Erv1 of Arabidopsis thaliana can directly oxidize mitochondrial intermembrane space proteins in the absence of redox-active Mia40.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Many proteins of the mitochondrial intermembrane space (IMS) contain structural disulfide bonds formed by the mitochondrial disulfide relay. In fungi and animals, the sulfhydryl oxidase Erv1 'generates' disulfide bonds that are passed on to the oxidoreductase Mia40, which oxidizes substrate proteins. A different structural organization of plant Erv1 proteins compared to that of animal and fungal orthologs was proposed to explain its inability to complement the corresponding yeast mutant. RESULTS:Herein, we have revisited the biochemical and functional properties of Arabidopsis thaliana Erv1 by both in vitro reconstituted activity assays and complementation of erv1 and mia40 yeast mutants. These mutants were viable, however, they showed severe defects in the biogenesis of IMS proteins. The plant Erv1 was unable to oxidize yeast Mia40 and rather even blocked its activity. Nevertheless, it was able to mediate the import and folding of mitochondrial proteins. CONCLUSIONS:We observed that plant Erv1, unlike its homologs in fungi and animals, can promote protein import and oxidative protein folding in the IMS independently of the oxidoreductase Mia40. In accordance to the absence of Mia40 in many protists, our study suggests that the mitochondrial disulfide relay evolved in a stepwise reaction from an Erv1-only system to which Mia40 was added in order to improve substrate specificity. Graphical Abstract The mitochondrial disulfide relay evolved in a step-wise manner from an Erv1-only system.
Project description:Tim17 is a central, membrane-embedded subunit of the mitochondrial protein import machinery. In this study, we show that Tim17 contains a pair of highly conserved cysteine residues that form a structural disulfide bond exposed to the intermembrane space (IMS). This disulfide bond is critical for efficient protein translocation through the TIM23 complex and for dynamic gating of its preprotein-conducting channel. The disulfide bond in Tim17 is formed during insertion of the protein into the inner membrane. Whereas the import of Tim17 depends on the binding to the IMS protein Mia40, the oxidoreductase activity of Mia40 is surprisingly dispensable for Tim17 oxidation. Our observations suggest that Tim17 can be directly oxidized by the sulfhydryl oxidase Erv1. Thus, import and oxidation of Tim17 are mediated by the mitochondrial disulfide relay, though the mechanism by which the disulfide bond in Tim17 is formed differs considerably from that of soluble IMS proteins.
Project description:Erv1 (essential for respiration and viability 1), is an essential component of the MIA (mitochondrial import and assembly) pathway, playing an important role in the oxidative folding of mitochondrial intermembrane space proteins. In the MIA pathway, Mia40, a thiol oxidoreductase with a CPC motif at its active site, oxidizes newly imported substrate proteins. Erv1 a FAD-dependent thiol oxidase, in turn reoxidizes Mia40 via its N-terminal Cys30-Cys33 shuttle disulfide. However, it is unclear how the two shuttle cysteine residues of Erv1 relay electrons from the Mia40 CPC motif to the Erv1 active-site Cys130-Cys133 disulfide. In the present study, using yeast genetic approaches we showed that both shuttle cysteine residues of Erv1 are required for cell growth. In organelle and in vitro studies confirmed that both shuttle cysteine residues were indeed required for import of MIA pathway substrates and Erv1 enzyme function to oxidize Mia40. Furthermore, our results revealed that the two shuttle cysteine residues of Erv1 are functionally distinct. Although Cys33 is essential for forming the intermediate disulfide Cys33-Cys130' and transferring electrons to the redox active-site directly, Cys30 plays two important roles: (i) dominantly interacts and receives electrons from the Mia40 CPC motif; and (ii) resolves the Erv1 Cys33-Cys130 intermediate disulfide. Taken together, we conclude that both shuttle cysteine residues are required for Erv1 function, and play complementary, but distinct, roles to ensure rapid turnover of active Erv1.
