we studied 425 HIV-infected subjects and 211 controls (from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study) who had regional AT and skeletal muscle (SM) measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Multivariable linear regression identified factors associated with IMAT and its association with metabolites. Total IMAT was 51% lower in HIV-infected participants compared with controls (P = 0.003). The HIV effect was attenuated after multivariable adjustment (to -28%, P < 0.0001 in men and -3.6%, P = 0.70 in women). Higher quantities of leg SAT, upper-trunk SAT, and VAT were associated with higher IMAT in HIV-infected participants, with weaker associations in controls. Stavudine use was associated with lower IMAT and SAT, but showed little relationship with VAT. In multivariable analyses, regional IMAT was associated with insulin resistance and triglycerides (TGs). Contrary to expectation, IMAT is not increased in HIV infection; after controlling for demographics, lifestyle, VAT, SAT, and SM, HIV(+) men have lower IMAT compared with controls, whereas values for women are similar. Stavudine exposure is associated with both decreased IMAT and SAT, suggesting that IMAT shares cellular origins with SAT.
Project description:Objective:Reduced physical function and frailty are common in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, relationships between frailty and changes in physical function and disease activity over time in RA are unknown. We tested whether frailty is a risk factor for worsening patient-reported physical function and disease activity in RA. Methods:Adults from a longitudinal RA cohort (N = 124) participated. By using an established frailty definition, individuals with three or more of the following deficits were considered frail: 1) body mass index less than or equal to 18.5, 2) low grip strength, 3) severe fatigue, 4) slow 4-m walking speed, and 5) low physical activity. Individuals with one to two or zero deficits were considered "pre-frail" or "robust," respectively. Physical function and RA disease activity were assessed by the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) and Rheumatoid Arthritis Disease Activity Index (RADAI), respectively, at baseline and follow-up 2 years later. Regression analyses modeled associations of frailty status with change in HAQ and RADAI scores between baseline and follow-up with and without controlling for covariates. Associations of individual frailty components with change in HAQ and RADAI scores were also examined. Results:Among adults with RA, baseline frailty status predicted significant increases, or worsening, in HAQ (?: 0.4; 95% confidence interval: 0.1-0.8; P < 0.01) but not RADAI scores (?: 0.5; 95% confidence interval: -0.4 to 1.5; P > 0.05) between baseline and follow-up in fully adjusted models. Fatigue was an important contributor to this effect. Conclusion:Frailty may be an important risk factor for reduced physical function over time in RA. Future studies should address whether interventions to reduce frailty improve physical function in RA.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Smokers have lower risk of obesity, which some consider a "beneficial" side effect of smoking. However, some studies suggest that smoking is simultaneously associated with higher central adiposity and, more specifically, ectopic adipose deposition. Little is known about the association of smoking with intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT), an ectopic adipose depot associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and a key determinant of muscle quality and function. We tested the hypothesis that smokers have higher abdominal IMAT and lower lean muscle quality than never smokers. METHODS AND FINDINGS:We measured abdominal muscle total, lean, and adipose volumes (in cubic centimeters) and attenuation (in Hounsfield units [HU]) along with subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) volumes using computed tomography (CT) in 3,020 middle-aged Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) participants (age 42-58, 56.3% women, 52.6% white race) at the year 25 (Y25) visit. The longitudinal CARDIA study was initiated in 1985 with the recruitment of young adult participants (aged 18-30 years) equally balanced by female and male sex and black and white race at 4 field centers located in Birmingham, AL, Chicago, IL, Minneapolis, MN, and Oakland, CA. Multivariable linear models included potential confounders such as physical activity and dietary habits along with traditional CVD risk factors. Current smokers had lower BMI than never smokers. Nevertheless, in the fully adjusted multivariable model with potential confounders, including BMI and CVD risk factors, adjusted mean (95% CI) IMAT volume was 2.66 (2.55-2.76) cm3 in current smokers (n = 524), 2.36 (2.29-2.43) cm3 in former smokers (n = 944), and 2.23 (2.18-2.29) cm3 in never smokers (n = 1,552) (p = 0.007 for comparison of former versus never smoker, and p < 0.001 for comparison of current smoker versus never and former smoker). Moreover, compared to participants who never smoked throughout life (41.6 [41.3-41.9] HU), current smokers (40.4 [39.9-40.9] HU) and former smokers (40.8 [40.5-41.2] HU) had lower lean muscle attenuation suggesting lower muscle quality in the fully adjusted model (p < 0.001 for comparison of never smokers with either of the other two strata). Among participants who had ever smoked, pack-years of smoking exposure were directly associated with IMAT volume (? [95% CI]: 0.017 [0.010-0.025]) (p < 0.001). Despite having less SAT, current smokers also had higher VAT/SAT ratio than never smokers. These findings must be viewed with caution as residual confounding and/or reverse causation may contribute to these associations. CONCLUSIONS:We found that, compared to those who never smoked, current and former smokers had abdominal muscle composition that was higher in adipose tissue volume, a finding consistent with higher CVD risk and age-related physical deconditioning. These findings challenge the belief that smoking-associated weight loss or maintenance confers a health benefit.
Project description:To explore the associations between measures of body composition derived from computed tomography (CT) of the thigh and functional outcomes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).Patients with RA underwent bilateral midfemoral quantitative CT for measurement of thigh fat area (TFA), thigh muscle area (TMA), and thigh muscle density (TMD). The associations of thigh-composition measures with disability and physical performance, as measured with the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), the Valued Life Activities (VLAs), and the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) instruments, were explored in the total cohort and in the cohort subgrouped by sex, controlling for pertinent demographic, lifestyle, and RA disease and treatment covariates.A total of 152 RA patients were studied. Among the potential determinants of TMD, older age, longer duration of sedentary activity, longer duration of RA, higher tender joint count, higher serum interleukin-6 levels, use of glucocorticoids, and nonuse of hydroxychloroquine were all significantly associated with lower TMD in multivariable models. RA characteristics accounted for 63% of the explainable variability in TMD. When comodeled, higher TFA and lower TMD, but not lower TMA, were significantly and independently associated with higher HAQ scores, lower Short Form 36 health survey physical functioning scores, lower composite SPPB scores, and a greater proportion of affected obligatory VLAs.Thigh CT-derived measures of body composition, particularly fat area and muscle density, were strongly associated with disability and physical performance in RA patients, with RA disease features as potential determinants. Efforts to reduce fat and improve muscle quality may reduce disability in this population with impaired physical functioning.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Association between inflammatory markers and intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) has been reported. We hypothesized that subclinical inflammation of adipose tissue surrounding and infiltrating muscle could be related to the metabolic and functional abnormalities of the "aging muscle."<h4>Methods</h4>In 20 healthy elderly men undergoing elective vertebral surgery, IMAT within erector spinae was evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging and body composition by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Fasting glucose, insulin, high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), leptin, adiponectin, and interleukin 6 (IL-6) were measured, and insulin resistance was estimated by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index. In subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) biopsies near the erector spinae, quantification of gene expression was performed.<h4>Results</h4>IMAT showed a significant association with body mass index and total and regional body fat, even after adjustment for age. Insulin, HOMA, and leptin were significantly correlated with IMAT, whereas hs-CRP presented an association of borderline significance. IL-6 expression in SAT was significantly associated with IMAT; IL-6 messenger RNA (mRNA) was negatively associated with adiponectin and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma expression. In multivariate regression analysis, 68% of IMAT variance was explained by fat mass and age, independent of waist circumference, leptin, HOMA, and IL-6 mRNA.<h4>Conclusion</h4>IMAT was primarily related to age and total body adiposity; subclinical inflammation in fat significantly contributes to IMAT.