Project description:The copper chaperone for superoxide dismutase 1 (Ccs1) provides an important cellular function against oxidative stress. Ccs1 is present in the cytosol and in the intermembrane space (IMS) of mitochondria. Its import into the IMS depends on the Mia40/Erv1 disulfide relay system, although Ccs1 is, in contrast to typical substrates, a multidomain protein and lacks twin Cx(n)C motifs. We report on the molecular mechanism of the mitochondrial import of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ccs1 as the first member of a novel class of unconventional substrates of the disulfide relay system. We show that the mitochondrial form of Ccs1 contains a stable disulfide bond between cysteine residues C27 and C64. In the absence of these cysteines, the levels of Ccs1 and Sod1 in mitochondria are strongly reduced. Furthermore, C64 of Ccs1 is required for formation of a Ccs1 disulfide intermediate with Mia40. We conclude that the Mia40/Erv1 disulfide relay system introduces a structural disulfide bond in Ccs1 between the cysteine residues C27 and C64, thereby promoting mitochondrial import of this unconventional substrate. Thus the disulfide relay system is able to form, in addition to double disulfide bonds in twin Cx(n)C motifs, single structural disulfide bonds in complex protein domains.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The mitochondrial intermembrane space (IMS) is home to proteins fulfilling numerous essential cellular processes, particularly in metabolism and mitochondrial function. All IMS proteins are nuclear encoded and synthesized in the cytosol and must therefore be correctly targeted and transported to the IMS, either through mitochondrial targeting sequences or conserved cysteines and the mitochondrial disulfide relay system. The mitochondrial oxidoreductase MIA40, which catalyzes disulfide formation in the IMS, is imported by the combined action of the protein AIFM1 and MIA40 itself. Here, we characterized the function of the conserved highly negatively charged C-terminal region of human MIA40. RESULTS:We demonstrate that the C-terminal region is critical during posttranslational mitochondrial import of MIA40, but is dispensable for MIA40 redox function in vitro and in intact cells. The C-terminal negatively charged region of MIA40 slowed import into mitochondria, which occurred with a half-time as slow as 90?min. During this time, the MIA40 precursor persisted in the cytosol in an unfolded state, and the C-terminal negatively charged region served in protecting MIA40 from proteasomal degradation. This stabilizing property of the MIA40 C-terminal region could also be conferred to a different mitochondrial precursor protein, COX19. CONCLUSIONS:Our data suggest that the MIA40 precursor contains the stabilizing information to allow for postranslational import of sufficient amounts of MIA40 for full functionality of the essential disulfide relay. We thereby provide for the first time mechanistic insights into the determinants controlling cytosolic surveillance of IMS precursor proteins.
Project description:Cu, Zn, superoxide dismutase (SOD1) is a ubiquitous enzyme localized in multiple cellular compartments, including mitochondria, where it concentrates in the intermembrane space (IMS). Similar to other small IMS proteins, the import and retention of SOD1 in the IMS is linked to its folding and maturation, involving the formation of critical intra- and intermolecular disulfide bonds. Therefore, the cysteine residues of SOD1 play a fundamental role in its IMS localization. IMS import of SOD1 involves its copper chaperone, CCS, whose mitochondrial distribution is regulated by the Mia40/Erv1 disulfide relay system in a redox-dependent manner: CCS promotes SOD1 maturation and retention in the IMS. The function of SOD1 in the IMS is still unknown, but it is plausible that it serves to remove superoxide released from the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Mutations in SOD1 cause familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), whose pathologic features include mitochondrial bioenergetic dysfunction. Mutant SOD1 localization in the IMS is not dictated by oxygen concentration and the Mia40/Erv1 system, but is primarily dependent on aberrant protein folding and aggregation. Mutant SOD1 localization and aggregation in the IMS might cause the mitochondrial abnormalities observed in familial ALS and could play a significant role in disease pathogenesis.
Project description:The mitochondrial disulfide relay system of Mia40 and Erv1/ALR facilitates import of the small translocase of the inner membrane (Tim) proteins and cysteine-rich proteins. A chemical screen identified small molecules that inhibit Erv1 oxidase activity, thereby facilitating dissection of the disulfide relay system in yeast and vertebrate mitochondria. One molecule, mitochondrial protein import blockers from the Carla Koehler laboratory (MitoBloCK-6), attenuated the import of Erv1 substrates into yeast mitochondria and inhibited oxidation of Tim13 and Cmc1 in in vitro reconstitution assays. In addition, MitoBloCK-6 revealed an unexpected role for Erv1 in the carrier import pathway, namely transferring substrates from the translocase of the outer membrane complex onto the small Tim complexes. Cardiac development was impaired in MitoBloCK-6-exposed zebrafish embryos. Finally, MitoBloCK-6 induced apoptosis via cytochrome c release in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) but not in differentiated cells, suggesting an important role for ALR in hESC homeostasis.
Project description:Coiled-coil helix coiled-coil helix domain-containing protein 3 (ChChd3) is a mitochondrial inner membrane (IM) protein facing toward the intermembrane space (IMS). In the IMS, ChChd3 complexes with multiple proteins at the crista junctions and contact sites and plays a key role in maintaining crista integrity. ChChd3 is myristoylated at the N terminus and has a CHCH domain with twin CX(9)C motifs at its C terminus. The CHCH domain proteins are traditionally imported and trapped in the IMS by using a disulfide relay system mediated by Mia40 and Erv1. In this study, we systematically analyzed the role of the myristoylation and the CHCH domain in the import and mitochondrial localization of ChChd3. Based on our results, we predict that myristoylation promotes binding of ChChd3 to the outer membrane and that the CHCH domain translocates the protein across the outer membrane. By analysis of the CHCH domain cysteine mutants, we further show that they have distinct roles in binding to Mia40 in the IMS and proper folding of the protein. The transient disulfide-bonded intermediate with Mia40 is formed preferentially between the second cysteine in helix 1, Cys(193), and the active site cysteine in Mia40, Cys(55). Although each of the four cysteines is essential for folding of the protein and binding to mitofilin and Sam50, they are not involved in import. Together our results indicate that both the myristoylation and the CHCH domain are essential for the import and mitochondrial localization of ChChd3. Once imported, ChChd3 binds to Mia40 for further folding and assembly into macromolecular complexes.