Project description:Resistance training (RT) improves muscle strength and overall physical function in older adults. RT may be particularly important in the obese elderly who have compromised muscle function. Whether caloric restriction (CR) acts synergistically with RT to enhance function is unknown.As the primary goal of the Improving Muscle for Functional Independence Trial (I'M FIT), we determined the effects of adding CR for weight loss on muscle and physical function responses to RT in older overweight and obese adults.I'M FIT was a 5-mo trial in 126 older (65-79 y) overweight and obese men and women who were randomly assigned to a progressive, 3-d/wk, moderate-intensity RT intervention with a weight-loss intervention (RT+CR) or without a weight-loss intervention (RT). The primary outcome was maximal knee extensor strength; secondary outcomes were muscle power and quality, overall physical function, and total body and thigh compositions.Body mass decreased in the RT+CR group but not in the RT group. Fat mass, percentage of fat, and all thigh fat volumes decreased in both groups, but only the RT+CR group lost lean mass. Adjusted postintervention body- and thigh-composition measures were all lower with RT+CR except intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT). Knee strength, power, and quality and the 4-m gait speed increased similarly in both groups. Adjusted postintervention means for a 400-m walk time and self-reported disability were better with RT+CR with no group differences in other functional measures, including knee strength. Participants with a lower percentage of fat and IMAT at baseline exhibited a greater improvement in the 400-m walk and knee strength and power.RT improved body composition (including reducing IMAT) and muscle strength and physical function in obese elderly, but those with higher initial adiposity experienced less improvement. The addition of CR during RT improves mobility and does not compromise other functional adaptations to RT. These findings support the incorporation of RT into obesity treatments for this population regardless of whether CR is part of the treatment. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01049698.
Project description:To determine the factors associated with gait parameters in female patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).The gait analysis was performed in a large cohort of RA patients, and three basic gait parameters (step length, cadence and gait speed) were calculated. Clinical and laboratory data were also collected. Factors associated with gait parameters were analyzed using multivariable linear regression in the three models with forced entry. Then, we divided those patients with Health Assessment Questionnaire disability index (HAQ) scores ? 0.5 into two groups according to their gait speed that were compared to identify the characteristics of patients with a good HAQ score but poor walking ability.A total of 318 female patients were analyzed. Knee extension strength had the strongest positive association with all three gait parameters (P < 0.0001), while methotrexate use was also positively associated with all three gait parameters (step length: P < 0.05, cadence: P < 0.05 in model 1 and 2; P < 0.01 in model 3, gait speed: P < 0.01). The disease activity score was negatively associated with step length and gait speed (step length, gait speed: P < 0.01 in model 1 and 2; P < 0.05 in model 3). 26% of patients with good HAQ scores showed slow gait speed. Patients with good HAQ scores and slow gait speed had higher disease activity scores (P < 0.05) and lower knee extension strength (P < 0.0001) than those with good HAQ scores and normal gait speed.High knee extension strength, low disease activity and administration of methotrexate were strongly associated with good walking ability in female patients with RA. And, even if patients showed good HAQ scores, about quarter of those patients had poor walking ability, and they showed higher disease activity, lower knee extension strength, compared to the patients with normal gait speed.
Project description:GH and IGF-I have important roles in the maintenance of substrate metabolism and body composition. However, when in excess in acromegaly, the lipolytic and insulin antagonistic effects of GH may alter adipose tissue (AT) deposition.The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of surgery for acromegaly on AT distribution and ectopic lipid deposition in liver and muscle.This was a prospective study before and up to 2 years after pituitary surgery.The setting was an academic pituitary center.Participants were 23 patients with newly diagnosed, untreated acromegaly.We determined visceral (VAT), subcutaneous (SAT), and intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT), and skeletal muscle compartments by total-body magnetic resonance imaging, intrahepatic and intramyocellular lipid by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and serum endocrine, metabolic, and cardiovascular risk markers.VAT and SAT masses were lower than predicted in active acromegaly, but increased after surgery in male and female subjects along with lowering of GH, IGF-I, and insulin resistance. VAT and SAT increased to a greater extent in men than in women. Skeletal muscle mass decreased in men. IMAT was higher in active acromegaly and decreased in women after surgery. Intrahepatic lipid increased, but intramyocellular lipid did not change after surgery.Acromegaly may present a unique type of lipodystrophy characterized by reduced storage of AT in central depots and a shift of excess lipid to IMAT. After surgery, this pattern partially reverses, but differentially in men and women. These findings have implications for understanding the role of GH in body composition and metabolic risk in acromegaly and other clinical settings of GH use.