Project description:A disulfide relay system (DRS) was recently identified in the yeast mitochondrial intermembrane space (IMS) that consists of two essential components: the sulfhydryl oxidase Erv1 and the redox-regulated import receptor Mia40. The DRS drives the import of cysteine-rich proteins into the IMS via an oxidative folding mechanism. Erv1p is reoxidized within this system, transferring its electrons to molecular oxygen through interactions with cytochrome c and cytochrome c oxidase (COX), thereby linking the DRS to the respiratory chain. The role of the human Erv1 ortholog, GFER, in the DRS has been poorly explored. Using homozygosity mapping, we discovered that a mutation in the GFER gene causes an infantile mitochondrial disorder. Three children born to healthy consanguineous parents presented with progressive myopathy and partial combined respiratory-chain deficiency, congenital cataract, sensorineural hearing loss, and developmental delay. The consequences of the mutation at the level of the patient's muscle tissue and fibroblasts were 1) a reduction in complex I, II, and IV activity; 2) a lower cysteine-rich protein content; 3) abnormal ultrastructural morphology of the mitochondria, with enlargement of the IMS space; and 4) accelerated time-dependent accumulation of multiple mtDNA deletions. Moreover, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae erv1(R182H) mutant strain reproduced the complex IV activity defect and exhibited genetic instability of the mtDNA and mitochondrial morphological defects. These findings shed light on the mechanisms of mitochondrial biogenesis, establish the role of GFER in the human DRS, and promote an understanding of the pathogenesis of a new mitochondrial disease.
Project description:Mia40 and Erv1 execute a disulfide relay to import the small Tim proteins into the mitochondrial intermembrane space. Here, we have reconstituted the oxidative folding pathway in vitro with Tim13 as a substrate and determined the midpoint potentials of Mia40 and Tim13. Specifically, Mia40 served as a direct oxidant of Tim13, and Erv1 was required to reoxidize Mia40. During oxidation, four electrons were transferred from Tim13 with the insertion of two disulfide bonds in succession. The extent of Tim13 oxidation was directly dependent on Mia40 concentration and independent of Erv1 concentration. Characterization of the midpoint potentials showed that electrons flowed from Tim13 with a more negative midpoint potential of -310 mV via Mia40 with an intermediate midpoint potential of -290 mV to the C130-C133 pair of Erv1 with a positive midpoint potential of -150 mV. Intermediary complexes between Tim13-Mia40 and Mia40-Erv1 were trapped. Last, mutating C133 of the catalytic C130-C133 pair or C30 of the shuttle C30-C33 pair in Erv1 abolished oxidation of Tim13, whereas mutating the cysteines in the redox-active CPC motif, but not the structural disulfide linkages of the CX(9)C motif of Mia40, prevented Tim13 oxidation. Thus, we demonstrate that Mia40, Erv1, and oxygen are the minimal machinery for Tim13 oxidation.
Project description:In yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and animals, the sulfhydryl oxidase Erv1 functions with Mia40 in the import and oxidative folding of numerous cysteine-rich proteins in the mitochondrial intermembrane space (IMS). Erv1 is also required for Fe-S cluster assembly in the cytosol, which uses at least one mitochondrially derived precursor. Here, we characterize an essential Erv1 orthologue from the protist Trypanosoma brucei (TbERV1), which naturally lacks a Mia40 homolog. We report kinetic parameters for physiologically relevant oxidants cytochrome c and O(2), unexpectedly find O(2) and cytochrome c are reduced simultaneously, and demonstrate that efficient reduction of O(2) by TbERV1 is not dependent upon a simple O(2) channel defined by conserved histidine and tyrosine residues. Massive mitochondrial swelling following TbERV1 RNA interference (RNAi) provides evidence that trypanosome Erv1 functions in IMS protein import despite the natural absence of the key player in the yeast and animal import pathways, Mia40. This suggests significant evolutionary divergence from a recently established paradigm in mitochondrial cell biology. Phylogenomic profiling of genes also points to a conserved role for TbERV1 in cytosolic Fe-S cluster assembly. Conversely, loss of genes implicated in precursor delivery for cytosolic Fe-S assembly in Entamoeba, Trichomonas, and Giardia suggests fundamental differences in intracellular trafficking pathways for activated iron or sulfur species in anaerobic versus aerobic eukaryotes.